Marketing Travel Behaviour Change
In a competitive environment
PIMMS TRANSFER MC 2010
Stockholm, 14 April 2010
John Porter
[email protected]
John Porter
Interactions Ltd.
Blackberry Lane
Delgany, Co. Wicklow
+353 87 236 1560
[email protected]
QuestionWhy are people honest?
Some new ways of thinking
Presentation Outline
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A psychology for understanding behaviours
Managing change
Personal role perceptions (exercise)
Stages of change
Process of change (Change Cycle)
Campaigns (Interactive exercise)
Dependency
Research (optional)
Branding (exercise)
Communications and marketing
Personal Construct Psychology
• A person’s processes are psychologically
channelised by the way in which he / she
anticipates events
• Each person behaves like a scientist,
formulating predictions, testing them and
revising ways of thinking in the light of
outcomes
– Keyword - VALIDATION
Psychology & Change
Therefore if we want to change behaviour we must first
know:
• How people ‘construe’ and differentiate things
in their lives
• The language they use (content)
• What is important (structure)
• How thoughts are interlinked (process)
• Know what are the barriers to change
Knowing about these properties before launching into campaign
design means that we can use the right language, and create
images and messages relevant to the audience.
A Construct
Preferred
pole is a
personal
choice
Example:
Clusters
of personal
meaning
Preferred pole
Non-preferred pole
2 contrasting
poles
Laid back
Tense / alert
Relaxed, Tolerant,
not in a hurry
Arrive on time
Punctual, Reliable
A Construct System
A Construct System
High importance
(resist change)
Core constructs
Psychological
connections (preferred
poles only)
Values
Cluster
Low
importance
(easy to change
if incidental)
Materialistic or concrete constructs
Making a choice (1)
Links to rest of
Construct System
Reliable
Preferred pole
Unreliable
Non Preferred pole
Making a choice (2)
Construe the options
Links to rest of
Construct System
Position the travel products
Will I go by car?
OR by bus?
The role of Marketing is to help position our
transport products on the
Unreliable
Reliable
preferred ‘pole’ of relevant Constructs
The final choice depends on which mode
best matches your construct system,
i.e. the one you identify with
Preferred pole
Non Preferred pole
Managing Change
Overcoming resistance to change
• Lasting personal attitudinal and behaviour
change is often most effective when
campaigns and communications suggest
attractive alternatives and reward the change
• SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS must offer
• PERSONAL ADVANTAGE
Resistance to change
Four ‘emotional’ conditions that restrict ‘movement’ into the unknown
• Anxiety - No constructs to understand
– How do I buy a ticket, how will I recognise my
destination / stop?
• Fear - Awareness of incidental change
– being made to look stupid, buy the wrong ticket,
get on the wrong train!
• Threat - Awareness of comprehensive change
– Physical inadequacy, unable to climb steps of tram,
(eg. older trams in Krakow)
• Guilt - Dislodgement
– always late, getting confused, lost
Try a new behaviour! Try RED
Core constructs
Psychological
connections (preferred
poles only)
Values
New behaviour
Try red instead of
green
Materialistic Behavioural
or concrete constructs
Please do not damage my construct
system!
Core constructs
When we tell people
to change behaviour
they see it as a personal
attack!
Psychological
connections (preferred
poles only)
Values
Materialistic Behavioural
or concrete constructs
Anxiety – Worry!
The psychological
consequences of an
invalidated behavioural
‘experiment’
Core constructs (no longer
supported by behaviour)
Values
Loss of meaning
H E L P!
Materialistic Behavioural
or concrete constructs
For example - The ageing process
The psychological
consequences of
physiological
decline with age or
disability, or some
enforced change,
OR voluntary change
that goes wrong.
Life is not what it used to be
Eventually - Constriction!
We naturally avoid such situations
• New job or changing mode
• Fear of using PT
• Use PT late for work
• Get dismissed
An ‘empty’ life
In the face of lack of
validation peoples’
outlook becomes
psychologically
‘constricted’ and they
are unable to
construe new
possibilities.
They become depressed.
But naturally we
anticipate and avoid
such situations.
WE DO NOT CHANGE
However if the behaviour change is VALIDATED
New psychological links are drawn
Core constructs
Psychological
connections (preferred
poles only)
Values
Materialistic Behavioural
or concrete constructs
Summary
• If we want to change behaviour our
communications must:
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Demonstrate valid alternatives
That work!
Reassure
And make the person feel good for making the
change
Overnight Exercise
• Please write 4 words or short statements that are important
for you and that you like to think best describe you, for
example: (sorry but in English or French please)
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–
–
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I Love shopping
I Love scientific inventions
I am very sporting and I am a fanatic about Irish Gaelic Games
I am Caring
• Note these are not suggestions that would necessarily apply to
you – just suggestions on what to write.
• Please write your answers on a piece of paper and hand to
Giuliano on Wednesday morning.
– DO NOT put your name or any identity on the paper
Results
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Previous Results
Relative importance %
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Relative importance %
Nature of the Audience,
Propensity to change and
a Psychological change process
Stages of change
Tapestry
Stage
Label
Description
1
Awareness
Awareness of environmental and transport
problems / issues
2
Acceptance of responsibility
Accepting that oneself is responsible for
contributing to the problem
3
Perception or awareness of
alternatives
Being aware of appropriate alternatives
4
Evaluation of
options/alternatives
5
Making a choice
6
Experimental behaviour
Past and current trials of alternatives,
recent behaviour changes, definite
intentions to change
7
Habitual behaviour
Current habitual behaviour
Qualitative perceptions of different modes
and measures, quantified attitudinal
scales
Past current and future intentions to
investigate options and maybe change
behaviour
Personal Change Cycle
IN P U T
N ew ideas
E laborate the m eaning
C ircum spection
O U TPU T
N ew behaviours
C onstant re-tests
C ontrol
B uilding new
psychological
structures
L asting change alw ays
C P C C ycle
A nticipate the
consequences
P re-em ption
needs a p erson al ad van tage
Campaign / communication intervention
points
INPUT: Information, Education
Action Learning, Campaigns,
OUTPUT
New behaviours
and attitudes
Constant re-tests
Control
INPUT: Compulsion, coerced
or enforced behaviour
Circumspection
CPC Cycle
INPUT Education:
Setting out
options
Pre-emption
OUTPUT
Smarter choices
Opportunity: Back up compulsion
with information, education and
personal advantage
Integration with the
stages of change
models
Perhaps campaigns should
be about incremental
change?
7. H ab itu al b eh a vio u r
C
C
L o n g -term ad o p tio n o f su stain ab le m o d es?
P
6. E xp erim en tal b eh a vio u r
C
T ryin g o u t n ew trav el ch o ices ?
C
P
5. M akin g a ch o ice
C
R eally in ten d to m o d ify b eh av io u r?
Which stage to influence?
C
P
4. E valu atio n o f o p tio n s
C
Is th ere actu ally a v iab le a ltern ativ e?
Set objectives to
address the source of the
problem NOT the symptom
C
P
C
Make sure you use the
‘language’ and vision of the
world as seen by the
audience
3 . P e r c e p tio n o f o p tio n s
C
P ercep tio n o f su sta in ab le m o d es?
P
2.A c c ep tin g resp o n sib ility
C
C
A c cep t p e rso n al / co rp o rate re sp o n sib ility ?
P
1. Aw aren ess o f p ro b lem
A w a re o f th e issu e o f traffic co n g e stio n ?
Implementing Change
- Campaigns
The TAPESTRY Campaign
Management Framework
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•
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•
•
•
•
Objectives (political support)
Resources
The team (skills required)
A champion
Research (create a brand)
Identify target audience
Test concepts
Specific
Measureable
Achievable
(Acceptable)
Realistic
– Customer ValueProposition)
• Implementation strategy
• Appoint / hire a CHAMPION
• Roll-out programme
Time related
Campaign Objectives and Target
Audience(s)
• Target audiences?
– PT users
– Car users
– Non-travellers
(housebound)
– Mobility impaired
– Young (boy racers)
– Elderly
• Options
– Raise awareness of transport
and environmental problems
– Raise awareness of
sustainable options
– Inform how to use
– Demonstrate how (training)
– Reward sustainable
behaviour
Different type of campaign according to audience and objectives
Campaigns
Partnerships
Operational
Campaign Manager
Allocate tasks and manage resources
Strategic
Do work on the ground
May contribute money / resources
Work under the campaign manager
May have a social interest
e.g. Police, Cycling clubs, Schools, PT Operator
May contribute money / resources
Work with the Campaign Manager
Will influence the campaign
Beware of being taken over!
e.g. Health & Safety organisations, schools
Sponsors
No interest in campaign
Provide money or resources
Want their product displayed / distributed
e.g. Radio Stations, Cinema, Chocolate makers, Clothing manufacturers, Supermarkets, Spas
Campaigns
Campaign Types – Which will be best for your purpose?
Explicit
Implicit
Logical
Emotional
Informative
Appeals to values:
Caring,
Loving,
Protecting
Freedom
Power, Sex
Status
Rational
May not be
logical
Not logical
Not true??
High Product
Visibility
Product is
only a part of the
communication
Low level
of awareness
Product may not be present
High level of
awareness
required
Usually
Aspirational
Campaigns
Explicit
Emotional
Implicit
Logical
Aspirational
High Product
Visibility
Low Product visibility
High demand on
audience time
Low demand on
audience time
Message has to be
seen and / or heard
No effort required
message is 'absorbed'
True
Fantasy
Technical
Illusory
Campaigns Exercise
1
2
Explicit
Logical
High Product
Visibility
High demand on
audience time
Message has to be
seen and / or heard
True
Technical
3
4
5
6
Emotional
Where does each of your
advertisements lie between
1 to 8?
Who is it aimed at?
7
8
Implicit
Aspirational
Low Product visibility
Low demand on
audience time
What is the main message
that tries to get your
attention?
No effort required
message is 'absorbed'
What is the purpose of the
advert?
Illusory
Fantasy
Campaigns
• Research
Campaigns
• Research process - Summary
Desk research
Focus groups
1:1 interviews
Qualitative data
Items for questionnaires
Hall test
and/or
On street survey
1st Concepts
Test concepts with target audience
Draft campaign materials
Final Test (on-street or in hall)
Importance, attitudes
brand preferences
product positioning
Combining images
slogans
testing media
Final test for understanding
and acceptance
Final editing – Campaign launch
Campaigns
• Implementation
Campaigns
• Implementation
• Briefing an Agency (Proforma handout)
• Media
• Message giver
• Time and duration
• Place
Campaign & Media Timing
Campaigns can be placed in market place continuously
Desired change
Campaign effort & cost
Effect
Effects of over-exposure
Worn out messages & campaign
Time
• Advantage - maximum exposure
• Disadvantage - high cost and possible
wear-out
Campaign & Media Timing
OR timing can be pulsed
Desired change
Campaign effort & cost
Effect
Time
• Advantage - lower cost & no wear out greater impact
• Disadvantage - visibility may be low
Branding
Personal and Mode Perceptions
Changing Attitudes Towards
Soap & Washing!
Soap in 1884!
Product characteristics
• Grey
• Unreliable
• Drab paper wrapping
• Hard to use
• Didn’t last
• Inconsistent
Branding (Lever Brothers)
The idea of branding emerged in late 19th century.
No mention of cleaning!
Practical Exercise
Role of the Brand in Communications
Conversation
Filter
Psycho-social process
Values
Values
Audiences
Values
Values
Audiences
Values
Audiences
Values
Brand definition
– Aim different products at different groups of people
– Differences between the products may be negligible,
• individual names
• packaging
• promoted separately - appropriate to each target
audience
– Strength of the brand
• powerful and emotional symbolism aimed at a
specific market
– Giving everyday products and services special
characteristics through imaginative use of name,
packaging and advertising.
Maintain Brand Consistency
The INTEGRA Brand
LaRochelle, Liverpool, Belfast, Dublin
Web portal, Leaflets, Displays, Vehicles,
Stops and stations
4 Cities, 4 languages, 6 Transport operators
One Brand for travel information
INTEGRA Branded brochures
INTEGRA Branded brochures
Mandatory info
Says what it is
on back page
Verbal
communication
Visual impact - aspirational images
Bold use of
colour with
logo placement
Visual
communication
of transport
lines
Unusual
colourful
design
Standard format
Detailed ‘how to’ info
Dublin Bus brand differentiation
Out with the old!
The 'cheeky' IMP - here there and everywhere,
local, friendly, frequent, nippy, Young, female
The CitySwift, a serious commuting alternative,
modern, clean, fast, frequent - Men can use this!
Match Communications with the Personality
Aspirations of the Audience
•
•
•
•
Images of success
Can-do messages
Freedom
In control of own mobility
Match Communications with the Personality
Aspirations of the Audience
• Avoid ‘reality’ (example)
– UK food company
– Advertised product depicting a divorced
couple
• Reality – ½ of people in middle southern England are
divorced
– Their son was shown having to choose which
parent to be with
– His reward was dinner with the food product
• Result: Sales collapsed
bright
in control
EXPRESS TRAIN
lively
female
young
NICE BUT RISKY
friendly
active
WALK/CYCLE
THE PLACE TO BE!
happy
CAR
TRADITIONAL PT
professional
/ credible
LOCAL BUS
boring
Brand Map from
previous research
grumpy
/miserable
passive
dull
old
LOCAL RAIL
Summary
• Define your target audience
• Be aware of the aspirations of your target
audience
• Make sure that behavioural ‘experiments’ always
work
• Make communications messages and images
positive (and achievable)
– Freedom, control over own mobility
– Open up the world of possibilities
• Create a bold and consistent brand
• Avoid excessive reality (depictions of age and
disability)
The answer to the Question
Why are people honest?
Because you can only live your life through
your own construct system.
If people are surprised by what you think
and how you behave it is because they did
not ask the right question, or listen (or
look) with an open mind.
Your customers are honest people too!
Thank you for listening
John Porter
[email protected]
John Porter
Interactions Ltd.
Blackberry Lane
Delgany, Co. Wicklow
[email protected]
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