Patient interactions & history
Dr. Mohsen Dashti
Patient care & management 202
Discussion issues
• Personal understanding.
• Methods of effective communication.
• Various types of patients.
• Patient interview.
• Elements of the clinical history.
Personal understanding
• How important is effective interacting?
Build the trust between the technologist and patient.
Increase technologist’s self-esteem.
Eliminate miscommunication problems.
Decrease repeat rates. How?
Personal understanding
What do patients need?
Patients could loose & need various steps
described in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. How?
-- If a patient is very sick, they could loose sleep (level
-- If a patient feels not safe or unsecured (level two).
-- if a patient has tube or other devices attached to
them, they may not want to be around others (level
-- If a patient has serious bowel or vomiting problems
(level four).
Personal understanding
• Patients Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Level 1 (Physiologic)
Level 3 (Love & Belonging)
Level 2 (Safety & Security)
Level 4 (Self-esteem & Respect)
Personal understanding
Types of patients:
Inpatient. Who?
Someone who has been admitted to the hospital for
diagnostic studies or treatment.
Outpatient. Who?
Someone who had come to the hospital for diagnosis
or treatment but does not occupy a bed.
-- level of personal understanding might differ from
inpatients to outpatients depending on patient’s
confidence, sickness level, mobility, type of exam, selfesteem… etc.
Methods of effective communication
What is the number principle in
patient care?
Develops self-esteem.
Builds the trust between radiographer and the patient.
Makes it easier to control the patient and any other
situation that might develop as a result.
Eases the examination process.
Allows the patient to be more comfortable.
Methods of effective communication
Types of Communication:
1. Verbal Communication:
Use simple vocabulary.
Clarity of voice.
Organization of sentences based on patient level.
Humor and good spirit.
-- Avoid age, sex, race, religious discrimination and
Methods of effective communication
Types of Communication:
2. Nonverbal Communication:
-- Attitude and communication skills.
Body Language
-- Don’t ask about the comfort level when you don’t
even offer a pillow or a blanket.
-- Smile and make direct eye contact when talking to
the patient.
Methods of effective communication
2. Nonverbal Communication:
-- For emotional support, emphasis, and palpation.
Professional Appearance
-- Dress accordingly and always look nice.
Physical Presence
-- Body Posture.
-- High self-esteem and be confident.
Various types of patients
1. Seriously ill & traumatized patients:
In this category, patients often do not or can not talk or
cooperate, but still clear instructions must be given.
Determining the coherence level is vitally important.
-- To determine the consciousness level of the patient.
Quick and effective work must be taken to avoid
increasing patient discomfort.
Visual indications of changes in vital signs must be
monitored. Why?
-- To stop any possibility of severe consequences or
even death.
Various types of patients
2. Visually impaired patients:
Attempt to gain patient’s trust is a must to ease up
examination process.
Clear instructions and using simple terminology
assures patients.
Gentle touch establishes that someone is near if
3. Speech & hearing impaired patients:
Writing instructions can be useful with patients who
can read.
Examination simulation can help hearing impaired
Do not insult patient’s intelligence.
Various types of patients
4. Non-Arabic (English) speaking patients:
The use of touch, facial expression and simple
instructions is very helpful with those patients.
Clear pronunciation of simple words can help patients
to understand.
5. Mentally impaired patients:
Thorough knowledge of equipments & immobilization
techniques as well as interaction skills is a must with
these types of patients.
Strong and reassuring tone of voice must be used.
Continuous conversation must be maintained to calm
patient down.
Various types of patients
6. Substance abusers:
They are patients under the influence of alcohol or
drugs or any other type of addiction.
-- Most patients not aware of their behavior and extra
attention must be given.
-- Constant monitoring of patient behavior must be
-- Affirmative action must be taken when patient is
misbehaving to avoid serious problems.
-- Extra help or staff is recommended to have in the
examination room to secure the situation.
Patient interview
• Why is it important to interview patients?
- To understand the necessary clinical history in order to
perform the correct examination procedure.
-- Most examination requests describe brief and unclear
reason for a specific procedure.
-- General indication is mentioned (i.e x-ray hand)
without mentioning where exactly is the pain.
-- Avoiding serious mistakes of examination sites can be
done with appropriate clinical patient interview.
-- Gaining patient trust and giving some mental healing
help can be established during patient interview.
Patient interview
Questioning skills:
Open-ended questions: let the patient tell the
Facilitation encourages elaboration.
Silence or giving the patient time to speak out.
Probing questions provide more details.
Repetition clarifies information.
Summarization verifies accuracy.
Elements of the clinical history
The sacred seven:
Defining as exact & precise area as possible for the
patient’s complaint.
The time element of history taking where duration
since onset, frequency and course of the symptoms
should be established.
The character of the symptom is described such as the
color of body fluids, the presence of clots, the size of
lumps or lesions, the type of cough… etc.
Elements of the clinical history
This describes the intensity, the quantity or the
extensiveness of the condition or problem such as the
intensity of pain, the number of lumps or lesions, and
the extend of burn.
Describing the onset of the complaint involves the
patient’s explaining what was he/she doing when the
illness or condition began.
Aggravating or alleviating factors:
The circumstances or conditions that produce or
provoke the problem should be well defined.
Elements of the clinical history
Associated manifestations:
Might be necessary to determine whether there are
other symptoms that accompany the chief or main
Take care

Patient interactions & history taking