Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective Seeing the Broader Social Context • How Groups Influence People • How People are Influenced by Their Society – People Who Share a Culture – People Who Share a Territory © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Location - Corners in Life • • • • • • Jobs Income Education Gender Age Race/Ethnicity © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Origins of Sociology • Tradition vs. Science – The Industrial Revolution • Masses of people moved to cities in search of work – Grew Out of Social Upheaval – Imperialism of the Time – Rise of the Scientific Method © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Auguste Comte and Positivism • Applying the Scientific Method to Social World • Comte began to wonder what holds society together • Coined the Term “Sociology” • “Armchair Philosophy” © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Herbert Spencer - Social Darwinism • Second Founder of Sociology • Disagreed sharply with Comte’s idea that sociologists should guide social reform • Lower and Higher Forms of Society • Coined Phrase “Survival of the Fittest” • Spencer’s idea that it was wrong to help the poor offended many © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Karl Marx and Class Conflict • • • • Engine of Human History is Class Conflict The Bourgeoisie vs. The Proletariat Marxism Not the Same as Communism Marx thought that people should try to change society • Marx did not think of himself as a sociologist © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Durkheim and Social Integration • Got Sociology Recognized as Separate Discipline • Studied How Social Forces Affect Behavior • Identified “Social Integration” - Degree to Which People are Tied to Social Group • Applying Durkheim © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic • Religion and the Origin of Capitalism – Disagreed with Marx’s claim that economics is the central force in social change – Said that role belongs to religion • Religion is Central Force in Social Change • Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. How Americans Commit Suicide © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexism in Early Sociology • Attitudes of the Time – 1800s Sex Roles Rigidly Defined – Few People Educated Beyond Basics • Harriet Martineau – Published Society in America Before Durkheim and Weber Were Born – Her work was Ignored © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Racism at the Time: W.E.B Du Bois • B.A. from Fisk University • First Harvard Ph.D. for African American • It is difficult to grasp how racist society was at this time • Published a Book Each Year from 18961914 • Neglected by Sociologist Until Recently © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Jane Addams: Sociologist and Social Reformer • Member of American Sociological Society from Start • Came from Background of Wealth and Privilege • Co-Founded Hull House • Co-Founded American Civil Liberties Union © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills • Many early North American sociologists saw society as corrupt & in need of reform • Parsons Developed Objective Analysis and Models of Society • Mills Deplored Theoretical Abstractions in Favor of Social Reform • Continuing Tension in Sociology © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Theoretical Perspectives • Basic Sociology – Analyzing an aspect of society and publishing their findings in books and sociology journals • Applied Sociology – Using sociology to solve problems • Public Sociology – A middle ground between research & reform © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Comparing Basic and Applied Sociology © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. THE FOUNDATIONS OF Structural Functionalism STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM • A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability • Social Structure – Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior • Social Functions – The consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903) • Contributed an evolutionary perspective on social order and social change. • Social Darwinism – The belief that the human beings best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted die out. • Coined the term “survival of the fittest.” EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-1917) • Believed the limits of human potential are socially based. • One of his most important contributions was the concept of social facts. – Social facts are patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but exert social control over each person. DURKHEIM’S SOCIAL FACTS • Material facts are represented by society itself, social structures, population density, geographic location, etc. • Nonmaterial facts are social norms and values, collective representations, and the collective conscious, etc. • Social currents are great movements of enthusiasm, indignation, pity, etc. ROBERT K. MERTON (1910–2003) • Manifest Functions – The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern • Latent Functions – The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern • Social Dysfunction – Any social pattern that might disrupt the operation of society Module 3 TALCOTT PARSONS (1902-1972) █ Emphasizes the way parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability – Viewed society as vast network of connected parts – Each helps maintain the system as a whole STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE • Societies are like organisms whose parts are interdependent. • Social life depends on consensus and cooperation. Conflict is socially destructive. • Changes tend to disrupt social life, setting things off balance. THE FOUNDATIONS OF Conflict Theory SOCIAL CONFLICT • A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change • Highlights how the following factors are linked to inequality – Class, race, ethnicity, gender, age • Social-conflict approach is used to look at ongoing conflict between dominant and disadvantaged categories of people KARL MARX (1818-1883) • Viewed history as a clash between conflicting ideas and forces. • Believed class conflict produced social change and a better society. • Combined ideas from philosophy, history, and social science into a new theory. IN CAPITALIST SOCIETIES… • Marx perceived a fundamental division between those who owned capital and those who did not. • The proletariat did not own capital and were forced to sell their labor to those who did, the bourgeoisie. • The eventual conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie would create social change. MAX WEBER (1864-1920) • The concept of power was added to the list of resources that provoke conflict among groups in a society. – Power is the ability to make people do what you want even if against their will. • The concepts of class, status, and parties are expressions of social power. • Provided insights on rationalization, bureaucracy and religion. GEORG SIMMEL (1858-1918) • Theorized about society as a web of patterned interactions among people. • Analyzed how social interactions vary depending on the size of the social group. • Developed formal sociology, an approach that focuses attention on the universal recurring social forms that underlie the varying content of social interaction. JANE ADAMS (1860-1935) • Founded Hull House, one of the most famous settlement houses, in Chicago. • One of the authors of a methodology text used by sociologists for the next forty years. • Awarded Nobel Prize for assistance to the underprivileged. W. E. B. DU BOIS (1868-1963) • One of the first to note the identity conflict of being both a black and an American. • Pointed out that people in the U.S. espouse values of democracy, freedom, and equality while they accept racism and group discrimination. CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • Societies are like sports arenas where groups with different interests compete for prizes. • Social life inevitably generates divided interests, opposing goals, and conflict. • Change is inevitable and even desirable. Elite Working Class MAJOR MACRO THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES Theory View of Society Functionalist Composed of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability. Conflict Society is characterized by social inequality; social life is a struggle for scarce resources. THE FOUNDATIONS OF Symbolic Interaction (A Micro Theory) Module 3 Interactionist Perspective █ Generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction to explain society as a whole – Humans viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects Nonverbal communication: Includes gestures, facial expressions, and postures GEORGE HERBERT MEAD (1836-1913) • Society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups • Interaction is the communication between two or more individuals • Symbols are instrumental in helping people derive meaning from social interaction MEAD’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES • Preparatory Stage (0 to 3 years) – Children largely imitate the people around them – The interactions lack any significant meaning MEAD’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES • Play Stage (3 to 5 years) – Children learn the use of language and other symbols – Children begin to take the roles of other specific persons (e.g. mom, dad, etc.) – Learning the nature of roles begins here MEAD’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES • Game Stage (early school years) – Children develop an understanding of their personal role as it relates to the role(s) of others – This allows for the child to begin to understand of the demands and expectations of the larger society MEAD’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES • Generalized Other Stage – The child becomes aware of the demands and expectation of society as a whole – Social norms, expected and accepted behaviors in the process of social interaction are internalized Module 2 CHARLES HORTON COOLEY (1864-1929) █ Used micro sociological perspective to examine face-to-face group interaction █ Developed a sociological approach that explains how individual self concept is a product of group interaction Module 3 ERVING GOFFMAN (1922–1982) █ Dramaturgical approach: People seen as theatrical performers – Every individual has multiple roles and change scripts as social setting call for it SYMBOLIC INTERACTION PERSPECTIVE Individual Society • Symbolic meaning and social roles are learned through interaction with others. • Societies consist of many small theaters where people act out various social roles. • Change occurs when actors improvise on the basic script. Module 5 What is the Scientific Method? █ Systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem Quantitative and Qualitative Research • Quantitative research focuses on data that can be measured numerically. – Example: comparing rates of suicide • Qualitative research focuses on interpretive description rather than statistics to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships. Conventional Research Model 1. Select and define the research problem. 2. Review previous research. 3. Formulate the hypothesis. 4. Develop the research design. 5. Collect and analyze the data. 6. Draw conclusions and report the findings. Module 5 Scientific Method █ Defining the Problem – Operational definition: Explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow researchers to assess the concept █ Reviewing the Literature – Identify previous research: This avoids unwanted replication and provides insight for current research approach Module 5 Scientific Method █ Formulating the Hypothesis – Hypothesis: Speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors known as variables – Variable: Measurable trait or characteristic subject to change under different conditions • Independent variable: Variable hypothesized to cause or influence another • Dependent variable: Action depends on the influence of the independent variable Module 5 Scientific Method █ Formulating the Hypothesis – Causal logic: Involves relationships between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other – Correlation: Exists when change in one variable coincides with change in another Correlation does not necessarily indicate causation Module 5 Collecting and Analyzing Data █ Selecting the Sample – Sample: Selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population – Random sample: When every member of a population has the same chance of being selected – Snowball samples – participants recruited through word of mouth or by posting notices on the Internet Module 5 Collecting and Analyzing Data █ Ensuring Validity and Reliability – Validity: Degree to which the measure reflects the phenomenon being studied – Reliability: Extent to which the measure provides consistent results Module 5 Developing the Conclusion █ Supporting the Hypothesis – Sociological studies do not always generate data that support original hypothesis – Controlling for other factors Control variable: Factor held constant to test the impact of the independent variable Module 6 Major Research Designs █ Research design: Detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically – – – – Surveys Observation Experiments Existing sources Module 6 Surveys █ Study that provides sociologists with information about how people act or think –Interview: Researcher obtains information through face-to-face or telephone questioning –Questionnaire: Researcher uses printed or written form to obtain information from respondent Module 6 Research Today █ Surveying Cell Phone Users – Are you a cell phone-only user? If so, do you generally accept calls from unknown numbers? – Which of the problems that arise during telephone surveys might also arise during Internet surveys? Might Internet surveys involve some unique problems? Module 6 Observation █ Collecting information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a group or community – Observation: Sociologist joins group to get accurate sense of how it operates – Ethnography: Efforts to describe an entire social setting through extended systematic observation Module 6 Experiments █ Artificially created situation that allows researcher to manipulate variables – Experimental group: Exposed to independent variable – Control group: Not exposed to independent variable – Hawthorne Effect: Unintended influence of observers or experiments on subjects Experiments • Scientific Cause to Effect – Total control • Non-Scientific Cause to Effect – Less control • Non-Scientific Effect to Cause – Lowest level of control Module 6 Use of Existing Sources █ Secondary analysis: Research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data Durkheim’s Use of Existing Sources and Suicide • Literature review: – Literature, contemporary to Durkheim, suggested several causes of suicide: • Individual psychopathology • Alcoholism • Race/Ethnicity • Heredity • Climate • Imitation Durkheim’s Stating the Problem • If the more individualistic explanations for suicide were viable then the rate of suicide should be fairly random within society. – However, they were not. Suicide rates varied from one social group to another – As an example: Protestants have a higher suicide rate than Catholics; wealthy have a higher suicide rate than the poor; etc. Durkheim’s Analysis of Data • Durkheim linked the propensity for suicide to the degree of integration into, or regulation by, the larger social group or society in general. – Integration refers to the degree to which the collective sentiments (or conscience) are shared by the individual. – Regulation refers to the degree of external constraint on people (or the individual) exerted by the group Low Social Integration • Egoistic Suicide – Egoistic suicide occurs when social integration is low or too weak. – This lack of integration leads to a sense of meaninglessness among individuals. – Societies (or social groups) with a strong collective conscience and the protective, enveloping social currents that flows from it, are likely to prevent widespread occurrence of egoistic suicide. High Social Integration • Altruistic Suicide – Altruistic suicide occurs when social integration is high or too strong. – This overwhelming degree of collective conscience may lead an individual to commit suicide because they believe it is their duty to do so. – One notorious example of altruistic suicide was the mass suicide in Jonestown, Guyana. Another more recent example would be the mass suicide of the Heaven's Gate cult in the San Diego area. Low Social Regulation • Anomic Suicide – Anomic suicide is more likely to occur when the regulative powers of society are disrupted or become too low. – Disruptions may come from either too much of a good thing or too much of a bad thing. They render the collective conscience incapable of exercising authority over the individual. Low Social Integration • Anomic Suicide (continued) – A sense of rootlessness or normlessness leaves the individual feeling as if he or she was cut adrift from the social regulations that once provided structure to their life. – An example may be seen in the fact that sudden great wealth or sudden poverty can both lead to suicide. High Social Regulation • Fatalistic Suicide – Fatalistic suicide is more likely to occur when the regulative powers of society are oppressive or too strong. – Oppressive regulations leave an individual without hope for a future governed by their own choices. It entails a total loss of, or lack of, freedom.