Infancy and childhood
Adolescence
Adulthood and old age

Specialized study of the changes that
occur as an individual matures.
Physical
Perceptual
Language
Cognitive
Emotional
Social
Moral
Sexual
Identity
Diving reflex
• Maturation: internally programmed
growth, maturational readiness
• Learning: experience  permanent
behavior change
How do we know what infants perceive?
•
•
•
•
Head turns toward stimulus
Eyes fixate
Sucking rate increases
Agitation
Robert Fantz studied visual preferences
Visual cliff illustrates development of
depth perception around 6 months
• Language and thought intertwined,
symbols
• Vocabulary vs grammar (chimps can
learn signs: Washoe learned 160 by age
5, but no grammar)
• Babies who learn sign language
communicate earlier (view “Baby Signs”)
• Is there a Critical Period for language
acquisition? Consider the case of
“Genie”. (view “Wild Child”)
Section Quiz 3-1

According to Jean Piaget:
◦ Intelligence grows as children grow
◦ Cognitive development has distinct stages:
Complete Graphic Organizer 3
• Need representational thought / schema before
object permanence: object exists even if unseen
• Assimilation: fitting new ideas into existing schema
• Accomodation: changing schema to incorporate
new ideas
• Egocentric thinking: everyone knows what I know
• Conservation: amount doesn’t change just because
appearance / shape changes
• Multiple mothers, mirrors, hide & seek, imaginary
playmates: evidence of changing thinking ability
Konrad
Lorenz

Imprinting: immediate bond between
mother and offspring
Contact Comfort is critical to survival
Harry
Harlow
View video clip



Strange Situation technique to
assess attachment
Separation Anxiety aka “making
strange”
Attachment disorder (view
“Dylan”)
Section Quiz 3-2
Application activity 3 “Parenting
styles”
Authoritative aka
Democratic
Permissive aka
Laissez faire
Diana
Baumrind




Socialization = learning the rules of behavior
of your culture
Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychosexual
development
Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial
development
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral
development

Albert Bandura’s social learning theory
◦ View video: Bobo doll experiment
Section Quiz 3-3
• Asynchrony: uneven growth
• Theories of adolescence:
• Initiation rites
• Storm and stress (Hall)
• Cultural (Mead)
• Developmental tasks (Havighurst):
• Accept body & acquire masculine or feminine gender
role
• Develop appropriate relations with peers of both sexes
• Become emotionally independent of parents / adults
• Expect financial independence
• Choose, prepare for and enter a vocation
• Develop cognitive skills & concepts -> social
competence
• Understand and achieve socially responsible behavior
• Prepare for marriage and family
• Acquire appropriate values
• Puberty = Sexual maturation (end of
childhood)
• Menarche = first menstrual period
• Spermarche = first ejaculation
• Issues
• What do you think?
• Sexual awareness, role of family,
religion, government, teen
pregnancy, STDs and AIDS
• Early/late maturing
Section Quiz 4-1



Abstract / hypothetical: formal operations
Rationalizations: protect self-esteem from
emotions
Adolescent problems due to immature and
abstract thinking (Elkind):
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Finding fault with authority
Argumentativeness
Indecisiveness
Apparent hypocrisy
Self-consciousness
Invulnerability
Complete graphic organizer 4


Identity crisis (Erikson) – stage 5: identity vs
role confusion (Who am I?)
Identity categories (Marcia):
◦
◦
◦
◦
Moratorium (considering but no decision)
Foreclosure (decision but not their own)
Confused (not considering and no decision)
Achievement (considered and decided)
Complete graphic organizer 4
Section Quiz 4-2


Cliques & conformity
Issues:
◦ Depression (triggered by breakdown of family unit or loss
of loved ones, express anger vs sadness on adults)
◦ Delinquency (running away from home, teen pregnancy,
alcohol/drug abuse, underachievement at school)
◦ Suicide (tripled in past 50 years, troubled teens don’t
simply “outgrow problems, warning signs, hotlines)
◦ Eating disorders:
 Anorexia (desire for control) (encourage weight gain & address
psychological problems)
 Bulimia (alienation, desire for social approval) (therapy &
antidepressant drugs)
Section Quiz 4-3

Application activity 4 “Gender Role
Characteristics”
Identity = physical & biological makeup
Role influenced by gender identity, society, and
culture
LGBTTS
Differences (aggression – women indirect, cognitive

Androgyny (Bem)




ability – women hedge, math and verbal the same but
men more confident), stereotypes (overgeneralized)

Theories:
◦ Biological (anatomy, hormones, brain, evolution)
◦ Psychoanalytic (identification)
◦ Social learning (observation & imitation of models)
◦ Cognitive-development (learning from
experience, development of gender schema)
Section Quiz 4-4
•
Marriage (90% marry, 40-60% divorce, happy
•
Levinson’s theory of male development
•
•
couples argue constructively)
(early adult transition, age 30 crisis, settling
down, midlife transition 40-45, middle
adulthood)
Women’s issues (climacteric = physical and
psychological changes, menopause, “empty
nest syndrome”, depression)
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial
development (stage 7: generativity vs
stagnation corresponds with midlife transition)
Section Quiz 5-1
•
•
•
•
Ageism: prejudice / discrimination
against elderly (Application activity 5)
Good health in youth -> old age
Masters & Johnson (ok to keep having sex)
Chronic diseases of elderly: heart disease,
hypertension, diabetes, arthritis
Complete Graphic Organizer 5
•
Decremental model of aging: progressive
•
•
Decline in nervous system responsible
Intelligence:
• Crystalized: use accumulated knowledge
• Fluid: solve problems and generate new ideas
Senile dementia (memory loss,
•
•
physical and mental decline inevitable
forgetfulness, disorientation, altered
personality, impaired attention)
Alzheimer’s disease (most common
dementia, neurological disease, destroys ability
to think, remember, relate to others, care for
self)
Complete Graphic Organizer 5
Section Quiz 5-2
•
•
•
Thanatology = study of dying and death
Kubler-Ross’s Stages of psychological
acceptance of death and dying:
(denial, anger, bargaining, depression,
acceptance)
Dying with dignity:
• Hospice = facility to care for special needs
• Assisted suicide (controversial)
Section Quiz 5-3
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Unit 1: Approaches to Psychology