Developing your ideas for informative
speeches
Al Gore excerpt (attention step)
Chili Peppers excerpt (full CARRP)
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Relate the topic to
the audience
State the importance
of your topic
Startle the audience
Arouse curiosity
Question the
audience
Begin with a
quotation
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Tell a story
Establish common
ground
Use humor
Refer to the speech
situation or context
Use an analogy
Do an action
Do whatever you do
with eye contact and
confidence
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Clarity of Thought/Structure
Engaging Audience Interest
◦ Supporting Materials
Chapter 14 Advice
◦ Don’t overestimate what the audience
knows
◦ Relate the topic directly to the audience
◦ Don’t be too technical
◦ Avoid abstractions
◦ Personalize your ideas
How about Edible Insects?
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
Specific Purpose: To inform my audience
about the uses of insects in our diet.
Central Idea: Insects have been, are and will
continue to grow as an important part of the
human diet because of their nutritional value.
I. Insects are already a part of our daily
diet.
II. Insects have been used by humans as
a food source throughout history.
III. Insects have impressive nutritional
value.
IV. Insects are likely to become a
greater part of our diet in the future.
And tell them something they can use
W. p. 38
Scientific Monthly
 1941 study took
images of people
sneezing at
1,260 frames a
second
 particles traveled
anywhere from
61 to 94 feet per
second!
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Attention: curiosity is aroused in #1-3
through vivid description.
Relating to Audience is limited to putting the
listener into the speech with “you” and
“your.”
Topic is clearly revealed in the first sentence
of paragraph 4.
Credibility: personal experience? No
expertise at all here, some goodwill?
Preview: clearly signals three main points.
I. Sneezing can be understood in terms of
the superstitions surrounding it
throughout history.
II. Sneezing can be understood as the body's
complex reaction to a number of stimuli
from pollen to strong emotion.
III. Sneezing can be understood as
something that can be done safely and
politely.

First Main Point, paragraphs 6-12
◦ Extended Example: story of Xenophon from the
Concise Dictionary of Ancient History--nice
details
◦ Extended examples across cultures: Zulu, India,
western culture, (South Pacific--brief). All from
Encyclopedia of Occult Sciences, Superstitions,
and Folklore.
◦ Also increased credibility with citation of info
from Science magazine.

Second Main Point, paragraphs 13-17
◦ Stat. 104 miles an hour--no citation; problem
 Fix it
◦ Examples based on the discussion in the New York
Times.
◦ Example of June Clark--interesting, but no source
cited.

Third Main Point, paragraphs 18-19
◦ Information in paragraph 18 is not cited.
◦ Quote from Jane Brody in the New York
Times.

Introduction:
◦ "you," and "your"
◦ preview is clear but not overly blatant.

First Main Point:
◦ Concrete details and interesting word choices help
to bring the story to life.
◦ The strong word choices continue: "sneezing,” is
called "the nose's most conspicuous function."
◦ The language also continues to try to relate to the
audience: "If you were walking down the dusty
streets of Karim Nagar."

Second Main Point:
◦ He avoids getting overly technical; where it
borders on technical he does it for humorous
effect as in "overly active equilibriating
mechanism."
◦ Colorful word choice continues: "rampaging
predators," and "banishing intruders."
◦ Again, he addresses the audience: "If a man
lunged at you with a knife.”
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Accuracy means making sure you have the
right word for the idea or object.
Clarity means making sure you have the
right word for your audience in terms of
their knowledge base and listening skills.
Appropriateness means that you have the
right word for your audience in terms of
their attitudes toward the situation, topic
and speaker.
Take a hint from Stephen Colbert, Wikipedia
is not always reliable
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Identify author
Identify sponsoring organization
◦ if you can’t identify author or sponsoring org.,
don’t use the document!
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Determine recency
◦ copyright date
◦ publication date
◦ date of last revisions
Will using this source help or hurt my credibility?
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Build on the sense of structure developed
in the Paired Perspectives Speech
Find engaging materials--examples are
especially helpful
Integrate them nicely into the presentation
Use language that is clear and lively
Develop a delivery style to enhance the
material you have prepared.
See you Monday
What are the components of good visual aids
and delivery and how do I improve mine?

Visual aids can add a great deal to the
speech when nicely integrated.
◦ But don’t let your visual aid substitute for the
speech.
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Visual aids can add attention and
interest, but they can also distract.
◦ Never pass around a visual aid during a
formal speaking engagement.
◦ Show it while talking about it; but leave it up
long enough for all listeners to take in
◦ Use common sense (no fires, weapons, live
animals, no graphic images, etc..)
Percent of movie-industry revenues
100
Movie-industry revenues
80
TV & home video
60
40
Box office
20
0
1981
1988
Year
Ch. 13-5
1997

Aim for a professional look.
◦ Make sure whatever aid you use is large
enough for all to see.
 Practice delivery with it.
 Know how you can best refer to it while you
speak.
 Practice the mechanics of it.

Additional tips in T ch. 13 and W p. 35.
HEART LINE
LIFE LINE
HEAD LINE
LINE OF
DESTINY
Ch. 13-4
Roller Coaster Speech (video)
Gore speech (PowerPoint+)
I. Roller coasters offer a thrill that
American’s love.
II. Roller coasters have had an up-and-down
history.
III. Roller coasters at today’s parks offer a
wide variety of designs and thrills.
IV. Roller coasters of the future will feature
new developments like the pipeline.

Preview:
◦ “Today I would like to discuss America’s
addiction to the thrill of roller coaster riding and
then present to you the past, present and
future of the roller coaster….”
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Connectives
◦ Thrill-seeker or not, the question most of us
ask ourselves as we are nearing the top of a
coaster’s incline is, “Who would ever build such
a contraption?” (transition)
◦ “Let’s take a look at some of today’s hottest
rides.”
 “First,” “Next we travel,” “Now we venture,” “Finally,”
(signposts)
◦ “So far we have seen….” (internal summary)
◦ “In conclusion…”

Support Materials
◦ Smithsonian Magazine; Professor Farley;
leading designer of roller coasters; and video
Critique strengths and weaknesses
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A scientific approach
to delivery
Gilbert Austin’s
Chironomia,1806
Elocutionists had
rules for
◦
◦
◦
◦
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Stance
Broad gestures
Fingers
Eyebrows
Delsarte’s system
introduced in the
1880s kept this alive

The Speaker’s Body Matters
◦ Personal appearance is important.
◦ Physical stance is important.
◦ Gestures, eye contact and facial
expressiveness are important.
◦ “People trust their ears less than their
eyes.”

The Speaker’s Voice Matters
◦ Pitch, rate, pauses, inflection,
pronunciation, and articulation are the
critical terms.
◦ Paralanguage refers to the manipulation
of these variables to make a single
sentence have a variety of meanings.
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Rehearse the speech out loud with the
preparation outline.
Develop a speaking outline (see workbook
pp. 29-31)
Practice aloud using the speaking outline
(and put it down too)
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Polish and refine your delivery by
practicing with others or recording your
performance.
Arrange for a dress rehearsal so you are
familiar with your space.
To do all of this requires two things
◦ finish developing the speech content early
◦ working with anxiety
Mark Twain
Pudd’nhead Wilson, 1894

is very common
◦ James McCroskey, a leading communication
apprehension researcher, finds that 70-75% of
American’s say they experience anxiety

is typically a response to the release of the
hormones adrenaline and cortisol
◦ an adrenaline rush should feel good and be useful
◦ as adrenaline gives out and the stressor remains cortisol
rises as adrenaline falls and there we have some physical
and mental discomfort

is triggered by OLD brain wiring
◦ “fight or flight” response
◦ Speech trainer Mary Fensholt says: “The fear of public
speaking is more than anything a fear of being eaten”
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Think positively
◦ Use visualization: imagine your success
◦ The goal is communication, not perfection
Prepare
◦ Work on content early; choose something you know
◦ Work especially hard on introduction
On your speaking day, be proactive.
◦ Do simple muscle relaxation
◦ Create an outlet for extra energy before or during
◦ Take slow deep breaths
◦ Bring some water to drink
◦ Use Visual Aids
◦ Use eye contact with members of the audience
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I don’t have any
strengths as a
speaker.
I’m too nervous to do
well.
THEY will think I’m
stupid (boring,
inarticulate)
I don’t have anything
important to say.
It has to be a perfect
performance.
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I can do __X__ well.
A little nervousness
can help!
◦ It is a source of
energy
My audience wants
me to succeed.
I have prepared well
and will give my best.
I can share what I
know.
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They want you to succeed!
They feel your anxiety
They are eager to listen and learn
They hope to be taken by your enthusiasm
and excitement about the topic
They want you to succeed!
 They feel your anxiety
 They are eager to listen and learn
 They hope to be taken by your
enthusiasm and excitement about the
topic
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Build the skeleton first [the outline]

Find engaging materials—examples are
especially helpful
◦ What’s the big goal, the take away idea?
◦ What are the main points everyone should know?
◦ How can you structure your ideas to make them easier
to follow and retain?
◦ What kinds of connectives can drive the points home?
◦ Integrate them nicely into the presentation
◦ Use language that is clear and lively


Develop a delivery style to enhance the material
you have prepared
Use Positive Preparation

The thinking speaker is able
◦ to respond to feedback
◦ to adjust to the situation and interference
◦ to achieve conversational delivery
◦ to help the audience think that this is what
the speaker want to be doing right now
Eleanor Roosevelt
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Chapter Thirteen