ESL Scope and Scales
Professional Development
Module 6
Increasing complexity across the Scales
DECS Language & Multicultural Education Portfolio
Context and Language
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Field continuum
everyday fields………...specialised fields……...…highly technical fields
Tenor
Tenor continuum
equal status ……………………….…………….. great difference in status
familiar …….…………..…………………………...……………..very distant
great deal of emotional expression………….…little emotional expression
Mode
Mode continuum
most spoken……………………………….…………….....… most written
Context and Language
Language
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Tenor
Situational Context
Tenor
Field
Mode
Field
Mode
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Language
•broader strand
•more specific strand
•range of contexts
•resources in the
English language
Situational Context
Field
•range of texts
•non-verbal elements
Tenor
•academic and social
environment where
Standard Australian
English is used.
Mode
•language strategies
•language strategies
•expresses the Text in
Context strand.
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Language
•range of genres
•purposes
•structure
•range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure
•cohesion
language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Genre: Text in Context
Range of genres:
story:
narrative, personal recount, observation, description
factual:
information report, practical report, explanation,
argument, discussion, procedure
response:
personal response, review, interpretation, critical
response
macro-genres:
texts with one or more genres
multi-modal texts: multiple mediums of communication
Genre: Text in Context
Scales: genres
Scale 4: a limited range of texts
Jointly constructs very basic procedures, reports and descriptions
based on texts found in advertising, and on packaging.
Scale 6: a small range of contexts, constructing brief texts
Jointly constructs short oral and written texts and begins to
independently construct very brief examples of the elementary genres,
such as recounts, narratives, procedures, arguments.
Genre: Text in Context
Scales: text type
Scale 8: wide range of social situations and narrow range
of educational genres
Constructs oral and written recounts, short oral and written narratives,
summaries and arguments.
Scale 10: wide range of social situations and a range of
factual and literary genres
Constructs longer increasingly complex examples of factual genres,
longer arguments and biographical recounts, writes explanations,
constructs multi-modal texts.
Genre: Text in Context
Purpose and structure of genres:
Recount:
purpose: to record chronologically a series of past personal events in
order to entertain, and to form and build on relationships
structure: orientation, sequence of events, re-orientation
Argument:
purpose: to present arguments on an issue in order to persuade
the audience to agree or take some action.
structure: introduction, series of arguments, conclusion
Genre: Text in Context
Scales: purpose and structure
Scale 4:
Demonstrates for several basic genres, the understanding that they
have different purposes
Scale 6:
Begins to reflect on the purposes, the appropriate structure and
common features of a small range of elementary genres.
Genre: Text in Context
Scales: purpose and structure
Scale 8:
Reflects, with support, on the purposes, the appropriate structure and
common features of elementary genres
Scale 10:
Demonstrates an understanding of the link between the purposes of a
range of factual genres, their structure and major language features
Scale 12:
Reflects with some confidence on the purpose, structure and major
language features of a wide range of genres including more complex
examples of taxonomic reports
Genre: Text in Context
Structure of a taxonomic report:
Classification/ definition
A seed is the small body produced by plants from which a new
plant seed grows. It consists of an embryo, endosperm and testa.
Definition / description 1
The embryo is the part of the seed that grows into a new plant. It
has three main parts: the seed leaves or cotyledons, which are the
beginning of leaves; the plumule, which becomes the main stem;
and the radicle, which becomes the root. Plants whose seeds have
only one cotyledon are called monocots, and the plants whose
seeds have two cotyledons are called dicots.
Definition / description 2
The endosperm contains a supply of stored food for the embryo. In
dicot seeds, the cotyledons also do this.
Definition / description 3
The testa, or seed coat, is the outer layer of the seed. It is usually
thick and hard so that it protects the embryo and prevents the seed
from dying out. On the testa there is scar, called the hilum, where
the seed was attached to the ovary.
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
•the range of genres
•purposes
•structure
Language
language choices •structure texts
•expand sentences
•build cohesion
language choices •structure texts
•build cohesion
•expand sentences
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Field
Genre: Language
Structure:
verbs, conjunctions, phrases, noun groups, abstractions,
dependent clauses, rhetorical questions
verbs -Take, Put
conjunctions - Firstly, Then
phrase - Because of the rain,
noun group - One argument, Another reason, The day after we arrived
The main factor that needs to be considered,
abstract noun group (nominalisation) - Pollution
rhetorical question - What can be done?
Genre: Language
Structure:
•procedure: verbs -Take, Put
•recount:
conjunctions - Firstly, Then
phrase - Because of the rain
noun group - The day after we arrived
•argument: conjunction - Firstly,
noun group - One argument, Another reason,
The main factor that needs to be considered
rhetorical question - What can be done?
• report:
abstract noun group (nominalisation) - Pollution
Genre: Language
Scales: structure
Scale 4
•identifying most prominent discriminating features of the basic genre:
- action verbs at the front of sentences in procedures
- topic at the front of sentences in a report
Scale 6
•identifies a small range and uses a limited range of significant
language features that organise a text
- foregrounds phrases of time and place in recounts and narratives
- uses subheadings in a report
- uses conjunctions that organise texts: First, Then
Genre: Language
Scales: structure
Scale 8
- phrases of time and place in recounts
- subheadings in a report
- a new line to mark a change of speaker in a dialogue
- simple conjunctions of time to connect actions in spoken procedures: First,
Then, After that
Scale 12
- a range of phrases and dependent clauses foregrounded in a range of
genres
- wider range of alternatives to conjunctions to organise formal oral and
written texts: The main factor instead of Firstly
- rhetorical questions in an argument: And what is the main factor in global warning?
Genre : Language
Expansion:
linking conjunctions: and, but, so
The man went home and the woman went to the shop.
binding conjunctions: however, because
The woman went to the shop because she needed supplies.
relative clauses: with which, who, that
The Suez Canal, which was completed in 1869, was designed by..
projection: that
Scientists believe that the ozone layer….
non-finite clauses
Scientists, believing that the hole in the ozone layer is increasing, have
recommended
Genre: Language
Scales: expansion
Scale 4
linking conjunctions: and, but
Scale 6
linking conjunctions: then, but, or, so, and
binding conjunctions: because, when, before, after
Scale 8
binding conjunctions: because, if, since, when
begins to use relative pronouns: “Zagreb, which is the capital of Croatia, is near ..”
Genre: Language
Scales: expansion
Scale 10
wider range of binding conjunctions: whenever, if, since
relative pronouns with greater accuracy: “Zagreb, which is the capital of Croatia,
has a population over half a million.”
Scale 12
range of binding conjunctions confidently and accurately: whenever, if, though
relative clauses confidently and accurately: “Without enough memory, the computer
can crash, which is always frustrating”
Genre : Language
Cohesion:
reference items
•pronouns: I, he, she, they, my, her
•definite article: the
“… My dog, a 20-month old red kelpie bitch that answers to Jac, snapped her lead on
Monday when startled by a truck. The dog headed west across …”
The Australian 29/05/02
p.13
textual reference items
“…But there are two fatal flaws: it would drive the budget into deficit and it would help
the rich more than the poor. These assertions are …” The Australian 29/05/02 p.15
Genre: Language
Cohesion:
conjunctions: Later, However, Therefore
I agree with the concept. However I do not agree that…
sets of words:




repetition
synonyms and antonyms
composition: seed, seed coat, kernel
classification: food - meat, fruit, vegetables
collocation: The residents have made a complaint.
Genre: Language
Scales: cohesion
Scale 4
- possessive pronouns: my, your, his, her
- third person pronouns: it, he, she, him, her
- demonstrative pronouns: here, there
Scale 6
- uses reference items in short written texts: We mixed some flour and water.
Then we added some salt to the mixture.
Genre: Language
Scales: cohesion
Scale 10
-uses a wider range of conjunctions to join sentences or paragraphs:
Therefore , However, As a result
-uses reference items that can refer to large segments of text: These patterns
are also
-chooses a wider range of vocabulary patterns:
 small sets of synonyms and antonyms
 composition (whole - part): digestive system: mouth, liver, stomach
 classification (eg kinds of whales): baleen whales, toothed whales,
humpback whales
Genre: Language
A seed is the small body produced by plants from which a new plant
seed grows. It consists of an embryo, endosperm and testa.
The embryo is the part of the seed that grows into a new plant. It has
three main parts: the seed leaves or cotyledons, which are the beginning
of leaves; the plumule, which becomes the main stem; and the radicle,
which becomes the root. Plants whose seeds have only one cotyledon
are called monocots, and the plants whose seeds have two cotyledons
are called dicots.
The endosperm contains a supply of stored food for the embryo. In dicot
seeds, the cotyledons also do this.
The testa, or seed coat, is the outer layer of the seed. It is usually thick
and hard so that it protects the embryo and prevents the seed from dying
out. On the testa there is scar, called the hilum, where the seed was
attached to the ovary.
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•informational
element
•everyday to highly
technical
language choices •structure texts
•expand sentences
•build cohesion
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Field: Text in Context
Field continuum
everyday fields………......specialised fields……….....…highly technical fields
playing a game.……... games in other …………...…. the importance of
countries
games to society
growing flowers…………the parts of a flower………... how they reproduce
and grow
Field: Text in Context
Scales: technicality
Scale 4: isolated examples of technical vocabulary
understanding of technical vocabulary constructing a very narrow range of
educational topics, such as science equipment, physical geography
Scale 6: a narrow range of technical vocabulary
begins to use a limited range of technical vocabulary constructing a
small range of educational fields, such as physical geography and civics
Field: Text in Context
Scales: technicality
Scale 8: tentative control of a small range of technical fields
a tentative control of vocabulary beyond immediate personal and school
experiences
Scale 10: greater control of technical fields
a wider range of vocabulary when required to maintain a consistent
level of technicality but still expressed clumsily at times
Field: Text in Context
Text in
Contextbeyond
personal and
school
experience
technical field
A seed is the small body produced by plants from which a new
plant seed grows. It consists of an embryo, endosperm and
testa.
The embryo is the part of the seed that grows into a new plant. It
has three main parts: the seed leaves or cotyledons, which are
the beginning of leaves; the plumule, which becomes the main
stem; and the radicle, which becomes the root. Plants whose
seeds have only one cotyledon are called monocots, and the
plants whose seeds have two cotyledons are called dicots.
The endosperm contains a supply of stored food for the embryo.
In docot seeds, the cotyledons also do this.
The testa, or seed coat, is the outer layer of the seed. It is
usually thick and hard so that it protects the embryo and
prevents the seed from dying out. On the testa there is scar,
called the hilum, where the seed was attached to the ovary.
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•verbs
•noun groups
•informational element
•everyday to technical•nominalisations
vocabulary
•circumstances
•topic specific
vocabulary
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Field: Language
Verbs:
•action - relate actions, happenings and behaviour eg: read, grow, laugh
•mental - indicate thoughts and perceptions eg: think, believe, need
•verbal - indicate the spoken words eg:
ask, tell, shout
•relational - indicate
•attributes: She has blonde hair. He became angry.
•possession: She has 3 books.
•identity: He is Australian. He became an Australian.
•existence: There are many people.
It is clear.
Field: Language
Scales: verbs
Scale 6
small range of vocabulary expressing:
- actions: rode
- feelings and attitudes: I think
Scale 8
verbs expressing mental processes: know, believe
Scale 10
verbs expressing action processes: strolled, strode, limped
Scale 12
verbs expressing action processes: peered, scanned, scoured
Field: Language
Noun groups:
the man
the old man
the tall old man with the hat
the tall old man who was walking down the street
a table
two tables
most of the table
a glass-topped kitchen table placed in the room
Field: Language
Noun groups:
number:
two tables
most of the table
describers:
the tall
a glass-topped table
classifier:
a glass-topped
old man
kitchen table
qualifier - prepositional phrase:
the tall old man
with the hat
qualifier – dependent clause:
the man who was walking down the street
a table placed in the room
Field: Language
Scales: noun groups
Scale 4
numbers: eight, four or five, ten percent
describers: pretty, very pretty, good-looking
classifiers: gas, electric, oil heater
prepositions: on the box, under the box, in the box
Scale 6
numbers: a quarter of
describers: big, beautiful
classifiers: state, federal government
short prepositional phrases as qualifiers: “The man in the shop was …”
Field: Language
Scales: noun groups
Scale 10
describers: the biggest, most colourful centre
classifiers: the biggest, most colourful shopping centre
more complex qualifiers: “It is the biggest, most colourful shopping centre
located in the city”
Scale 12
describers: the most important and exciting discoveries
classifiers: the most important and exciting medical discoveries
qualifiers: “One of the most important and exciting medical discoveries in recent
times is …”
Field: Language
Nominalisations:
•to walk - exercise
Moderate exercise is good for you.
•be safe - safety
We worried about her physical safety.
•happily - happiness
With great happiness, she said “I do”.
•beautiful - beauty
Everyone could see how beautiful she was.
Her beauty was clear to everyone.
Field: Language
Scales: nominalisations
Scale 6
Understands a range of nominalisations and uses a limited range
understands: movement, your turn, a good chance
uses: “What’s your height?”, a lot of happiness, education
Scale 8
Understands a range of nominalisations and uses small range
understands: possibility, allowance
uses with varying degrees of accuracy: permission, ability
Field: Language
Scales: nominalisations
Scale 10
Uses a small range of technical nominalisations (ie words that have
been formed by changing verbs, adjectives or conjunctions into
nouns) with varying degrees of grammatical accuracy: evaporation,
expansion
Scale 12
Uses a range of increasingly abstract and technical nominalisations
with increasing confidence: growth, risk, capability
Field: Language
Circumstances:
manner: with the touch of a feather, carefully
time: at the age if nine, after the weekend
place: behind the door, in the centre of the city
reason: because of the rain, as a result of the war
accompaniment: by ourselves, alone
prepositional phrase: with the touch of a feather,
causal phrase: because of the rain
adverb: alone, carefully
comparison: like a rag doll
Field: Language
Scales: circumstances
Scale 4
uses very basic phrases of location: under the table, out of the box, at 9 o’clock
Scale 6
phrases giving circumstances of the events: slowly, up to the fence
Scale 8
phrases expressing manner of an action: carefully, with a bang
Scale 10
phrases expressing manner of an action: like a rag doll
Field: Language
Topic specific / technical vocabulary:
•participants
•noun groups eg: the magistrate, the suffragette movement,
we taught our students
•attributes eg: she was famous
•verbs eg: injected, rallied
•circumstances eg: due to the drought, with the aid of a microscope
Field: Language
Scales: topic specific / technical vocabulary
Scale 6
uses a range of technical vocabulary: measure, chance
Scale 8
uses a range of common nominalisations: consume, diet
Scale 10
uses a small range of technical nominalisations: evaporation, expansion
Scale 12
constructs technical fields using
•verbs expressing action processes: digest
•noun groups: riboflavin
•phrases expressing the cause of an action: because of the high sugar levels
Field: Language
A seed is the small body produced by plants from which a new plant seed
grows. It consists of an embryo, endosperm and testa.
The embryo is the part of the seed that grows into a new plant. It has three
main parts: the seed leaves or cotyledons, which are the beginning of
leaves; the plumule, which becomes the main stem; and the radicle, which
becomes the root. Plants whose seeds have only one cotyledon are called
monocots, and the plants whose seeds have two cotyledons are called
dicots.
The endosperm contains a supply of stored food for the embryo. In dicot
seeds, the cotyledons also do this.
The testa, or seed coat, is the outer layer of the seed. It is usually thick and
hard so that it protects the embryo and prevents the seed from dying out.
On the testa there is scar, called the hilum, where the seed was attached to
the ovary.
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•interpersonal element
•familiar to formal
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Tenor: Text in Context
Scales: familiarity - formality
Scale 4: participates appropriately in a limited range of
familiar, highly supportive contexts
Scale 6: participates appropriately in a narrow range of
familiar, supportive contexts
Scale 8: begins to participate appropriately in a narrow
range of more formal contexts
Scale 10: confidently constructs texts in a range of contexts,
particularly familiar, is developing control in a range of more
formal contexts
Tenor: Text in Context
Tenor continuum
equal status ……………….………….…………….. great difference in status
not distant …….…………..…………………………...……………..very distant
great deal of emotional expression……….…….…little emotional expression
recounting a terrible evening to a friend ……..…. a report for official records
Tenor: Text in Context
Text in Contextdistance: the author is not
familiar with nor has contact
with, the audience
emotion: not emotional
status: differential in status
between audience and writer,
writer is positioning
him/herself as an expert
A seed is the small body produced by plants from which a
new plant seed grows. It consists of an embryo, endosperm
and testa.
The embryo is the part of the seed that grows into a new
plant. It has three main parts: the seed leaves or cotyledons,
which are the beginning of leaves; the plumule, which
becomes the main stem; and the radicle, which becomes the
root. Plants whose seeds have only one cotyledon are called
monocots, and the plants whose seeds have two cotyledons
are called dicots.
The endosperm contains a supply of stored food for the
embryo. In dicot seeds, the cotyledons also do this.
The testa, or seed coat, is the outer layer of the seed. It is
usually thick and hard so that it protects the embryo and
prevents the seed from dying out. On the testa there is scar,
called the hilum, where the seed was attached to the ovary.
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•modality
•appraisal
•interpersonal
element
•formality, familiarity and
attitude •speech functions
•idioms
•non-verbal elements
•non-verbal elements
•speech functions
•modality
•attitudinal lexis
•idioms
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Tenor: Language
Modality: information
low possibility …………………………………….high certainty
maybe, might ….probably … Loggers think….The belief is .. We will
low usuality…………………………………………………high usuality
tend to…..for the most part…………. quite common……… always
auxillaries: might
adverbs: probably, always
verbs: tend to, think
noun groups: belief
adjectives: common
Tenor: Language
Modality: goods and services
low obligation…….……………………….………………….high obligation
please, could…might consider……………….……. must, compelled, compulsion
low inclination…………………………………………………high inclination
might…………………possibly……………………………………… willing, intention
auxillaries: could, must
adverbs: please
verbs: tend to
adjectives: willing
noun groups: intention
Tenor: Language
Scales: modality
Scale 6
chooses with some accuracy the most elementary: might, must; maybe;
I think, I know
Scale 8
Uses simple forms of language expressing modality with varying
degrees of accuracy: should, could; just, only
Scale 12
combines language elements: “Perhaps we might be able to..”
Tenor: Language
Appraisal: attitude, engagement
adjectives: fat, fantastic
adverbs: fortunately, luckily
noun groups: courage
verbs: tend to
metaphor: like a snail
words from other languages: chic
Tenor: Language
Scales: appraisal
Scale 4
Uses a narrow range of evaluative language to express feelings and
attitude: She’s nice
Scale 6
uses a range of evaluative language to express feelings and attitude:
It’s beautiful
Scale 8
uses a range of evaluative language to express feelings and attitude:
It was the best
Tenor: Language
Vocatives
familiar…………………………………………………..….unfamiliar
my love.. dear… Jane ……….…mate………..…………………………sir
Scale 10
Chooses more delicately from a range of vocabulary appropriate
for the tenor of the context
-choose: male, gentleman, man, guy, dude
Tenor: Language
Speech functions
Congruent forms:
statements: That’s a nice jumper.
questions: Whose pencil is this?
offers: Would you like a drink?
command: Sit down.
Speech functions
Speech functions
Indirect forms:
statements: That’s a nice jumper, isn’t it?
questions: This is a new pencil!
offers: There’s juice in the fridge.
command: Would you like a seat?
Tenor: Language
Scales: speech functions
Scale 4
responds appropriately to commands with relatively uncommon
vocabulary if meaning is clear through gestures
Scale 6
Recognises a variety of statements, questions, offers and command in
texts
Scale 8
Begins to understand choices for commands when negotiation with
teachers or other known adults
Tenor: Language
Idioms, cultural knowledge
idiom: raining cats and dogs
euphemism: passed away
colloquialism: shout a drink
cultural knowledge: Like Galileo
Tenor: Language
Idioms, cultural knowledge
Scale 6
compares the appropriateness of isolated examples of colloquial and
non colloquial language
Scale 8
chooses a limited range of colloquial and idiomatic language: sucked in
Scale 10
chooses a small range of colloquialisms and idioms: Give me a hand
Tenor: Language
Non-verbal elements
intonation
volume
emphasis
tone
pacing
Tenor: Language
Non-verbal elements
Scale 8
begins to understand how meanings are varied by changing intonation,
tone, volume and emphasis when speaking and reading aloud
Scale 10
identifies and uses variation in intonation, tone, volume, pacing and
emphasis to some degree of accuracy
Scale 12
identifies and uses variation in intonation, tone, pacing, volume and
emphasis accurately and appropriately
Tenor: Language
A seed is the small body produced by plants from which a new plant seed
grows. It consists of an embryo, endosperm and testa.
The embryo is the part of the seed that grows into a new plant. It has three
main parts: the seed leaves or cotyledons, which are the beginning of
leaves; the plumule, which becomes the main stem; and the radicle, which
becomes the root. Plants whose seeds have only one cotyledon are called
monocots, and the plants whose seeds have two cotyledons are called
dicots.
The endosperm contains a supply of stored food for the embryo. In dicot
seeds, the cotyledons also do this.
The testa, or seed coat, is the outer layer of the seed. It is usually thick and
hard so that it protects the embryo and prevents the seed from dying out.
On the testa there is scar, called the hilum, where the seed was attached to
the ovary.
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•range of spoken, written and
multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
•textual element
•spoken to written
•multimodal
Mode: Text in Context
Mode continuum
spoken ……………………………………………………………………written
shop dialogue..…………………………written discussion on shopping hours
transcript of dialogue.………..………………………..formal oral presentation
Mode: Text in Context
Scales: spoken and written interaction
Scale 4: limited range of spoken texts and begins to
shape a strictly limited range of written texts
Participates confidently and appropriately in face-to-face interactions,
Organises the meanings in brief written texts in a logical order, with
support and for a very limited range of genres
Scale 6: constructs a narrow range of brief written and
visual texts that unfold coherently
Communicates simply, appropriately and accurately, some of the time,
using various media: speaks casually over the telephone, emails a
student in a different setting
Mode: Text in Context
Scales: spoken and written interaction
Scale 8: constructs a range of short spoken and written
genres that unfold coherently most of the time
Communicates simply, appropriately and accurately, in general, when the
situation involves another medium: gives instructions over the telephone
Scale 10: constructs a wide range of short coherent texts
Constructs longer and more complex texts using other media but still
requires some scaffolding: uses sketches and graphs, jointly constructs a
radio broadcast
Mode: Text in Context
Media:
spoken texts: monologue, dialogue, telephone, OHP, Powerpoint
written text: symbols, handwritten, emails, word processed, with visuals
web based texts: with visuals, video and written texts
Mode: Text in Context
Media
Scale 8
Communicates simply, appropriately and accurately, in general, when
the situation involves another medium: gives instructions over the
phone
Scale 10
Constructs longer and more complex texts using other media but still
requires scaffolding: uses sketches and graphs, jointly constructs a
radio broadcast
Scale 12
Constructs longer and more complex texts using other media: emails a
letter to the editor
Mode: Text in Context
Text in Context-
A seed is the small body produced by plants from which a new plant
seed grows. It consists of an embryo, endosperm and testa.
very written like text
The embryo is the part of the seed that grows into a new plant. It
has three main parts: the seed leaves or cotyledons, which are the
beginning of leaves; the plumule, which becomes the main stem;
and the radicle, which becomes the root. Plants whose seeds have
only one cotyledon are called monocots, and the plants whose
seeds have two cotyledons are called dicots.
The endosperm contains a supply of stored food for the embryo. In
docot seeds, the cotyledons also do this.
The testa, or seed coat, is the outer layer of the seed. It is usually
thick and hard so that it protects the embryo and prevents the seed
from dying out. On the testa there is scar, called the hilum, where
the seed was attached to the ovary.
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•textual element
•deals with the range of
spoken, written and
multimodal texts
• foregrounding
• voice and tense
• print conventions
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
•foregrounding
•voice and tense
•print conventions
Mode: Language
Foregrounding:
At the start of a
•sentence
The man took the money. The money was taken.
The robbery was committed by ...
•paragraph
One argument is ……..
Safety is another concern……..
Mode: Language
Scales: foregrounding
Scale 4
chooses repetitive beginnings of sentences in own writing
Scale 6
short, basic phrases of time and place at the beginning of recounts or
narratives: “Later that night, …”
Scale 8
Foregrounds simple, repetitive patterns most of the time with limited use of
alternative elements:
in procedures, primarily chooses to foreground actions: “Draw the eyes with …”
begins to foreground the means used in an action: “With a fine brush, draw …”
begins to foreground non-human elements in factual genres: “The leaf was put in
the sun” rather than “We put the leaf in the sun”
Mode: Language
Scales: foregrounding
Scale 10
foregrounds simple phrases of manner, place or time in genres such as
procedures: “After about 10 minutes, take the biscuits …”
foregrounds simple dependent clauses in narratives: “When the children
saw the ghost, they …”
begins to foreground causal elements in explanations and discussions:
“Because of more rainfall, floods …”
non-human elements in factual genres: “The pumpkin seeds were planted...”
Mode: Language
Scales: foregrounding
Scale 12
Chooses appropriately elements that can be foregrounded in longer, coherent
texts in a range of genres:
 foregrounds a small range of complex elements:
 consecutive phrases of place or time: “In Canberra in 1975, events …”
 dependent clauses or phrases of cause: “Because of the increased amount of
carbon dioxide, scientists …”
 foregrounds with some confidence generalised or abstract noun groups in factual
genres:
 “The destruction of the panda’s habitat is due to …” rather than “People are
destroying the places where the bear lives and …”
 constructs more complex introduction and topic sentences appropriately to clearly
predict the content of the whole text and the paragraph respectively:
 uses basic rhetorical questions in debates to organise stage(s) of the text
 constructs longer concluding paragraphs in arguments or discussions by choosing
well from the new information in the text
Mode: Language
Coherence
•from the introduction to the paragraphs to the conclusion
There are a number of reasons why …
One argument is ….
Another concern is ..
As can be seen….
•linking features in multi-modal presentations
captions, arrows, headings, verbal links
Mode: Language
Scales: coherence
Scale 8
organises texts in simple, logically ordered paragraphs on the basis of
a change if topic and write topic sentences for each paragraph
Scale 10
choose a more complex introduction and topic sentence
Scale 12
constructs more complex introduction and topic sentences to predict content of
whole text
Mode: Language
Voice and Tense:
Tenses:
primary: simple past, present, future
secondary: present perfect, present continuous
Active voice: The cow ate grass.
Cows are vegetarians.
Passive voice: The grass was eaten.
Mode: Language
Scales: tense and voice
Scale 4
Demonstrates some control of primary tenses (present, past, future)
and their formation for the most common regular verb but strictly limited
control of secondary tenses
Scale 6
Demonstrates control of primary tenses (present past future) and the
past tense of most common irregular verbs: did went saw. Beginning
to gain control of secondary tenses.
Scale 12
Understands that foregrounding ‘the rain’ requires the active voice
whereas foregrounding ‘the flooding requires passive voice.
Mode: Language
Print conventions:
•directionality
•spelling
•handwriting
•punctuation
•font
Mode: Language
Scales: spelling
Scale 2
begins to identify most beginning and end sounds in familiar words
Scale 4
Spells accurately most common monosyllabic words learned in the
classroom and spells others based on pronunciation or other patterns
Scale 6
Spells with greater accuracy most words learner in the classroom and spells
others based less on own pronunciation and more on visual patterns
Mode: Language
A seed is the small body produced by plants from which a new plant seed
grows. It consists of an embryo, endosperm and testa.
The embryo is the part of the seed that grows into a new plant. It has three
main parts: the seed leaves or cotyledons, which are the beginning of
leaves; the plumule, which becomes the main stem; and the radicle, which
becomes the root. Plants whose seeds have only one cotyledon are called
monocots, and the plants whose seeds have two cotyledons are called
dicots.
The endosperm contains a supply of stored food for the embryo. In dicot
seeds, the cotyledons also do this.
The testa, or seed coat, is the outer layer of the seed. It is usually thick
and hard so that it protects the embryo and prevents the seed from dying
out. On the testa there is scar, called the hilum, where the seed was
attached to the ovary.
Language
Language choices -
Genre
•Structure texts
•Build cohesion
Tenor
•Expand sentences
•Modality
•Appraisal
•Speech functions
•Idioms
•Non-verbal elements
Field
Mode
•Verbs
• Foregrounding
•Noun groups
• Active/passive voice
•Nominalisations
• Tenses
•Circumstances
• Print conventions
•Topic specific vocabulary
Verbal groups
The people could have been saved.
The people could have been saved.
Field (content)
The people could have been saved. Tenor (modality)
The people could have been saved.
Mode (tense)
The Navy could have saved the people. Mode (voice)
Noun groups
Those poor refugees were saved.
Those poor refugees were saved.
Field (content)
Those poor refugees were saved. Tenor (attitudinal lexis)
Those poor refugees were saved. Mode (foregrounding)
Nominalisation
The safety of the refugees was guaranteed.
Field: abstract and potential for making it ‘denser’
Tenor: more formal through objectivity but agent is explicit
Mode: an abstraction (safety) is foregrounded now and
voice (passive) is determined by this and the tenor choice
Foregrounding
The first main argument is ……………...
Safety is another major concern.
Text in Context
Language
•range of genres
•purposes
•structure
language choices •structure texts
•build cohesion
•expand sentences
Field
•informational element
•everyday to technical
vocabulary
•verbs
•noun groups
•nominalisations
•circumstances
•topic specific vocabulary
Tenor
•interpersonal element
•formality to familiarity
•modality
•appraisal
•speech functions
•idioms
•non-verbal elements
Mode
•textual element
•spoken to written
•multimodal texts
•foregrounding
•voice and tense
•print conventions
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
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ESL Scope and Scales Module 6