Introduction to
Sociology
Dr. Anis Alam
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Anis Alam
Ph.D.
• Educated in Karachi, Lahore, Chittagong, London and Durham (UK).
• Imperial College London, Durham University, Durham,
Punjab University, Islamia College, Lahore.
• Worked at Sussex University, London University UK,
International Center for Theoretical Physics Trieste
Italy, Tabriz University Iran and at the Punjab
University, Lahore.
• Professor at LSE since 2006
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Defining the discipline
• ‘The scientific study of human social life,
groups and societies’
• Scope is enormous, ranging from ‘brief
encounters’ to global social processes
• Need to go beyond features of our own
lives
• Challenge what is taken for granted
Development of Sociological Thinking
• Facts show that things occur, and sometimes how
they occur
• Theories are needed to show why they occur
• Theories involve ‘constructing abstract interpretations’
that can be used to explain a wide variety of empirical
situations
• Not possible completely to separate research and
theory
Course Description
This course introduces the science of Sociology by focusing on
five broad topics: (1) What is Sociology? (2) The Individual and
Society, (3) Social Institutions, (4) Social Inequality, and
(5) Globalization and Social Change.
In the process, we'll examine important concepts, theories, and
methodologies used by sociologists working on both the micro
and macro levels. We’ll look at interconnections between social
institutions (i.e., the family, education, the economy), as well as
the way in which institutional change has caused widening
income inequality in the U.S. and around the world.. The overarching purpose of the course is to instill in students the
“sociological imagination”, which can then be used to decipher
current social issues and patterns of everyday life.
Sociological Imagination
• The founders of sociology were some of the earliest
individuals to employ what C. Wright Mills
(a prominent mid-20th century American sociologist)
labeled the sociological imagination: the ability to
situate personal troubles within an informed
framework of social issues. Mills proposed that:
• "What people need... is a quality of mind that will
help them to use information and to develop
reason in order to achieve lucid summations of
what is going on in the world and of what may be
happening within themselves. The sociological
imagination enables its possessor to understand
-----
the larger historical scene in terms of its
meaning for the inner life and the external
career of a variety of individuals.”
As Mills saw it, the sociological imagination
could help individuals cope with the social
world by helping them to step outside of their
personal, self-centric view of the world. In
employing the sociological imagination,
people are able to see the events and social
structures that influence behavior, attitudes,
and culture.
Questions
• What is human nature?
• How and Why is society structured
as it is?
• How and why do societies
change?
Social Theorists inspired by Scientific Revolution
• Comte (Positivism: empirically obtained
verifiable knowledge codified in well
defined concepts and laws)
• Marx (History, Struggle between classes)
• Herbert Spencer (Evolutionary Change)
• Durkheim (Social Facts-Norms, Institutions Functionalism )
• Weber (Anti-postivist: Ideas;Religion,
Rationalization, markets, bureaucracy)
Early theorists (1)
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
• Coined the term ‘sociology’ in age of
turbulent post-revolutionary France
• Believed in science of society that could
reveal laws
• ‘Positivism’ – science should be
concerned only with observable entities
that are known to our experience
• Saw sociology as the end of a line of
development: most complex of all the
sciences
August Comte
(1798-1857)
• Development Stages of Human Societies
(European)
• Theological- Medieval- Theology queen of all
knowledge.
• Metaphysical: Earth and Human cantered
Renaissance Italy, Revival of Greek Knowledge /Arts
• Positivist-- Scientific Revolution-Basis of knowledge :
sensory perceptions - quantifiable and verifiable and
expressible in mathematical relations. ( Copernicus,
Galileo, Newton; Royal society)
Marx (1818-1883) How history is made?

Men make their own history, but they do not make it as
they please; they do not make it under self-selected
circumstances, but under circumstances existing already,
given and transmitted from the past. ... In the social
production of their existence, men inevitably enter
into definite relations, which are independent of
their will, namely relations of production
appropriate to a given stage in the development of
their material forces of production. The totality of
these relations of production constitutes the
economic structure of society, the real foundation,
on which arises a legal and political
superstructure and to which correspond
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definite forms of social consciousness.
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----In the social production of their existence, men
inevitably enter into definite relations, which are
independent of their will, namely relations of
production appropriate to a given stage in the
development of their material forces of
production. The totality of these relations of
production constitutes the economic structure of
society, the real foundation, on which arises a
legal and political superstructure and to which
correspond definite
forms of social
consciousness.
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The
mode of production of material
life conditions the general process of
social, political and intellectual life.
It is not the consciousness
of men that determines
their existence, but their
social existence that
determines their
consciousness.
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The bourgeoisie cannot exist without
constantly revolutionizing the
instruments of production, and thereby
the relations of production, and with
them the whole relations of society.
Conservation of the old modes of production in
unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first
condition of existence for all earlier industrial
classes. Constant revolutionizing of production,
uninterrupted disturbance of all social
conditions, everlasting uncertainty and
agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch
from all earlier ones.
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All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their
train of ancient and venerable
prejudices and opinions, are swept
away, all new-formed ones become
antiquated before they can ossify.
All that is solid melts into air, all that
is holy is profaned, and man is at last
compelled to face with sober senses
his, real conditions of life, and his
relations with his kind.
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The bourgeoisie has stripped of its halo every
occupation hitherto honoured and looked up to
with reverent awe. It has converted the
physician, the lawyer, the priest, the poet, the
man of science, into its paid wage labourers.
The bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its
sentimental veil, and has reduced the family
relation to a mere money relation…... It has
been the first to show what man’s activity can
bring about. It has accomplished wonders far
surpassing Egyptian pyramids, Roman
aqueducts, and Gothic cathedrals; it has
conducted expeditions that put in the shade all
former Exoduses of nations and crusades.
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French Revolution
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Revolutions
• The French Revolution (1789)
• Paris Commune –Communist Manifesto (1848)
• The October Revolution (Russia - 1917)
• The Chinese Revolution (1949)
• The Cuban Revolution (1958)
• The Vietnamese Revolution (1975)
• All had a vision of a exploitation free, just,
equitable, egalitarian future that persists even
when the revolutions have not fully lived up to the
ideals.
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Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
(Evolutionary Change)
• Committed to economic individualism
and the free market.
• Defining principle: struggle for existence,
survival-survival of the fittest leading to
justification for imperialism, colonialism,
domination of strong over the weak.
• Period marked by great social upheavals- wars
of conquests, land enclosures, urbanization
Revolutions in Germany, France (Paris Commune)
Emile Durkheim
(1858-1917)
• Social Facts as things: Durkheim argued that society
must be studied in terms of social facts, that are “ a
category of facts” with distinct characteristics,“ consisting
of ways of acting, thinking, and
feeling external to
the individual and have their own existence reality
outside the lives and perceptions of individual
people; they exercise a power of coercion on
individual from outright punishment to social
rejection in the case of unacceptable behaviour, to
simple misunderstanding in the case of misuse of
language; to control him”. E.g.,Social Institutions and Social
forms: (family, social solidarity, religion etc., ( Durkheim, The Rules of
Sociological Method, 1895).
Social Fact
• "A social fact is every way of acting,
fixed or not, capable of exercising on
the individual an external constraint;
or again, every way of acting which is
general throughout a given society,
while at the same time existing in its
own right independent of its
individual manifestations."
Social Solidarity
• Mechanical solidarity : prevalent in pre-industrial
societies. Individualism is minimized and the
individual is subsumed within the collectivity
• Organic Solidarity : Characteristic of large scale,
modern, industrial / urban societies. Is generated by
the extensive division of labour within industrial
societies, which tends to produce differences rather
than similarities. Strong bonds of mutual
interdependence generate organic solidarity.
• Important studies: The Divison of Labour in Society, 1893
• Suicide: A Study in Sociology, 1897
Suicide (1897)
Social Integration & Social Control
• Egoistic suicides are the result of a weakening of the bonds
that normally integrate individuals into the collectivity: in
other words a breakdown or decrease of social integration.
Durkheim refers to this type of suicide as the result of
"excessive individuation", meaning that the individual
becomes increasingly detached from other members of his
community.
• Altruistic suicides occur in societies with high integration,
where individual needs are seen as less important than
the society's needs as a whole. They thus occur on the
opposite integration scale as egoistic suicide.
----
• Anomic suicides are the product of moral deregulation and
a lack of definition of legitimate aspirations through a
restraining social ethic, which could impose meaning and
order on the individual conscience. This is symptomatic of a
failure of economic development and division of labour to
produce Durkheim's organic solidarity.
• Fatalistic suicides occur in overly oppressive societies,
causing people to prefer to die than to carry on living within
their society. This is an extremely rare reason for people to
take their own lives, but a good example would be within a
prison; people prefer to die than live in a prison with
constant abuse and excessive regulation that prohibits
them from pursuing their desires.
• These four types of suicide are based on the degrees of imbalance of
two social forces: social integration and moral regulation.
Functionalism
• Along with Herbert Spencer , Durkheim held that
society is a complex system whose various parts
work together to produce stability and solidarity.
This is referred to as Functionalism . ‘Society’ and
‘Culture’ to be studied as social facts existing
independent of individuals.
• Men are shaped and influenced by their
groups and group heritage.
• Academic sociology’s emphasis on the potency of
society and the subordination of men to it is itself
an historical product that contains an historical
truth. (Berger)
Religion- Durkheim’s view
Durkheim saw totemism as the most basic form of religion. It
is in this belief system that the fundamental separation
between the sacred and the profane is most clear. All other
religions, he said, are outgrowths of this distinction, adding to
it myths, images, and traditions. The totemic animal,
Durkheim believed, was the expression of the sacred and the
original focus of religious activity because it was the emblem
for a social group, the clan. Religion is thus an inevitable, just
as society is inevitable when individuals live together as
a group.
Five elementary forms of religious life -Durkheim
Durkheim presented five elementary forms of
religious life to be found in all religions, from the
more "primitive" to Judeo/ Christian / Moslem. These
are: 1. Sacred/Profane division of the world; 2. Belief
in souls, spirits, mythical personalities 3. Belief in
divinity, either local or multi-local 4. a negative or
ascetic cult within the religion 5. Rites of oblation,
communion, imitation, commemoration or expiation.
He argued that these five forms were communal
experiences, thereby distinguishing religion from magic.
Max Weber (1864-1920)
• Weber was, along with his associate Georg Simmel,
a central figure in the establishment of
methodological antipositivism; presenting
sociology as a non-empirical field which must
study social action through resolutely subjective
means. He is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim
and Karl Marx, as one of the three principal
architects of modern social science, and has
variously been described as the most important
classic thinker in the social sciences.
----
• The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
• Weber showed that certaintypes of Protestantism – notably
Calvinism – were supportive of rational pursuit of
economic gain and worldly activities dedicated to it,
seeing them as endowed with moral and spiritual
significance. Weber argued that there were many reasons
to look for the origins of modern capitalism in the religious
ideas of the Reformation. Weber argued that ascetic
Protestantism was one of the major "elective affinities" in
determining the rise of capitalism, bureaucracy and the
rational-legal nation-state. This theory is often viewed as a
reversal of Marx's thesis that the economic "base" of
society determines all other aspects of it.
----
• In Politics as a Vocation, Weber defined the state as an
entity which claims a "monopoly on the legitimate use of
violence",
• His analysis of bureaucracy in his Economy and Society is
still central to the modern study of organizations.
• Weber was the first to recognize several diverse aspects of
social authority, which he respectively categorized
according to their charismatic, traditional, and legal forms.
His analysis of bureaucracy thus noted that modern state
institutions are based on a form of rational-legal authority.
• Weber's thought regarding the rationalizing and
secularizing tendencies of modern Western society
(sometimes described as the "Weber Thesis") has been a
recurring theme in Western social sciences.
---
• Weber presented sociology as the
science of human social action; action
which he differentiated into traditional,
affectional, value-rational and
instrumental. [Sociology is ] ... the
science whose object is to interpret the
meaning of social action and thereby give
a causal explanation of the way in which
the action proceeds and the effects which
it produces.
• – Max Weber The Nature of Social Action 1922
• By 'action' in this definition---is meant the human behaviour
when and to the extent that the agent or agents see it as
subjectively meaningful ... the meaning to which we refer
may be either (a) the meaning actually intended either by
an individual agent on a particular historical occasion or by
a number of agents on an approximate average in a given
set of cases, or (b) the meaning attributed to the agent or
agents, as types, in a pure type constructed in the abstract.
In neither case is the 'meaning' to be thought of as
somehow objectively 'correct' or 'true' by some
metaphysical criterion. This is the difference between the
empirical sciences of action, such as sociology and history,
and any kind of priori discipline, such as jurisprudence,
logic, ethics, or aesthetics whose aim is to extract from
their subject-matter 'correct' or 'valid' meaning.
Rationality
• Weber maintained that Calvinist (and more
widely, Protestant) religious ideas had had a
major impact on the social innovation and
development of the economic system of
Europe and the United States, along with
other notable factors included the rationalism
of scientific pursuit, merging observation with
mathematics, rational systematization of
government administration, and economic
enterprise.
----
• Weber outlines a description, of rationalization (of
which bureaucratization is a part) as a shift from a
value-oriented organization and action (traditional
authority and charismatic authority) to a goaloriented organization and action (legal-rational
authority).
• Weber identifies bureaucracy with rationality, and
the process of rationalization with mechanism,
depersonalization and oppressive routine. (C. Wright
Mills in The man and His Work, From Max Weber)
• The result, according to Weber, is a "polar night of icy
darkness", in which increasing rationalization of
human life traps individuals in an "iron cage" of rulebased, rational control
• What Weber depicted was --not only the secularization of
Western culture, but also and especially the development
of modern societies from the viewpoint of rationalization.
The new structures of society were marked by the
differentiation of the two functionally intermeshing
systems that had taken shape around the organizational
cores of the capitalist enterprise and the bureaucratic
state apparatus. Weber understood this process as the
institituionalization of purposive-rational economic and
administrative action. To the degree that everyday life was
affected by this cultural and societal rationalization,
traditional forms of life - which in the early modern period
were differentated primarily according to one's trade were dissolved.
• – Jürgen Habermas Modernity's Consciousness of Time,
Asking and Answering Sociological
Questions
Girl’s education?
Factual questions
Comparative
questions
Developmental
questions
Theoretical
The Sociologist’s line of
Questioning
What happened?
Did this happen
everywhere?
Has this happened
overtime?
What underlies the
Research Process
• Define a problemSelect a topic
• Review the literature – Familiarize yourself with
existing research on the topic.
• Formulate a hypothesis – What do you want to test?
What are your variables and their relationship?
• Select a research design. Choose one or more of research
methods: experiment, survey, observation, use of existing resources.
• Carry out the research- Collect your data, record information.
• Interpret your results- Work out the implications of the data
you collect.
• Report your research findingsOw do they relate to previous findings?
What is the significance?
Four of the main research methods
Research Method
Strengths
Limitations
Fieldwork
Usually generates richer and more
in-depth information.
Ethnography can provide a broader
understanding of social process.
Can only be used to study small
groups or communities.
Findings may only apply to the
groups or communities studied.
Not easy to generalize.
Surveys
Make possible the efficient
collection of date on large number
of individuals.
Allows for precise comparisons to
be made between the answers of
the respondents
The material may be superficial.
Where a questionnaire is highly
standardized, important
differences between
respondent’s viewpoints may
be glossed over
Experiments
The influence of a specific variables
can be controlled by the
investigator. Are repeatable
Many aspects of social life can
not be brought in the
laboratory.
The responses of the subjects
may be altered by the
experimental situation itself
Documentary
research
Can provide sources for in-depth
material as well as data on large
Researcher is dependent on the
existing resources, that may be
Diversity Of Beliefs
• Christianity: 2.1 billion, Islam: 1.5
billion,Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist: 1.1 billion
Hinduism: 900 million, Chinese traditional religion: 394
million, Buddhism: 376 million, primal-indigenous: 300
million, African Traditional & Diasporic: 100 million,
Sikhism: 23 million, Juche: 19 million, Spiritism: 15 million,
Judaism: 14 million, Baha'i: 7 million, Jainism: 4.2 million,
Shinto: 4 million, Cao Dai: 4 million,, Zoroastrianism: 2.6
million, Tenrikyo: 2 million, Neo-Paganism: 1 million ,
Unitarian-Universalism: 800 thousand ,Rastafarianism: 600
thousand , Scientology: 500 thousand,
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Religions
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Diversity of Spoken Languages
Americas
949
Asia
2,034
Africa
1995
Pacific
1341
Europe
209
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United Nations
• In 2004 the world has 192 independent, sovereign
nations categorized as such under the umbrella of
UN.
• Of these only a few are really populous: countries
like China, India (over a billion each); USA and
Indonesia (over 200 million each); Brazil, Pakistan,
Russian Federation, Nigeria, Japan and Mexico
(100-200 population million); eleven have between
50-100 million (Germany, France, UK, Italy,
Vietnam, Philippine, Thailand, Ethiopia, Iran, Egypt
and DPR Congo).
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World Most Populous
Country
2008 population
2050
Population (E)
World
6,676,120,288
9.084(billion)
China
1,330,044,605
1.470(billion)
India
1,147,995,898
1.619(billion)
USA
303,824,646
403(million)
Indonesia
237,512,355
337 (million)
Brazil
191,908,598
206(million)
Pakistan
167,762,040
267(million)
Bangladesh
153,546,901
205(million)
Russia
Nigeria
Japan
Top ten Countries
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Rest of the world
140,702,09
138,283,240
127,288,419
3,938,868,796
2,737,251,492
118(million)
205(million)
101(million)
5.034 (b)
4.049 (b)
45
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Global Food Production



The world’s farmers reaped a record 2.316 billion tons of grain
in 2007. Despite this jump of 95 million tons, or about 4 percent,
over the previous year, commodity analysts estimate that
voracious global demand will consume all of this increase and
prevent governments from replenishing cereal stocks that are at
their lowest level in 30 years.
The global grain harvest has nearly tripled since 1961, during a
time when world population doubled.3 As a result, the amount of
grain produced per person grew from 285 kilograms in 1961 to
a peak of 376 kilograms in 1986. In recent decades, as the
growth in grain production has matched population growth, per
capita production has hovered around 350 kilograms.
China, India, and the United States alone account for 46
percent of global grain production; Europe, including the former
Soviet states, grows another 21 percent.
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48
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Fossil Fuels



World coal consumption reached a record
3,090 million tons of oil equivalent
(Mtoe) in 2006
Global oil consumption reached 3.9 billion
tons in 2006.
Global passenger car production in 2007
rose to 52.1 million units from 49.1 million
the previous year. In addition, production
of "light trucks" ran to 18.9 million, up from
17.9 million in 2006, for a combined total
of 74.1 million.
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50
Global vehicle Production 2007

Global passenger car production in 2007 rose to 52.1
million units from 49.1 million the previous year. In
addition, production of "light trucks" ran to 18.9 million,
up from 17.9 million in 2006, for a combined total of 74.1
million. Global Insight projects 2008 total production to
reach 75.8 million. Including unused production capacity,
the world's auto companies are capable of churning out
some 84 million vehicles per year.
PricewaterhouseCoopers projects that by 2015 worldwide
capacity to grow to 97 million units. The world's fleet of
passenger vehicles is now an estimated 622 million, up
from 500 million in 2000 and a mere 53 million in 1950.
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Societies
• First Wave Agrarian
• Second wave –
Industrial
• Third wave –
Post Industrial,
Knowledge based
(Alvin Toffler- Third Wave)
• Almost all countries are multi-wave
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Transition from Agrarian to Industrial to
post-industrial knowledge economy
Technology
Economy
Society
Stone, bone tools
Primitive
communist
Hunters&
gatherers
Primitive
communist
Hoe, metal tools
Rural –
community
basedagrarian/artisa
n/handicrafts
Urban city
based
industrial
Rural –
community
based
Kings
(absolutism)
Joint
(family,
clan, tribe)
Urban city
based
democracy
(Liberal,
social)
nuclear
Machines
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Pol. System
Family
Joint
(family,
clan)
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Population, total births, and years lived
(10,000BC-1990)
Demograp
hic Index
10,000BC
0
1750
1950
1990
Population 6
(million)
252
771
2530
5292
Annual
0.008
growth (%)
--------------Doubling
8369
time
(years)
0.037
0.064
0.596
1.845
1854
1083
116
38
Births
(billions)
33.6
22.64
10.42
4.79
22
27
35
55
9.29
Life
20
Expectancy
Newly Industrializing Countries





South Korea ,Taiwan, Singapore, Hong-Kong
Transition Economies (Former COMECON member
countries)
Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Baltic Sates
(Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Balkan States (Bulgaria,
Rumania,
Former Yugoslavia: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia,
Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro
Former USSR states: Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova,
Caucasus States (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan), CAS
(Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan),
Mongolia
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Developing World

Latin America: – Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay,
Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Surinam,
Bolivia,Venezuala, Mexico, Central American
Countries (Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Caribbean Countries (Cuba,
Haiti, Jamaica, Barbados, Grenada)

Colonized by Spanish & Portuguese (1492
onwards) later joined by Dutch, British and French in
late 16th C. Region gained independence in 1820s,
some parts later in late 19th and early 20th Century;
Bolivarian Revolution (mid 19th C, Jose Marti early 20th C)
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The Contours of World
Development
• One could say that most human beings in practically
every corner of the world led nasty, brutish, and
short lives, at least until the last quarter of the
nineteenth century. Only then did people in some
of the western European countries and in the
United State and Canada forge ahead of people in
other continents.
• A K Bagchi ( Perilous Passage: Mankind and the Global
Ascendancy of Capital, OUP, 2005
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The Contours of World Development
Over the past millennium, world population rose 22-fold.
Per capita income increased 13-fold, world GDP nearly
300-fold. This contrasts sharply with the preceding
millennium, when world population grew by only a sixth,
and there was no advance in per capita income. From
the year 1000 to 1820 the advance in per capita income
was a slow crawl- the world average rose about 50 per
cent. Most of the growth went to accommodate a fourfo!d increase in population.
Since 1820, world development has been much more
dynamic. Per capita income rose more than eightfold,
population more than fivefold.
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Per capita income growth is not the only
indicator of welfare. Over the long run,
there has been a dramatic increase in life
expectation. In the year 1000, the average
infant could expect to live about 24 years. A
third would die in the first year of life,
hunger and epidemic disease would ravage
the survivors. There was an almost
imperceptible rise up to 1820, mainly in
Western Europe. Most of the improvement
has occurred since then.
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Population, Income,& HDI
Country
Population
(million) 2007
GNI, $ Trillion GNI/ Capita
(ppp) 2007
$ (ppp) 2007
HDI 2006
(Rank)
China
1320
7.083
5,370
0.762,(94)
India
1123
3.078
2,740
0.609,(132)
Pakistan
162
0.417
2,570
0.562,(139)
Japan
128
4.420
34,600
0.956, (8)
USA
302
11.8
40100
0.950 (15)
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Composition of GDP and R&D/GDP ratio for selected countries, by sector: 2006 or
most recent year
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How the Present World Came About
 In 1913, 83% of the globe was
under the colonial control.

Dominant Power: Britain
Rising powers: Germany,
USA, Japan

The 1917 Russian Revolution:
First challenge to Capitalism
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63
th
18
•
•
•
•
Century :Turning Point - Birth of the Modern
Industrial Revolution 1760s
New Source of Energy- mineral coal
New Technology- Steam Engine, Spinning jenny,
New material-steel
• New way of thinking- Rationalism, Empiricism, Pragmatism
• Colonization of the old world: East India Company
starts its colonization drive in South Asia, takes over
Bengal in 1757
• Trading companies from Holland, France, Spain & Portugal
• USA declares independence 1783, French
Revolution 1789- Rights, Citizen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
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th
19
Century
• The Industrial Revolution and its spread to Europe
and North America
• Rise of the nation State (Germany, Italy)
• Decline of the Ottoman Empire
• Rise of New Sciences & Social Sciences
• New Technologies: steam engine, steel, wireless,
telegraph, telephone, internal combustion engine,
electricity, electrical, chemical and automotive
industries
• The First wave of globalization: scramble for
colonies (1870-1913)
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Rise of the Bourgeoisie
• Social Transformation of Europe and North
America,
• Nation states (Germany, Italy )
• Spread of Representative Governments
• Two models of capitalist development: Statist
(France, Germany and most Western Europe);
Anglo-Saxon (UK & USA) Minimum state
intervention in economy
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Rise of the Capitalist Powers
& The Evolution of the Developmental State
• Merchant Capital
• Venice + Genoa=16th C
• Holland – 17th – 18th Century
• Industrial Capital
• 19th Century -Britain later joined by France, Germany, USA
• 20th Century- USSR, Japan
• Mid-20th C – China, Korea, Singapore
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The World At Present
To critique the dominant economic system of the
twentieth century would seem a fool’s errand, given the
unprecedented comfort, convenience, and opportunity
delivered by the world economy over the past 100 years.
Global economic output surged some 18-fold between
1900 and 2000 (and reached $66 trillion in 2006). Life
expectancy leaped ahead—in the United States, from 47
to nearly 76 years—as killer diseases such as
pneumonia and tuberculosis were largely tamed. And
labor-saving machines from tractors to backhoes
virtually eliminated toil in wealthy countries, while cars,
aircraft, computers, and cell phones opened up
stimulating work and lifestyle options. The wonders of
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the
system appear self-evident.
Problems
Yet for all its successes, other signals suggest
that the conventional economic system is in
serious trouble and in need of transformation.
Consider the following side effects of modern
economic activity that made headlines in the past
18 months:
• Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are at their
highest level in 650,000 years, the average
temperature of Earth is “heading for levels not
experienced for millions of years,” and the Arctic
Ocean could be ice free during the summer as
early as 2020.
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Head Lines continue---
• Nearly one in six species of European mammals is
threatened with extinction, and all currently fished marine
species could collapse by 2050.
• The number of oxygen-depleted dead zones in the world’s
oceans has increased from 149 to 200 in the past two years,
threatening fish stocks.
• Urban air pollution causes 2 million premature deaths each
year, mostly in developing countries.
• The decline of bees, bats, and other vital pollinators across
North America is jeopardizing agricultural crops and
ecosystems.
• The notion of an approaching peak in the world’s production
of oil, the most important primary source of energy, has gone
from an alarming speculation to essentially conventional
wisdom; the mainstream World Energy Council recently
predicted
that the peak would arrive within 15 years.
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Consequences
These and other environmental consequences of the push for
economic growth threaten the stability of the global economy. Add
to this list the social impacts of modern economic life—2.5 billion
people living on $2 a day or less and, among the wealthy, the
rapid advance of obesity and related diseases— and the need to
rethink the purpose and functioning of modern economies is clear.
World Economic Forum found that many of the 23 diverse risks
were nonexistent at the global level a quarter-century ago. These
include environmental risks such as climate change and the strain
on freshwater supplies; social risks, including the spread of new
infectious diseases in developing countries and chronic diseases
in industrial nations; and risks associated with innovations like
nanotechnology. Beyond being new and serious, what is most
striking is that half of the 23 are economic in nature or driven by
the activities of modern economies. In other words, national
economies,
and the global economy of which they are a part, are
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becoming their own worst enemies.
An Outdated Economic Blueprint
The world is very different, physically and philosophically, from the
one that Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and other early economists
knew—different in ways that make key features of conventional
economics dysfunctional for the twenty-first century. Humanity’s
relationship to the natural world, the understanding of the
sources of wealth and the purpose of economies, and the
evolution of markets, governments, and individuals as economic
actors—all these dimensions of economic activity have changed
so much over the last 200 years that they signal the close of one
economic era and the need for a new economic beginning. In
Smith and Ricardo’s time, nature was perceived as a huge and
seemingly inexhaustible resource: global population was
roughly 1 billion—one seventh the size of today’s—and extractive and
production technologies were far less powerful and environmentally invasive. A
society’s environmental impact was relatively small and
local, and resources like oceans, forests, and the
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atmosphere
appeared to be essentially infinite.
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At the same time, humanity’s perception of
itself was changing, at least in the West. The
discoveries of Enlightenment-era scientists
suggested that the universe operated
according to an unchanging set of physical
laws whose unmasking could help humans
understand and take control of the physical
world. After eons of helpless suffering from
the effects of plagues, famines, storms, and
other wildcards of nature, this growing sense
of human prowess—along with a seemingly
inexhaustible resource endowment—encouraged
the conviction that humanity’s story could now be
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written
largely independent of nature.
Continue-------
This radically new worldview became entrenched
within economics, and even late in the twentieth
century most economic textbooks gave little
attention to nature’s capacity to absorb wastes or to
the valuable economic role of “nature’s services”—
natural functions from crop pollination to climate
regulation. But the assumed independence of
economic activity from nature, always illusory, is
simply no longer credible. Global population has
expanded more than six-fold since1800 and the
gross world product more than 58-fold since 1820
(the first year for which nineteenth-century data are available). As a
result, humanity’s impact on the planet—its
“ecological footprint”—exceeds Earth’s capacity to
support the human race sustainably, according to
the Global Footprint Network.
URBANIZTION




Half World's People to Live in Cities by 2007 - UN
UNITED NATIONS - Half the world's population will
live in cities in two years, a huge jump from the 30
percent residing in urban areas in 1950, UN
demographers reported.
Some 3.2 billion of the world's 6.5 billion people live in
cities today, and the number will climb to 5 billion -- an
estimated 61 percent of the global population -- by
2030, the UN Commission on Population and
Development said in a report.
The number of very large urban areas was also rising,
the commission said. Twenty cities now have 10
million or more inhabitants, compared with just four -Tokyo, New York-Newark, Shanghai and Mexico City
in 1975 and just two -- New York-Newark and Tokyo in 1950.
Urbanization-II


Five biggest cities today in population are
Tokyo (35.3 million), Mexico City (19.2
million), New York-Newark (18.5 million),
Bombay (18.3 million) and Sao Paulo
(18.3 million).
The next 15 largest are Delhi, Calcutta,
Buenos Aires, Jakarta, Shanghai, Dhaka,
Los Angeles, Karachi, Rio de Janeiro,
Osaka-Kobe, Cairo, Lagos, Beijing,
metropolitan Manila and Moscow.
Production concentrates in big cities, leading provinces,
and wealthy nations. Half the world’s production fits onto
1.5 percent of its land. Cairo produces more than half of
Egypt’s GDP, using just 0.5 percent of its area. Brazil’s
three south-central states comprise 15 percent of
its land, but more than half its production. North
America, the European Union, and Japan—with
fewer than a billion people—account for threequarters of the world’s wealth.
But economic concentration leaves out some populations. In
Brazil, China, and India, for example, lagging states have poverty
rates more than twice those in dynamic states. More than twothirds of the developing world’s poor live in villages. A billion
people, living in the poorest and most isolated nations, mostly in
Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Central Asia, survive on less
than 2 percent of the world’s wealth.
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Foreword to WDR 2009 by Robert B. Zoellick, 6th Nov. 2008
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Urban sprawl

By 2015, the five largest cities will be Tokyo, with 36.2
million residents, Bombay with 22.6 million, Delhi with
20.9 million, Mexico City with 20.6 million and Sao
Paulo with 20 million.

Urban residence patterns vary depending on an area's
development status. About three-quarters of people in
more developed regions lived in cities, while just 43
percent lived in them in less developed areas.

Patterns also vary by region, with 75 percent of people
in Latin America and the Caribbean living in cities
compared with 40 percent of the people of Africa and
Asia. UN commission
Global Warming
In February 2008, two separate scientific research articles analyzed climate models
that included deep-sea warming, and reached the conclusion that carbon
dioxide emissions must fall to near zero by the mid
twenty-first century to prevent temperature
increases in the range of 7º Fahrenheit by 2100
(Schmittner et al., 2008; Matthews and Caldeira, 2008)
Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,
2007b), indicates that a reduction
of 50–85 per cent in carbon
emissions by 2050 is needed to limit the likelihood of
temperature increases in excess of 2ºC (3.6ºF), Also in the
spring of 2008, the Earth Policy Institute reported that “… global carbon dioxide
(CO2) emissions from the burning of fossil fuels stood at a record 8.38
gigatons of carbon (GtC) in 2006, 20 percent above the level in 2000.
Emissions grew 3.1 percent a year between 2000 and 2006, more than
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twice the rate of growth during the 1990s” (Moore, 2008).
Global Warming
• Global warming refers to the
increase in the average temperature
of the Earth's near-surface air and
oceans in recent decades and its
projected continuation.
• The global average air temperature
near the Earth's surface rose 0.74 ±
0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the
last 100 years.
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Global warming
• 12 of the past 13 years were the warmest since
records began;
• ocean temperatures have risen at least three
kilometers beneath the surface;
• glaciers, snow cover and permafrost have
decreased in both hemispheres;
• sea levels are rising at the rate of almost 2mm a
year;
• cold days, nights and frost have become rarer while
hot days, hot nights and heat waves have become
more frequent.
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Causes
• 'It is very likely that [man-made] greenhouse
gas increases caused most of the average
temperature increases since the mid-20th C
• ‘To date, these changes have caused global
temperatures to rise by 0.6oC. The most likely
outcome of continuing rises in greenhouses gases
will be to make the planet a further 3C hotter by
2100, although the report acknowledges that rises of 4.5C to 5C
could be experienced. Ice-cap melting, rises in sea levels,
flooding, cyclones and storms will be an inevitable
consequence. (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
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Consumption as a Way of Life
“Our
enormously productive economy…
demands that we make consumption a
way of life… We need things consumed,
burned up, worn out, replaced, and
discarded at an ever-increasing rate”
• U.S. marketing analyst Victor Lebow, in 1950
• Endless economic growth driven by
unbridled consumption has been elevated to
the state of a modern religion.
• (Edward Rothstein NYT)
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“Compulsive worship at the alter of
consumption has brought humanity
right to the edge of an environmental
abyss- depleting resources,
spreading dangerous pollutants,
undermining ecosystems, and
threatening to unhinge the
planet’s climate balance”
Michael Renner (State of the World, 2005,
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Ch. 5, p. 97)
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Brazil’s Consumer Class
• Much of Brazil’s explosive growth is being fueled by
an emerging lower middle class that has grown to
95.4 million people. As they snap up cars, cell
phones and new homes, this group is quickly
becoming a prime target for marketers. The group,
called the Clase C, earns between $600 and $2,600
a month and, through upward mobility in a growing
economy, has become Brazil’s largest consumer
group in a population of 192 million people.”
• Claudia Penteado in Advertising Age. June 14 2010
Industrial Society
• “what we consume depends on production
and is determined primarily by giant
corporations. He replaced the notion of
“consumer sovereignty” with “producer
sovereignty,” -----“wants are now shaped by
the advertising done by the producing firms
that supply the products or services.” John
Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin,
1958), chapters 10 and 11; Economics, Peace, and Laughter (New York: New
American Library, 1971), 60–87,
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Air Travel
• In 2008, the latest year with available data, the
traveling public flew 4.28 trillion passengerkilometers on airplanes, a 1.3 percent increase from
2007. The distance that passengers travel has
increased every year except 1991 and 2001 since
statistics were first recorded by the International
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in the 1940s. In
the past two decades, the number of passengerkilometers traveled more than doubled—from 1.7
trillion in 1988 to 4.3 trillion in 2008.
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Planned Obsolescence
• Disposable blades (Gillette- 1895)
• Time barred DVDs (W. Disney 2003)
Mass Consumption
“To produce more than was demanded and to
offer more than was needed”
• 12 % Rich account for 61.7 % of the World
Consumption
Material Requirement per person
USA-----80 tons
EU ----- 51 tons
Japan ---- 45 tons
“Compulsive worship at the alter of
consumption has brought humanity
right to the edge of an environmental
abyss- depleting resources,
spreading dangerous pollutants,
undermining ecosystems, and
threatening to unhinge the
planet’s climate balance” Michael
Renner (State of the World, Ch. 5, p. 97)
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Municipal Solid Waste in USA
Total Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in
2006 was 251 million tons. Organic materials
continue to be the largest component of MSW.
Paper and paperboard products account for 34
percent, with yard trimmings and food scraps
accounting for 25 percent. Plastics comprise 12
percent; metals make up 8 percent; and rubber,
leather, and textiles account for 7 percent. Wood
follows at 6 percent, and glass at 5 percent. Other
miscellaneous wastes made up approximately 3
percent of the MSW generated in 2006.
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Growth of Cities
• Chicago School: Ecological system: competing
groups fighting for space.
• Harvey & Castells: Response to the requirements
of the development of industrial Capitalism.
• Cities in colonial and post-colonial societies:
Centers of colonial authority and entrepots for
extraction of surplus from the colonies:
exports/imports( Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Karachi
Layalpur, Montgomry as market towns in South
Asia,; centers of education and civil & military
administration (Rawalpindi, Lahore, Karachi )
Personality Types
• Tonnies: Loss of solidarity
• Wirth: impersonality and social distance
• In colonies: Babu, coolie, colonial culture typeEuropean languages, dress and style
• Presently: Life style promoted by media- Global
corporation promoted life style products- colas and
burgers, jeans, mobile phones, HDTVs, MTV,
Holywood/Bollywood movies
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