Combining clauses in Taba John Bowden Jakarta Field Station Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Taba – some background • South Halmahera West New Guinea language – Closest relations in Indonesia to Oceanic group • 40,000 or so speakers language still quite vibrant • AVO language with very little interest in grammatical ‘control’ • Mixed split-S / accusative system Tightness of bonding • Clauses joined in looser or tighter ways - Paratactic sequences of clauses (loose bond) (1) Lhan appo lyoa daerah l=han ap-po l=yoa daerah 3pl=go ALL-down Gitan 3pl=search area for Gitan, Gitan aman aman safe ‘They went down to Gitan, they were looking somewhere safe.’ –Complement clause (tight bond) (2) Ni suka Structure of talk • • • • • • • Parataxis ‘Co-ordinating’ conjunctions ‘Subordinating’ conjunctions Complement clauses Relativisation Iconicity in multiclausal constructions ‘Discourse connectors’ Parataxis • No overtly semantic relationship between clauses signalled by any specific conjunctions but a variety of different implicatures occur. Some of the most common examples include: • Temporal relations • Causal relations • Conditional readings • ‘Clause chaining’ Temporal sequence in parataxis (3) Amul am lama Taba, a=mul am la-ma Taba 1pl.excl=return 1pl.excl sea-VEN Makian ayol sagala a=yol sagala 1pl.excl=fetchstuff ‘We returned from seawards (i.e. Moti island) to Makian and we fetched stuff.’ (3) Nwom nidi um li tesu, n=wom ni-di umli te-su 3sg=come POSS-3pl house LOC NEG-POT taplod haso nak ta-plod ha=so nak DETR-erupt CLASS=one again ‘He hadn’t yet arrived at their house when it erupted once again.’ Causality in parataxis (5) (6) Ktala yotas tesu, kpe tesu. k=tala yotas te-su k=pe te-su 1sg=find thatch NEG-POT 1sg=make NEG-POT ‘But I haven't found any thatch yet, so I haven't made it yet.’ Di suka lpili mon maleo, di suka l=pili mon maleo 3pl.POSS desire3pl=choose husband other mta’at m=ta’at 2sg=be.obedient mtagal m=tagal 2sg=perch ‘They want to choose a different man, you remain obedient.’ Conditional readings (7) Masyarakat masure, ncol masyarakat masure n=sol people be.good 3sg=be.wrong lmaka haluso l=maka ha-lusa-o 3pl=RECIP CAUS-say-APPL ‘If people are good, when something is wrong, they will tell each other.’ / ‘Because people are good, when something is wrong they will tell each other.’ Clause chaining (8) Yol yol fetch sagala okik, saplik sagala okik sapil-Vk stuff be.finished board-APPL okik, si lhan, yak e ktongo okik si l=han yak e k=tongo be.finished 3pl 3pl=go 1sg FOC 1sg=stay ane a-ne DEM-PROX ‘Fetching stuff finished, stowing it on board finished, they go, as for me, I stay here.’ ‘Co-ordinating’ conjunctions • • • • • • • lo ada ma / mai / me pa malai turus tapi ‘and’ ‘and’ ‘but’ ‘or’ ‘then’ ‘then straight away’ ‘but’ lo ‘and’ (9) Lhan appo dumik lo l=han ap-po dumik lo 3pl=go ALL-down be.complete and mamatuosi lhan dumik mamatuo=si l=han dumik old.people=PL 3pl=go be.complete wang gulo myasi lo wang gulo myasi lo child baby small and ‘They went down and babies, children and old people all went.’ •Similar pragmatic readings available as with parataxis (10) Mina namtat lo nayok Mina n=ha-mtat lo n=ha-yok Mina 3sg=CAUS-fall and 3sg=CAUS-cry ‘Mina fell over and cried.’ ada ‘and’ (11) Indadimu indadi-mu so-then lomo lomo other lmul ne ada l=mul ne ada 3pl=return PROX and latala hu l=ha-tala hu 3pl=CAUS-meetCONT ‘So some have come back now and they met up with each other again.’ • Similarities and differences between lo and ada – Both can be used to conjoin either clauses or NPs (like English ‘and’) but lo more common with NPs and ada more common with clauses – Similar pragmatic readings available with the use of both conjunctions ma / mai / me ‘but’ • The forms seem to be in free variation (12) Lhan me lalusa lhan te l=han me l=ha-lusa l=han te 3pl=go but 3pl=CAUS-say 3pl=go NEG ‘They went but they said they didn't go.’ pa ‘or’ • Like lo and ada can be used to conjoin both NPs and clauses (13) Ntongo Keten pa ntongo Tarnate? n=tongo Keten pa n=tongo Tarnate 3sg=live Moti or 3sg=live Ternate ‘She either lives on Moti or she lives malai ‘then’ • (14) Lmaka yoa, l=maka yoa 3pl=RECIP search malai lmaka tala, malai l=maka tala then 3pl=RECIP meet lmaka buak malai layok l=maka buak malai l=ayok 3pl=RECIP hug then 3pl=cry ‘They looked for each other then they met up; they hugged each other then they cried.’ turus ‘then straight away’ and tapi ‘but’ • turus ‘then straight away’ (15) Ulan kwat turus ulan kwat turus rain EMPH then ni ni 3sg.POSS kihis kihis flood ncopang n=sopang 3sg=descend ‘There was strong rain and straight away a flood descended.’ • tapi ‘but’ (16) Tasakal tapi lloci te ta-sakal tapi lloci te DETR-smash but a.lot NEG ‘Stuff was smashed up but not a lot.’ ‘Subordinating’ conjunctions • • • • • • de polo tutik(ma) ndadi karna sabab ‘in order that / so that’ ‘if / when’ ‘until’ ‘so’ ‘because’ ‘because’ de ‘in order that’ (17) Ktoban hadala de kadala. k=toban ha-dala de k=ha-dala 1sg=wait CAUS-breakfast(breakfast) RES 1sg=CAUS-breakfast ‘I wait for breakfast (to be ready) so I can eat breakfast.’ (18) Direct reported speech Nculak wangsi hmul n=sul-ak wang=si h=mul 3sg=order-APPL child=PL 2pl=return ‘He told the children “Go home!”.’ akle! ak-le ALL-land (19) Indirect reported speech (de as complementiser) Nculak wangsi de n=sul-ak wang=si de 3sg=order-APPL child=PL RES ‘He told the children to go home.’ lmul l=mul 3pl=return akle ak-le ALL-land polo ‘if / when’ (20) Ine polo tpe tadia, ni sso tapa i-ne polo t=pe ta-dia ni sso tapa DEM-PROX if 1pl.incl=make SIM-REM POSS name thatch This, if we make it like this, it’s called ‘tapa’ (thatch).’ (21)Direct reported speech Yakkkutani ‘mhan appo pa te? yakk=kutan i m=han ap-po pa te 1sg1sg=ask 3sg2sg=go ALL-down or NEG ‘I asked him “are you going down (to Ternate) or not?”.’ (22)Indirect reported speech Yakkkutani polo nhan appo pa te yakk=kutan i polo n=han ap-po pa te 1sg1sg=ask 3sgif 3sg=go ALL-down or NEG ‘I asked him whether he was going down (to Ternate) or not.’ tutik(ma) ‘until’ and ndadi ‘so’ (23) Ngan ngan day ngan ngan day nlah n=lah 3sg=grow nlah, n=lah 3sg=grow tutikma llocisi tutikma lloci=si until many=PL ‘Day by day it grew and it grew, until there were a lot of people.’ (24) Ni ni 3sg.POSS reng tadopas ndadi reng ta-dopas ndadi seal DETR-perish so ol ncopalik. ol n=sopal-ik oil 3sg=grow.out-APPL ‘Its seal is perished so oil leaks out of it.’ ni ni 3sg.POSS karna / sabab ‘because’ (25) Karna au ya mnagara aboyam, karna au ya m=nagara aboyam because 2sgREC 2sg=be.cleverfishing mot lloci m=ot lloci 2sg=catch many ‘Because you had are good at fishing, you caught a lot of fish.’ (26) Kbahagia k=bahagia 1sg=be.happy kwat, kwat be.strong sabab au masi sabab au masi because 2sgstill mtanoan yak m=tanoanyak 2sg=remember 1sg ‘I’m really happy because you still remember me.’ Complement clauses • As in most languages there are a range of verbs that take complement clauses including verbs of perception, belief, speech, desire, etc. (27) Kbafikir ndadi k=bafikir n=dadi 1sg=think 3sg=become NEG ‘I think it won’t work.’ te te (28) Ni kmul k=mul ni suka suka 3sg.POSS desire 1sg=return ‘She wants me to come back.’ Relative clauses • Just one example because there is no time to deal with this in detail (29) Lcayang mamatuosi ltagil l=sayang mamatuo=si l=tagil 3pl=love old.people=PL 3pl=walk walk any lahates do l=ahates do 3pl=impossible REAL ‘They loved the old people who can't Iconicity in multiclausal constructions • It is noteworthy that most multiclausal constructions occur with the relative ordering of clauses in the order they occurred (or hypothetically occurred) rather than in the opposite order. (30) Polo ulan tane, Yase buko kwat. polo ulan ta-ne ya-se buko kwat if rain SIM-PROX up-ESS noise be.strong ‘If it’s raining like this, there will be a lot of noise above.’ (31) (From a pop song) Krasa mapot polo koik au k=rasa mapot polo k=oik au 1sg=feel heavy when 1sg=leave.behind 2sg ‘I (my heart) will feel(s) heavy if I leave you.’ Cause and result (32) He went to the shop because he had run out of cigarettes. (33)He had run out of cigarettes so he went to the shop. (34) (35) Ni tabako dumik do ni tabako dumik do 3sg.POSS cigarettes be.exhausted REAL ndadi nhan appo ndadi n=han ap-po so 3 sg=go ALL-down toko li toko li shop LOC Nhan appo toko n=han ap-po toko 3sg=go ALL-down shop ni tabako ni tabako 3sg.POSS cigarettes dumik dumik be.finished do do REAL li li LOC karna karna because ‘Discourse connectors’ • • • • • • • • • • • mai / me malai (i)ndadi(mu) odo tutik(ma) pu pu ma de (supaya) turus tapi karna tee ‘contrary to indications’ ‘then’ ‘and so’ ‘on the other hand’ ‘until / and then / eventually’ ‘but what if’ ‘eventually’ ‘so then’ ‘but’ ‘because’ ‘if not’ Many discourse connectors have the same forms as conjunctions • Role of discourse connectors is not to link one clause with another but to link one clause with an indeterminate amount of preceding material. I give just a couple of examples: (36) Bonci hu. kutu hu (37) ine... bonci Mai i-ne kutu-kutu mai kutu- peanut DEM-PROX but small-small ‘These are peanuts. But they’re still small.’ CONT Gamos hu, woya nantobi. Turus kaklida idia. gamos hu woya n=an-tobi turus kaklida i-dia dry CONT water 3sg=INCH-descend then hard DM-RM ‘While it’s still drying there’s water falling out of it.