Beyond "listen and repeat"
- an overview of English
pronunciation teaching
materials
Magdalena Wrembel
Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań
[email protected]
Introduction
 Unexplored question - have material designers
responded to changing perspectives?
 Jones (1997): "In spite of a changed phonological focus [...]
teaching techniques and tasks continue to rely on the
behaviourist notions of SLA such as habit formation".
 My intention: to examine how recent SLA findings
and new trends in pronunciation pedagogy are
reflected in pronunciation materials
 Selected materials:
– textbooks
– computer software
– Internet web sites
2
Outline of the presentation
 Theoretical introduction - changing
perspectives in pronunciation pedagogy
 Analysis of materials
– Model accents
– Goals and priorities
– Common core features
– Pronunciation teaching techniques
 Conclusions
3
Changing perspectives in pronunciation
pedagogy
 Historical outline of pronunciation instruction:
 Grammar Translation - irrelevant
 Direct Method - intuition & imitation
 Audiolingual Method - important, drills
 Communicative Approach - initially disregarded,
growing awareness
4
Changing perspectives in pronunciation
pedagogy (2)
 Shift in priorities
(segmentals < suprasegmentals)
 Contextualisation and fluency-building
 Widened scope of pronunciation instruction
 Holistic approach
 Autonomy and speech awareness
 New technologies
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Materials analysis - model accents
Textbooks (31)
CD-ROMs (13)
Internet resources
 Phonetics reference
BE-19 AE-10 ? - 2 BE- 4 AE-10 ? - 2
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12
10
8
6
4
2
0
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
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sites
Phonetic labs
Professional
organisations
Text files
Sound files
BE - books
10
AE - books
10
Other - books
BE - CDs
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2
BE AE - Other - BE books books books CDs
AE - CDs
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Other - CDs
AE - Other CDs
CDs
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Target model variety
- years of publication
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20
15
BE
AE
10
Other
5
0
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
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Redirection of priorities
segmentals
20%
45%
segmentals
suprasegm.
segm.+suprasegm.
35%
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Focus on segmentals1
 1960s-70s
 Detailed treatment of Vs & Cs
 Optional features:
– consonantal clusters,
– weak forms,
– linking,
– elements of stress & intonation
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Focus on segmentals2
 Textbooks:
 Baker,A. 1977. Ship or sheep? An intermediate pronunciation course.
 Baker, A. 1982. Tree or Three? An elementary pronunciation course.
 Barnard,G.L. & P.S.McKay. 1963. Practice in spoken English.
 Hooke,R. & J. Rowell. 1982. A handbook of English pronunciation.
 Kenyon,J. S. 1956. American pronunciation.
 MacCarthy,P.1965. A practice book of English speech.
 Munro Mackenzie,M.D.1973. Modern English pronunciation practice.
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Segmentals + suprasegmentals1
 1980s - 1990s
 Vs - quantitative & qualitative, emphasis differs
 Cs - focal areas:
• aspiration, contrast, fortis / lenis, clusters
 Suprasegmentals:
• stress & rhythm, connected speech, weak forms,
intonation
 Additional features:
• spelling - sound correspondence, guidance for different
L1, voice quality
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Segmentals + suprasegmentals2
 Arabski,J. 1987. Wymowa amerykańska.
 Cunningham S, & B. Bowler. 1999. New Headway Pronunciation Course
 Hewings,M. 1993. Pronunciation tasks. A course for pre-intermediate learners.
 O'Connor,J. D. & J. Fletcher.1989. Sounds English.
 O'Connor,J. D. 1967 (1989). Better English pronunciation.
 Orion,G. 1997. Pronouncing American English: sounds, stress, and intonation.
 Ponsby, M. 1982. How Now, Brown Cow?
 Reszkiewicz,A. 1981. Correct your English pronunciation.
 Sobkowiak,W. 1996. English phonetics for Poles.
 CD PRONUNCIATION POWER
 CD SPEAK FLUENT AMERICAN ENGLISH
 CD MOULTON INTERACTIVE INTRO TO PHON & PHON
 CD FONETYKA ANGIELSKA W PIGUŁCE
 CD HUMMINGBIRD
 SOUND MACHINES
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Suprasegmentals
 Stress -
1
(word stress, nuclear stress, unaccented syllables,
schwa, weak forms)
 Rhythm -
(thought groups)
 Intonation - (communicative function, discourse-based)
 Secondary importance
– Connected speech
– Individual sounds - selected aspects
» aspiration, voicing, consonantal contrasts,
clusters
» vowel duration
» practised in the context of connected speech
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Suprasegmentals
2
 Bogle,D. 1996. Practical phonology.
 Bradford, B. 1988. Intonation in Context.
 Brazil,D. 1994. Pronunciation for advanced learners of English.
 Gilbert,J. 1993. Clear speech.
 Miller,S.F. 2000. Targeting pronunciation: the intonation, sounds, and rhythm of
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American English.
Morley, J. 1979. Improving Spoken English.
Mortimer,C. 1985. Elements of pronunciation.
Prator,C. 1951 (1985). A manual of American English pronunciation.
Rogerson,P. & J.B.Gilbert. 1990. Speaking clearly.
Vaughan-Rees, M. 1994. Rhymes and Rhythm.
Weinstein, N. 1982. Whaddaya Say?
Zawadzki, H. 1994 In tempo.
CD BETTER ACCENT TUTOR.FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH
CD PRONUNCIATION IN AMERICAN ENGLISH
CD CONNECTED SPEECH
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Pronunciation syllabi - common core
features vs. LFC
 85% weak vowel
 77% intonation
 74% word stress
 70% vowel quantity
 67% vowel quality
 67% tonic stress
 67% unstressed syllables
 63% rhythm (thought groups)
 59% diphthongs
 56% dental fricatives
 52% weak forms
 52% consonants
 48% elisions
46%
44%
41%
37%
37%
32%
18%
18%
-
consonantal clusters
linking
rhotic r
assimilation
aspiration
fortis / lenis
spelling / sound
dark l
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Pronunciation teaching techniques
 "Listen and repeat"
 Minimal pair drills
– Sample materials: Higgin's Home Page, Baker 1977, Baker
1982, Barnard & McKay 1963, O'Connor 1967, O'Connor &
Fletcher 1989, Orion 1997, Cunningham & Bowler 1999
 Ear training -recognition/discrimination
– Baker 1977, Baker 1982, O'Connor 1967, O'Connor &
Fletcher 1989, Clear Speech Works (CD), Ponsby 1982, UCL
 Phonetic training
– Reszkiewicz 1981, Arabski 1987, Brazil 1994, Orion 1997,
The Mouton Interactive Introduction to Phonetics and
Phonology (CD), Fonetyka angielska w pigułce (CD), PHON2,
UCLA's Phonetic Lab, Maidment's Pronunciation Tip of the Day
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Pronunciation teaching techniques
(2)
 Reading aloud / recitation
– Mortimer 1985, Bradford 1988, Brazil 1994, Ponsby 1982
 Tongue twisters and poems
– Vaughan-Rees 1994, Reck's Collection of Tongue Twisters
 Pronunciation games
– Maidments' Sound Machines, Windmayer's Sounds of English
Pronunciation Power (CD), Bogle 1996, Hancock 2003
 Communicative / contextualised
activities
– Morley 1979, Bradford 1988, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989,
Gilbert 1993, Hewings & Goldstein 1993, Brazil 1994, Miller
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2000
Pronunciation teaching techniques
(3)
 Pair work
– O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Miller 2000, Hewings & Goldstein
1993
 Multisensory modes of presentation
– Kinaesthetic reinforcement
• Bogle 1996, Miller 2000
– Visual support
• Sobkowiak 1996, Orion 1997, Pronunciation Power (CD),
Clear Speech Works (CD), CSLU Toolkit Baldi
 Guidance for users of different
languages:
Cunningham & Bowler 1999, O'Connor &
Fletcher 1989, Hancock 2003
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Pronunciation teaching techniques
(4)
 Transcription exercises
– Bogle 1996, Orion 1997, Lecumberri & Maidment 2000
 Integrated skills
– Speak Fluent American English (CD), Gilbert 1993
 Voice quality
– Speak Fluent American English (CD)
 Sensitisation
– Bradford 1988, Brazil 1994, Hancock 2003
 Self-monitoring and learners'
autonomy:
– Brazil 1994, Miller 2000, CD-ROMs
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Conclusions
 Greater variety in NS-model accents
 Redefined goals and priorities
– intelligibility & communication
 Pronunciation syllabi - little compatibility with
LFC
 Wider inventory of teaching techniques
– beyond "listen & repeat"
– consciousness-raising and self-monitoring
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Internet resources Phonetics Reference Sites
 CyberPhon (acoustic phonetics)
http://www.cyberphon.univ-lyon2.fr
 PHON2: Phonetics beyond the basics
http://www.linguistics.reading.ac.uk/phon2
 Pronunciation Web Resources - links
http://www.sunburstmedia.com/PronWeb.html
 An overview of pronunciation software, D. Healey
http://oregonstate.edu/~healeyd/tesol2002/pron.html
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Internet resources (2) - text files
 John Higgin's Home Page - minimal pairs
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http://www.marlodge.supanet.com/
Michael Reck's Collection of Tongue Twisters
http://www.uebersetzung.at/twister/en.html
Sharon Windmayer's Sounds of English
http://www.soundsofenglish.org
Maidment's Pronunciation Tip of the Day
http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/johnm/eptotd/tipho
me.html
SIL's IPA Fonts
http://www.itl.atr.co.jp/comp.speech/Section1/Fonts/
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sil.ipa.html
Internet resources (3) - practical
activities on the Web
 John Maidments' Sound Machines
http://www.eptotd.btinternet.co.uk/vm/soundmachin
es.htm
• Vowel Machine
• Transcriber
• TONI
• PLATO
 Web-based transcription tool
http://www.wtt.org.uk
 Sharon Windmayer's Sounds of English
http://www.soundsofenglish.org
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Internet resources (4) - phonetic
labs and organisations
 UCLA's Phonetics Lab
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http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/linguistics/facili
ti/uclaplab.html
Phonetics Dep. at the University College London
http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells
The International Phonetic Association
http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/IPA/ipa.html
IATEFL's Pronun. Special Interest Group
http://members.aol.com/PronunciationSig/index.html
TESOL's Speech/Pronunc. Special Interest Section
http://www.public.iastate.edu/~jlevis/SPRIS/
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Pronunciation CD-ROMs
 THE MOUTON INTERACTIVE INTRODUCTION TO PHONETICS AND
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PHONOLOGY
FONETYKA ANGIELSKA W PIGUŁCE, Sobkowiak,W. 2000. (BE)
PRONUNCIATION POWER (AE)
http://www.englishlearning.com/pronpowr.html
PRONUNCIATION IN AMERICAN ENGLISH 1999 (AE)
BETTER ACCENT TUTOR FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH (AE)
SPEAK FLUENT AMERICAN ENGLISH (AE)
HUMMINGBIRD (AE) http://www.humbird.com
 SOUND MACHINES (BE)
 CONNECTED SPEECH
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(AE, BE, Australian)
CLEAR SPEECH WORKS (AE)
AMERICAN SPEECH SOUNDS (AE)
ENGLISH EASY: VOWELS AND CONSONANTS (Canadian English)
PPO-NUNCIATION SOUND LAB & MOUTH EXERCISES (BE, AE)
AMERICAN ACCENT PROGRAMME (AE)
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Beyond 'listen and repeat' - an overview of English