语言是一个复杂适应系统
清华大学 2005.10.12
王士元 William S.-Y. Wang
香港中文大学, 中央研究院
[email protected]
http://www.ee.cuhk.edu.hk/~wsywang
1
复杂 适应 系统
Complex
Adaptive
System
2
• Jacob, Francois. 1977. Evolution and
tinkering. Science 196.1161-1166.
• “…often without knowing what he is going
to produce, … uses whatever he finds
around him, old cardboards, pieces of
strings, fragments of wood or metal, to
make some kind of workable object.”
3
• Gell-Mann, Murray. 1994. The Quark and the
Jaguar. Freeman.
• What is especially hard for many people to
accept is that chance plus selection pressure
can lead from a simple initial condition to
highly complex forms and to complex ecological
communities comprising such forms. They
cannot really bring themselves to believe that
such evolution can take place without some kind
of guiding hand, some kind of design. [316].
4
Major transitions
heat
ice
>
water
>
steam
complexity
words > sentences > hierarchy
recursion
5
Several possible phase transitions
human language
hierarchical structure
(incl. embedding)
compositionality
animal
communication
system
(Simple word order & recursion)
segmental phonology
symbolization
6
kn- > nknight > night
know > no
knew > new
knead > need
knot > not
knave > nave
.
.
Cf: gnarl, gnome, gnaw, …
acknowledge, agnostic, …
7
l
裸
果
l
落
各
l
練
柬
l
涼
京
l
藍
監
8
舌根音消失
上古英語
k, g  0 / -n
上古漢語
k, g  0 / -l
9
杜甫
丽人行
1–6
[阴-阳]
17 – 26 [阳-阴]
新
人
尘
珍
真
匀
神
津
春
麟
巡
茵
苹
巾
伦
嗔
10
11
W.S-Y.Wang.Feb.1973.
Scientific American.
12
Minimum balloons comprising 90% points from each individual tone type.
The Mandarin tones are relatively compact and discretely distributed, which allows
for more successful tone recognition.
Peng, Gang and Wang, W. S-Y. (2005). “Tone recognition of continuous Cantonese
speech based on support vector machines.” Speech Communication, 45:49-62.
13
赵元任,语言问题。1980:149
施氏食狮史
石室诗士施氏,嗜狮,誓食十狮。氏时时
适市视狮。十时,适十狮适市。是时,适
施氏适市。氏视是十狮,恃矢势,使是十
狮逝世。氏拾是十狮尸,适石室。石室湿,
氏使侍拭石室。石室拭,氏始试食十狮尸。
食时,始识是十狮尸,实十石狮尸。试释
是事。
14
赵元任,语言问题。1980:149
施氏食狮史
石室诗士施氏,嗜狮,誓食十狮。氏时时
适市视狮。十时,适十狮适市。是时,适
施氏适市。氏视是十狮,恃矢势,使是十
狮逝世。氏拾是十狮尸,适石室。石室湿,
氏使侍拭石室。石室拭,氏始试食十狮尸。
食时,始识是十狮尸,实十石狮尸。试释
是事。
15
广州话
普通话
广州话
普通话
眼
耳
女
仔
翼
衫
纽
蟹
蔗
冇
知
易
靓
眼睛
耳朵
女儿
儿子
翅膀
衣服
纽扣
螃蟹
甘蔗
没有
知道
容易
漂亮
鼻
杯
被
枱
凳
袖
袜
橙
竹
篮
蚊
鼻子
杯子
被子
桌子
凳子
袖子
袜子
橙子
竹子
篮子
蚊子
例子来自 陈卉 2005。
16
荀子
ca.323 BCE
名无固宜,约之以命,
约定俗成谓之宜。
名无固实,约之以命,
约定俗成谓之实名。
名有固善,径易而不拂,
谓至善名。
17
Model pair-wise interactions between agents:
– select at random a speaker and a listener
– select a meaning, mi, that speaker attempts to communicate to
listener
– select an utterance, uj, with which speaker attempts to convey
mi
– select a meaning, mk, that listener infers on hearing utterance
uj
– determine whether the communication was successful (i.e. mi =
mk)
— if successful, strengthen the mappings between mi and uj
— if unsuccessful, weaken the mappings between mi / mk and
uj
– repeat until system converges to some stable state
(note that it doesn’t always converge!)
18
Self-organization and selection in the emergence of
vocabulary. J. Ke, J.W. Minett, C.-P. Au & W.S.-Y. Wang,
Complexity, 7:4:1–14, 2002
.
0.3
0.2
19
Modeling the Emergence of the
Lexicon — learning
• An example of an unsuccessful communication:
Agent 1
This weight reduced
Agent 2
This weight reduced
20
Modeling the Emergence of the
Lexicon — example
• An example of a successful communication:
Agent 1
This weight increased
Agent 2
This weight increased
21
Emergence of vocabulary.
10 agents, M = U = 3, D = 0.2
22
Percentage of languages with various word orders.
Table adapted from M.C.Baker, 2001, The Atoms of
Language; data based on R.Tomlin, 1986, Basic Word
Order.
SOV
45 Japanese, Turkish, Quechua
SVO
42 English, Edo, Indonesian
VSO
9 Zapotec, Welsh, Niuean
OSV
0 (Warao)
OVS
1 Hixkaryana
VOS
3 Tzotzil, Malagasy
23
Gell-Mann, Murray and Merritt Ruhlen. 2005. The origin and
evolution of word order. ms.
Table 1. Distribution of syntactic types in the world’s languages. The numbers
after each family represents the number of languages with SOV, SVO, and VSO
orders, given in that order.
World: 710-595-170
[1] Khoisan: 6-4-1
[2] Congo-Saharan: 61-279-17
Niger-Kordofanian: 34-223-2
Nilo-Saharan: 27-56-15
[3] Indo-Pacific: 148-10-0
[4] Australian: 53-19-1
[5] Austric: 17-114-70
Austroasiatic: 5-22-0
Miao-Yao: 0-3-0
Daic: 1-11-0
Austronesian: 11-78-70
[6] Dene-Caucasian: 79-14-0
Basque: 1-0-0
Caucasian: 34-0-0
Burushaski: 1-0-0
Sino-Tibetan: 33-13-0
Ket: 1-0-0
Na-Dene: 9-0-0
[7] Nostratic-Amerind: 346-155-81
Afro-Asiatic: 34-33-15
Nostratic: 173-64-5
Eurasiatic: 151-64-5
Amerind: 139-58-61
24
John has been reading
A, B, C, … are X, Y, Z, … respectively.
25
… I saw Cecilia help Henk feed the hippo.
… ik Cecilia Henk de nijlpaarden zag helpen voeren.
Stabler, E.P. 2004. Varieties of crossing dependencies.
26
Cognitive Science 28.699-270.
Chao, Yuenren. 1959. Ambiguity in Chinese.
Ambiguity is the property of a symbol in being
understandable in more than one way. . . .
A symbol is vague in so far as its borderland cases
of applicability loom large in comparison with its
clear cases. …
A symbol is general when it is applicable to any
one of a number of things whose differences are
not denied or necessarily overlooked, but regarded
as irrelevant in the context in which the symbol is
used.
27
歧义句
我们没有作不好的事情
吕叔湘 1984。
叫汽车快点儿
赵元任 1959。
鸡不吃了
赵元任 1948。
28
a
X
V
N1
p
N2
Adj
b
a
I
know a man with
a wooden leg called Peter
a
b
Conosco una persona con una gamba di legno chiamata Pietro
b
29
X
V
p
N1
Adj
N2
a
我 认得 装了 木腿
叫 Peter 的
人
a
X
V
p
Adj
N1
N2
b
我 认得 装了 叫 Peter 的 木腿 的 人
b
30
a
N1
V1
N2
V2
Adv
b
a
I
saw
him smile
yesterday
b
a
L’ho visto
sorridere ieri
b
31
Emergence ef Lengeege, p.103
Thes perspecteve ellews ene te see thet
vereees enemels ere smert en the weys neterel
selecteen hes fevered end steped where theer
lefestyle dees net reqeere e cestemezed
leerneng pregrem. The hemen specees es
semelerly smert en ets ewn edepteve weys end
elmest emberressengly steped en ethers. The
edee thet hemen leerneng evelved frem e few
precesses, whech ere well ellestreted en ether
enemels, te fet specees-specefec hemen
needs helps te breng e new enety te the stedy
ef enemel beheveer end e new premese fer
ederstendeng hemen eregens.
The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid
aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde
Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr
the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt
tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the
rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses
and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm.
Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not
raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a
wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas
thuoght slpeling was ipmorantt!
33
陈第 (1541-1617) Galileo (1564-1642)
顾炎武 (1613-1682)
钱大昕 (1728-1804)
段玉裁(1735-1815)
Newton (1642-1727)
Jones (1746-1794)
Darwin (1809-1882)
Hu Shih. 1933. The Chinese Renaissance.
U.Chicago Press.
34
Vowel merger and homophony in English.
meat
heal
steal
real
read
feat
seam
meet
heel
steel
reel
reed
feet
seem
35
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knight > night know > no knead > need knot > not knave …