CTTT 2008 - Teaching translation: language and technology
Braga, Portugal, June 23-27, 2008
Terminology Management
Assoc Prof Frank Austermühl
Centre for Translation and Interpreting Studies
The University of Auckland
[email protected]
Before we Begin …
 Terminology Management = Knowledge Management
• Empowerment, Quality, ROI
 Searching & Evaluating
 Integration
• Teaching terminology (theory and management) as
part of LSP translation practice courses
• Teaching terminology and LSP translation principles
as part of CAT/documentation courses
• Teaching terminology and LSP translation principles
as part of contextual studies courses
2
Overview
09.30 – 11:00
 I. Basic Principles of Terminology Management (Lecture)
11:30 – 13:00
 II. Computer-based Terminology Management: Workflow,
Concept Systems, Termbase Creation (Workshop)
14:00 – 15:45 and 16:15 – 17:00
 III. Computer-based Terminology Management:
Developing, Filling, and Manipulating Termbases in
MultiTerm, Word, Workbench (Workshop)
17:00 – 18:00
 IV. Tool Assessment, Quality Assurance, Standards
(Lecture and Q&A)
3
Part I: Basic Principles of
Terminology Management
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What is Terminology? Terminography?
GPL vs SPL )or LGP and LSP)
SPL/LSP and Translation
What is Terminology? Terminography?
What is it not?
What is Phraseology?
Functions and Objectives of Terminology
On Concepts, Designations, and Terms
4
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
1) Terminology = Terminology Studies
The “scholarly study of the concepts and terms found
in special languages” (Wright, Budin 1997:327).
2) Terminology = Nomenclature
A set of “standardized” terms of a specific domain
(i.e. a nomenclature)
3) Terminology = Specialized Vocabulary
A set of all terms (i.e. specialized words and word
combinations), standardized or not, belonging to a
specific domain
5
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
1) Terminology = Terminology Studies
Terminology science is the subject field that investigates the
structure, formation, development, usage and management of
the terminologies in various subject fields, and that prepares the
methodological foundation for many applications. (UNESCO 3).
… the study and the field of activity concerned with the
collection, description, processing and presentation of terms.
(Sager (1990:2)
… the scholarly study of the concepts and terms found in
special languages” (Wright, Budin 1997:327)
2) Terminology = Nomenclature
Set of “standardized” terms of a specific domain
System of terms which is elaborated according to preestablished naming rules. (ISO 1087:1990)
6
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
Terminology = Specialized Vocabulary
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Set of all terms (i.e. specialized words and word
combinations), standardized or not, belonging to a
specific domain
Terminology: “set of designations belonging to one
special language” (ISO 1087-1:2000)
Designation: “representation of a concept by a sign
which denotes it.
7
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
Terminology
 Scholarly study of the concepts and terms found in
special languages
Terminography
 Acquisition, compilation and management of terms”
(L’Homme 2004:15)
 The recording, processing and presentation of
terminological data acquired by terminological
research“ (Wright, Budin 1997:327)
8
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
Lexicology
 Wissenschaft vom Wortschatz (DIN 2342)
 The study of words, the relations between words (i.e.
semantical relations), and the whole lexicon
(Wikipedia)
Lexicography
 The act of writing dictionaries (Wordnet Princeton)
 Die geordnete Darstellung von Wortschatz auf der
Grundlage der in der Lexikologie gewonnenen
Erkenntnisse sowie die Lehre von der Darstellung
des Wortschatzes. (DIN 2342)
9
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
Phraseology
 Set of fixed (or nearly fixed) phrases (i.e. a
combination of at least to LSP elements) of a
discipline (see Arntz, Picht, Meyer 2004:34)
10
I. Basic Principles –
Terminology and Translation
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LSP and LPG
Terminology and LPS
General functions of terminology
Translation-specific functions and objectives of
Terminology
11
I. Basic Principles –
Terminology and Translation
LSP and LGP

Language for Special Purposes (LSP), or Special
purpose language (SPL) or Specialized Language
means the language used by expert communities with a
greater or smaller share of terminology and domainspecific linguistic conventions.

LSP used in specialized communication, implemented
in texts (oral and written)
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Horizontal vs. vertical organization of specialized
communication
• Internal, interdisciplinary, external
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Terminology as „compressed specialized texts“ (Schmitt
12
2006:303)
I. Basic Principles –
Terminology and Translation
LSP and Terminology

Terminology crucial wherever and whenever domainspecific information and knowledge is:
-
generated (e.g. in research and development);
used (e.g. in specialized texts);
recorded and processed (e.g. in databases);
passed on (via training and teaching);
- implemented (e.g. in technology and knowledge
transfer);
- translated and interpreted. (UNESCO 2)
13
I. Basic Principles –
Terminology and Translation
General Functions of Terminology

Basic elements carrying meaning in domain
communication
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Ordering of scientific-technical knowledge at the level
of concepts
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Access to other representations of specialized
information and knowledge (Infoterm “Standing”)
14
I. Basic Principles –
Terminology and Translation
Translation-specific Functions of Terminology
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Provide: CKU
• Context, Knowledge, Usage
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Ensure CCU:
• Correct, Consistent, Unambiguous
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Allow XS:
• Access to Specialized Information, to Specialized
Communities
15
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
Concepts and Designations
 In specialized communication—whether written or
spoken—concepts constitute the smallest units
used to communicate specialized knowledge and
information. (Galinski and Picht 1997:42)
 The units can be represented by verbal terms,
nonverbal signs, alphanumeric characters or
character strings, and a variety of hybrid forms.
(ibid.)
16
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
Concept
• Mental image, abstraction of one “thing,” i.e. one
object (individual concept)
• Mental grouping of a number of different objects
based on shared properties (general concept)
• Concepts are “pre-language”
Designation
• Representation of a concept through image, sign,
formula, number, code, term …
• Attributed to a concept by the members of a special
language community
17
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
Term
 Verbal designation of a concept
 Sometimes: term = concept + designation
 Terminological Unit (see next slide)
Definition
 Verbal description of a concept
18
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
• Terminological Units
• Single-word terms
• Compound or Multiword terms
• Nominal multiword term (Noun Phrases)
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•
•
•
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Set phrases
Collocations (“run a query
Standard Texts (Boilerplate Texts)
Abbreviated Forms
Canonical Forms
• (no capitalization, singular form, unless)
• no articles, gender as attribute, verb as Infinitive (no “to”)
19
• Spoken form (electronic), inverted, permuted (print)
I. Basic Principles –
The Terminology of Terminology
 Descriptive Terminography
• Document all terms send to designate the
concepts treated in a single discipline”
• It is not the purpose of this kind of terminology
management to prescribe usage, but rather to
document all the terms that occur or are
suggested for a concept” (Wright 1997:18)
 Systematic vs Ad-hoc
• Teaching vs. practice
20
I. Basic Principles –
Concept Systems
 Types of Concept Relations
• Hierarchical
• Generic
• Partitive (meronymic)
• Non-hierarchical
• Sequential
• Functional
• Associative
21
I. Basic Principles –
Concept Systems
 Generic Concept System (Tree Diagram)
Printer
g
matrix printer
ink-jet printer
Laser printer
black and white
laser printer
color laser
printer
22
I. Basic Principles –
Concept Systems
 Partitive Concept System (Bracket Diagram)
laser printer
p
fuser
photoreceptor
developer
roller
discharge
lamp
corona
wire
etc.
23
I. Basic Principles –
Concept Systems
• Sequential/Functional Concept System
(Flow Chart)
Source:
http://computer.
howstuffworks.co
24
m/laserprinter1.htm
I. Basic Principles –
Concept Systems
• Associative Concept System (Mind Map)
toner
ink
paper
printing
color
drum
25
I. Basic Principles –
Concept Systems
 Superordinate Concept
• printer
 Term
• ink-jet printer
 Subordinate Concepts
• bubble-jet printer
 Coordinate Concept
• laser printer
• matrix printer
• full-color document
26
Part II - Workshop
27
II. Terminology Management –
Forms and Phases
 Main Phases of Terminography:
1. Planning (Concept Systems)
2. Database Creation
Creating Databases, Defining Entry Structures
3. Searching and Evaluating
DIY Corpus
4. Managing
Entering Data, Retrieving Data, Modifying Data …
5. Publication
28
II. Terminology Management –
Terminology Project
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
Identification of discipline / sub-discipline
Creation of concept system, identification of sub-concept
system (abstraction system, content system, chronological
approach, etc.)
Creation of folder structure for sub-discipline, texts and
graphics
Retrieving of parallel texts (DIY corpus)
Solving specific terminological problems (using online, offline
sources, and DIY corpus)
Create Termbase with MultiTerm
Enter data (-> Termbase)
Combine terms, and sub-concept systems
Publish glossaries (print, online)
29
Use termbase (Word, Workbench)
Phase 1
• Terminology Planning
• Create a concept system (“Computer System”)
30
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application
camera
cache
CD-WORM
compact disc
computer
CPU
DRAM
DVD
floppy
global-area network
hard disk
hardware
ink-jet printer
input
Internet
keyboard
laser printer
LCD screen
local-area network
speaker
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matrix printer
microphone
monitor
mouse
network
operating system
output
plotter
printer
processing
Qwerty
RAM
ROM
scanner
software
storage
systems software
transfer
USB stick
WLAN
Word
31
Concepts Systems with
MindManager
32
Phase 1
• Computer-based Terminology Management
• Create a MultiTerm database
33
Types of Terminology Management
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File cards
Lists in word processors (e.g. WinWord or Word
Perfect)
Spreadsheets (e.g. Excel or 1,2,3)
Database management systems (e.g. MS
Access)
Terminology management systems
• Integrated (e.g. crossTerm, Déjà Vu)
• Hybrid (Integrated or Stand-alone): MultiTerm
• Stand-alone: Look Up
34
Phase 2
• Database Creation
• What data is to be stored in the database?
• How should the information be displayed?
35
The Terminological Data Entry –
Basic Categories
• Linguistic (designation-specific)
• Encyclopedic (concept-specific)
• Translational
• Administrative
36
The Importance of Terminology
Management
Translational
Data
Encyclopedic
Data
TMS
Administrative
Data
Linguistic
Data
37
A Terminological Entry – Contents?
38
A Terminological Entry - Example
Author
Project
Subject
English (Source)
Definition (Source)
See
Portuguese (Source)
Image
39
Basis Database Elements
File card box
File card
Line
Object type
Object
Object attribute
Database/File
Data set / record
Data field
40
Database Design Questions
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What objects are to be described?
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Terms
How can these objects be described?
•
English designation, image, gender, pronunciation, …
Definition of data fields
•
English, Portuguese, Definition, Image, Collocation, ….
Definition of data field type
•
Text, Media, Attribute, …
Definition of field attributes
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Gender -> m., n., f.
Subject Area: Law, Medicine, Telecom, …
41
MS Access – Basic Elements
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Table – Central 'data collection structure'
Form – Input and display of data
Query – Retrieve data, create glossaries
Report – Print data
Macros/Modules – Automate routine procedures
42
Steps in Creating a Database
with MS Access
Create a new (empty) database (with our without
Wizard)
(2) Chose file name
(3) Create new table in design view
(4) Enter field names
(5) Define data field types
(6) Define field attributes
(7) Describe fields
(8) Define primary key
(9) Save design
43
(10) Create form (AutoForm)
(1)
MS Access – Advanced Features
•
•
•
•
•
Queries (data selection, filtering)
-
Design
Run
Reports (printing glossaries)
Access / Word cooperation
HTML output
Importing data (e.g. from Excel)
44
Task
• Database Creation
• Create a MultiTerm Database
45
… but first …
See Sample Termbase
(-> macro and micro structure of MT iX)
46
Creating a Database with MultiTerm –
Termbase Definition 1/2
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Termbase / Create Termbase
Select Folder (TDB)
Start Termbase Wizard
Select Option 1 “Create a new termbase definition
from scratch”
Enter Termbase Name
Add/Remove Working Languages/Index Fields
(“Portuguese,” “Spanish”)
Add Descriptive Fields: Author, Project, Subject,
Source, Definition, Link, Image
47
Creating a Database with MultiTerm –
Termbase Definition 2/2
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•
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Modify Properties for “Source” (Picklist)
• Add “Hardware” and “Software” to Picklist
Modify Properties for “Image” (Multimedia File)
Create Entry Structure
• Entry Level: Author, Project, Subject, Image
• Index Level: Definition
• Term Level: Link
All That for Nothing ???
48
Creating a Database with MultiTerm
– Creating an Input Model 1/2
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Entry / Input Models …
Create …
Start Input Model Wizard
Enter Input Model Name
Right-click on “Entry level”
• Add Entry Level Fields: Author, Project, Subject,
English, Portuguese, Image
Right-click on “English”
• Add Fields: Definition
Right-click on “Term” (for English)
• Add Fields: Source. Link
Repeat Last 2 steps for Portuguese
49
Creating a Database with MultiTerm
– Creating an Input Model 2/2
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Enter “Default Content” for “Author” and “Project”
Select Default Value for “Subject”
Click “Preview”
(Modify Input Model if Needed)
Click “Next” and “Finish”
Select New Input Model and Click “OK”
Still nothing !!!
•
F3
50
Creating a Database with
MultiTerm – Adding Entries et al.
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Some Shortcuts …
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Entry / Add OR F3
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Add (1) CPU and Central Processing Unit, (2)Central Unit
Add Definition for (1)
Save Field: Enter
Save Entry: F10
Cancel Editing: Shift+Esc
Some Goodies …
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Adding Pictures
Adding Cross References
Adding Hyperlinks
Made a Mistake?
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Termbase / Modify Termbase Definition
Entry / Input Models / Edit
51
Task
• Add your terms to database (see next slide for
term entry conventions)
52
Part I: Terminology –
Basic Concepts
• Terminological Units
• Single-word terms
• Compound or Multiword terms
• Nominal multiword term (Noun Phrases)
•
•
•
•
•
Set phrases
Collocations (“run a query
Standard Texts (Boilerplate Texts)
Abbreviated Forms
Canonical Forms
• (Capitalization, Singular Form)
• Articles, Gender, Verb (Infinitive, no “to”)
• Spoken form (electronic), inverted, permuted (print)
53
Part III: Workshop
• Searching and evaluating terminological data
• Adding data to termbase
• Exporting and importing data (exchanging)
54
Phase 3
• Searching and Evaluating
55
Terminology Mining –
Sources and Origins of Internet Docs
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Private individuals
 Everybody can (and will) publish!
Government agencies
 E-Governing, general information (e.g. on environmental
issues, sources of official terminology)
Private companies
 Company and industry info (white papers), product
information, Advertisement, press releases, annual reports,
glossaries
Media
 News, reports, archives (free for 14 days -> pay-per-article)
International organizations
 White papers, subject information, databases, multilingual
sites
Universities and research institutes
 Scholarly publications
Specialized databases
56
Costs!
Search Scenarios for
Translators and Interpreters
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•
•
•
Background information
Getting acquainted with a subject, acquiring basic
understanding, parallel acquiring of encyclopedic and
linguistic knowledge (language: A or B)
Articles in encyclopedias, introduction to XXX
Parallel text
Acquiring of active linguistic expertise
Typical, idiomatic, discipline-specific terminology and
phraseology
Glossaries
Terminological knowledge
Terms and definitions
Specific research questions
Definition of YYY
Frequency of usage (acceptance check)
Text type conformity
57
Internet Search Strategies I/II
 Institutional / Generic Search
• Online Newspapers and Archives
• Online Encyclopedias
• International Organization
• Companies
 Thematic Search (Subject Trees)
• Librarians' Internet Index (http://lii.org/)
 Keyword Search (Search Engines)
• Google
58
Use advanced search options !
Search Strategies and
Terminology Sources
 Institutional Search
• Go to expert website (hp.com)
• Use site-internal search engine
(glossary,
printing)
• Alt:
Google Nesting (glossar OR lexikon
site:bmw.de)
59
Search Engine Algebra - General
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+ = Inclusion (Boolean AND, all the words)
- = Exclusion (Boolean NOT)
" ... " = Phrase search (AS IS)
OR (any of the words)
----------------------------------------------------------• ~ Related Keywords
• NEAR
• ADJ (adjacent)
----------------------------------------------------------• Search combinations ('nesting')
• e.g. printer AND (glossary OR dictionary)
60
Search Engine Algebra – Google 1/2
 + = enforcer (sg. vs. pl; include common words;
all vs all or or)
 - = Exclusion (Boolean NOT)
 " ... " = Phrase search (AS IS)
 OR (any of the words)
 ~ Related Keywords (~printer)
 * Separated by one or more words (printer *
driver)
61
Search Engine Algebra – Google 2/2
 define: Lists definitions of term (e.g. from
Wordnet, Wikipedia, etc.)
 allintitle: All keywords appear in title of webpage
(allintitle:glossary printing)
 site: Search only on specified website (printer
site:hp.com)
 Link: Find pages that link to specified webpage
(link:http://isg.urv.es/cttt/minho_2008/)
62
Search Strategies and
Terminology Sources
• Glossaries
• Definitions
• Images
• Parallel Texts
• Reference Works
• Online Databases
• http://iate.europa.eu
63
Search Strategies and
Terminology Sources
 Glossaries
• Google Advanced Search
• +glossar +site:hp.com
• See: Language setting
• See OR Search (glosario, diccionario, lexicon)
64
Search Strategies and
Terminology Sources
 Definitions
• Google
• define:”ink-jet printer”
• +"inkjet printer" +"what is“
• +"inkjet printer" +"how does * work"
65
Search Strategies and
Terminology Sources
•
Images
66
Search Strategies and
Terminology Sources
 Parallel Texts / Papers / Textbooks
• Via magazine/newspaper archives
• guardian.co.uk
• pcworld.com
• Google Scholar
• Amazon‘s A9
• The Invisible Web
67
Hot or Not? –
Evaluating Internet Documents
 Author's credentials
 Document preparation process and its
presentation
 Meta information and links to the document
 Accuracy and timeliness of the document’s
content
 3? - Up-to-date, Mother Tongue, Expert
 Double-checking with trustworthy sources
68
Building Electronic Corpora
 Downloading Internet files
 File formats
• HTML, PDF, DOC
 Retrieval programs
• Google Desktop, MS Desktop Search, SE Rapid
69
Task
 Corpus Creation
• Folder Structure!
70
Using Info Rapid
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Background
Selecting search folders
Defining file types
Simple searches
Using Boolean operators
Opening original applications (F9)
71
Phase 5
 Publication
• Glossary (in MS Word)
• Dictionary (RTF Export)
72
Co-operation with MS Word
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From MultiTerm to Word
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From Word to MultiTerm
73
Co-operation with Workbench
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From MultiTerm to Word
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From Word to MultiTerm
74
The Trados Environment –Setup
 Opening necessary applications and files
 Retrieving sentences (from Translator's
Workbench)
 Looking up terminology (with MultiTerm and
Translator's Workbench)
 Reviewing and finalizing your translation
75
The Trados Environment – Opening
Necessary Applications and Files
 MultiTerm: create/open TB
 Translator's Workbench: create/open TM
 MS Word: Access Workbench functions and
MultiTerm database through the Trados toolbars
76
Looking up Terminology I/II
 Activate automatic terminology recognition in
Workbench (Options menu)
 Recognised terms in MultiTerm are highlighted
in the Workbench window with a red line
 In TM window, click on the desired term to
display equivalent in the right-hand side window
 Paste the equivalent directly into the target text
by clicking the corresponding Term button
(previous, current or next)
77
Looking up Terminology II/II
 Retrieving recognized terminology in TM
through the concordance function
 Select the individual term or expression you
want to check in Word and click the
Concordance button
 The Concordance Browser window opens:
select term/expression, copy it to the
clipboard and paste it into Word
78
Part IV: Tool Assessment, QA,
Standardization
79
IV. Tool Assessment
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Criteria for Evaluating TDBMS
• Technical
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Platforms and operating
Multimedia support
systems,
Networkable,
• Terminological
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Task suitability, Free vs defined entry structure
• User Interface
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Task suitability
• Organizational
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Multilingual, Term Interchange, Integration, Publication,
Dictionaries
• Economic
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Software, Additional Tools, Support
80
Criteria for Selection of Terminology
Management Systems
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Seamless input of data
Scalable data views
Fast, easy-to-use and extensive retrieval features
Quick-search mode
Easy import of existing data
Cooperation with word processing software (both
ways)
Various export and printing option
Multimedia capability
Price
81
IV. Quality Management
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See checklist Wright (wright qa checklist.jpg)
82
IV. Quality Management
83
IV. Standards and Standardization
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Standardizing Terminology
Standardizing Terminology Management
• ISO TC 37
Standardizing Terminology Exchange
• MARTIF
• TBX
In lieu of bibliography:
http://lipas.uwasa.fi/termino/library.html
84
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