Welcome to Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570
Literacy for English Language Learners
Instructor: Marcia.Gaudet
SFSD K-12 ELL Instructional Coach
Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570
Class #2 – Friday, June 24 • 12:00 to 3:30
Circle Up – Greeting, Sharing, ABC Pop
Share Book & Sample books
The Danger of the Single Story
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg
Discussion of reading: Peregoy 5, CAL 1–4, Tucker
Discuss Elizabeth Skelton - Intro to TPRS - DVD
• Today Turn in: Reading Reflection
• For Next Thursday: Read Peregory 6, CAL 5,6,7
• Observation Papers Due
Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570
Literacy for ELL - Course Overview
June & July 1- Reading focus for ELLs
» Understanding the challenges for ELLs with no prior
literacy: assessments & research-based strategies
July 6 & 7- Writing focus for ELLs
» Challenges of teaching ELLs with no prior literacy in their
first language and research-based strategies
August 2 & 3 –WIDA, Collier & Presentations
» whose reading and writing levels are below grade level How to adapt grade level curr for ELLs to teach content
standards so they are progressing in literacy skills
Course Outline – June 30 & July 1
Reading Focus for ELLs
Thursday, June 30
– Peregoy – Chapter 6, pages 200- 223
– TPR Lesson demonstrations begin!
Friday, July 1
– Reflection paper on reading for week due
– Observation Paper Due – Include language level of students
– CAL Text: What’s Different: Chapters 5,6, & 7
Stephen Krashen’s 5-pronged
theory of Language Aquisition
1. Language acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive
process much like how children pick up their first language.
2. The monitor: If students learn language through rules
rather than naturally fluency will be delayed.
3. The natural order of acquisition: ELs will first acquire
that which has the most meaning, form comes later.
4. Providing comprehensible input – to acquire language.
5. The affective filter: a cognitive shut-down if anxious.
Classroom Strategies to
Promote Early Literacy
Holistic strategies
Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom
Books, books, books
Daily Routines
Reading Aloud to Students
With your grade level: Brainstorm ideas you
might use for each of the areas above with
the age group and content area you are/will
be teaching. Make a list you can share!
P 176-180
Augustana EDUC 397/597
Literacy for ELL - Course Overview
MTWR - MC 164 6 - 9:30pm
Week #1 - Reading focus for ELLs
» Understanding the challenges for ELLs with no prior
literacy and research-based strategies
Week #2 - Writing focus for ELLs
» Challenges of teaching ELLs with no prior literacy in their
first language and research-based strategies
Week #3 - Literacy Development for ELLs
» Grammar and Vocabulary - differentiation for ELLs
Week #4 - WIDA + Differentiation for ELLs
» whose reading and writing levels are below grade level How to adapt grade level curr for ELLs to teach content
standards so they are progressing in literacy skills
Course Outline - Week #1
Reading Focus for ELLs
Monday, January 3
– Introductions, Course Requirements, Challenges to ELL Literacy!
– Select Multicultural book to present to class. Sign up today.
– Sign up for preferences for ELL Teacher observation.
Tuesday, January 4
– Peregoy - pp 152-182: Emergent Literacy: English Learners Beginning to
Write and Read - Basic steps a students goes through in learning to read.
Wednesday, January 5
– Peregoy - pp 183-199:Emergent Literacy
– Skelton: Pages 1-11: Making content comprehensible - Watch DVD on TPR!
Thursday, January 6
– Peregoy, pp 200-223: Words and Meanings: English Learners Vocabulary
Development. Reflection paper on reading for week due + Sign up for TPR!
– Skelton: Pages 12-23 & 19-31
Our Challenge
In the SFSD we are serving four types of Els
1) ELs born in the U.S. and educated here
2) ELs new to the U.S. with strong
educational backgrounds
3) ELs new to the U.S. with interrupted
education but have literacy in their first
language
4) ELs new to the U.S. with no prior literacy
Reasons for limited literacy
• There are 115 million children in the world who do not
attend primary school.
• In Africa, only 59% attend school at all, and only 1 in 3
will complete primary school. Why?
- Their families need them to work – fetching water,
farming, or even working in bonded labor to pay off a debt.
- 29% of the world’s children ages 5-14 are engaged
in child labor.
Reasons for limited literacy
A Long Walk to Water
by
Linda Sue Park
Reasons for limited literacy
Schools in refugee
camps often have
limited resources.
In some camps
children must pay to
attend the schools.
Reasons for limited literacy
There are many reasons for limited literacy:
• The US spends about $1780 per capita on
primary and secondary education.
• Uganda spends just about $5.00 per capita
Today: 1 in 6 adults in the world is illiterate
2/3 of the illiterate are women
Important to remember
“Our people did not carry their stories in heavy
books, but in our songs.” – Home of the Brave
• Cultures without literacy are rich in
relationships – if you need to know
how to do something, you don’t
Google it, you ask a friend.
• Parents from these cultures who
come here, highly value education!
Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching
2nd Language Speakers to Read English
1. Not all languages are alphabetic; neither do they share
the same syntactic characteristics.
2. Reading models include the same set of three
processing dimensions:
• visual • phonological • syntactic
*Phonology: the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any
spoken human language. *Syntax - the study of the principles and rules for
constructing sentences in natural language.
3. What is not considered in reading models is the second
language reader’s prior knowledge of the sound-letter
correspondences in the native language experiences
with them.
Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching
2nd Language Speakers to Read English
4. ELLs come from around the globe & bring
different sets of language experiences with
them.
5. Teachers need to understand the similarities
and differences between students’ languages
and writing systems and English in order to be
able to teach English language learners.
Chinese Numbers
1. Write the number
of toes you have.
2. Write the answer
to 4 + 4 = _____
3. Write the number
of days in a week.
4. Write your phone
number.
What is Phonemic
Awareness?
“Knowing the sounds of a language is a
prerequisite to being able to start to match it
with print.” – Ramirez 2000
“ Phonemic awareness if the ability to
notice, think, and work with the individual
sounds in spoken words.” – Adler 2001
What is Phonemic
Awareness?
This means that individuals are aware of how the
individual sounds in words work. They can break words into
their component sounds, identify onsets and rhymes, and
make new words by deleting or replacing sounds.
Words are made of speech sounds called phonemes.
Phonemes are the small, discrete spoken sounds of a
language that help to distinguish one word for another.
For example, change the first phoneme in the word bat to /h/. Changing
the /b/ to /h/ changes the word from bat to hat and also changes the meaning of
the word.
Some Ways Students Develop
Phonemic Awareness
Word Play
What is left if I take away the m in mice?
What is let if I take away the p in bump?
What is left if I take away the p in bump?
Rhyming Games
One, two, buckle your shoe.
Three, four, shut the door
One, two, stir the stew.
Three, four, lie on the floor.
Nursery Rhymes
ice
eye
bum
Some Ways Children
Develop Phonemic
Awareness
Picture Books With Rhymes
It’s Theresa
Mirror, mirror in my claw
Who’s the prettiest dinosaur of all?
Her horns are purple, and her lips are read.
There’s a scalloped frill behind her head.
Theresa Triceratops it must be.
No dinosaur in the world is prettier than she.
-Written by Dorothy Kauffman
Phonics Is…
…the predictable relationship between the
sounds (phonemes) of spoken language
and the letters and spellings (graphemes)
that represent those sounds in written
language (Antunez, 2002).
Phonics Instruction Is…
…a way of teaching reading. It focuses on
teaching children to understand the
relationships between the sounds of the
spoken words they hear and the letters of
written words they see in print so they can
use these relationships to read and write
words (Adler, 2001; Heilman, 1968)
Factors to Keep in Mind
When Teaching Phonics
• Phonics programs for native English
speakers generally begin with consonants,
because they tend to have a close one-to-one
correspondence with one letter to one sound.
• Phonics instruction that is systematic and
explicit contributes to a student’s growth in
reading.
Factors to Keep in Mind
When Teaching Phonics
• For ELLs, instruction in phonemic
awareness that includes letter-sound
associates, or phonics, is more likely to be
productive then teaching speech sounds
alone (Adams, Foorman, Lunderg, & Beeler, 1998; Oudeans, 2004,
cited in August & Shanahan, 2006).
Factors to Keep in Mind When
Teaching Phonics
• Phonics instruction should begin with the
most frequently occurring letter-sound
relationships in English so that children can
read words as soon as possible. (Texas Education
Agency, n.d.)
• All students can best benefit from phonics
instruction that is taught in meaningful
contexts (Peregoy & Boyles, 2001; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).
What is Required for Skilled Reading?
• Skilled reading clearly requires skill in both
decoding and comprehension…
• A student who cannot decode cannot read;
a student who cannot comprehend cannot
read either.
• Literacy – reading ability – can be found only
in the presence of both decoding and
comprehension. Both skills are necessary;
neither is sufficient.
Some English language learners may
Speak languages that do not have the
visual, phonological, or syntactic
matches of spoken and written English
(Bernhardt, 2003)
Be literate in their native language but
know very little oral English (Bernhardt, 2003)
not be literate in their native
language, so English is the language
in which they develop literacy (Bernhardt,
2003)
Some English language learners may
Need to develop a phonological concept
for English words (Bernhardt, 2003)
Develop early reading skills in many of the
same ways as native English speakers
(Ramirez, 2000)
Be able to use what they now about the
phonological features of their native
language to develop phonemic awareness
in English (Bernhardt, 2003)
Some English language learners may
Need to learn the alphabetic writing
system of English because the writing
system of their native language is
different from what of English (Durgunoglu,
Nagy, & Hancin-Bhatt, 1991))
Benefit from instruction in phonemic
awareness and phonics that teaches
English speech sounds alone and lettersound associations (Adams, Foorman, Lundberg, &
Beeler, 1998; Oudeans, 2004, cited in August & Shanahan, 2006)
Older Learners need:
Language Experience Approach
Picture Books with mature themes/Nonfiction
texts
Learn as much as you can about a
student’s first language
• Spanish has 24 distinct sounds
- Words usually end in vowels
- Vowels very consistent in sound
• English as 44 distinct sounds (System 44)
• Swahili – every word ends in a vowel
• Arabic – read from right to left
• Is it an Asian pictorial language? plural?
• Are there male and female pronouns in their
first language?
Assessment
It is important to assess Els at the beginning of
each semester to know where they are starting
and to measure their growth.
• The DRA is an assessment used for
beginning readers. It can be useful for EL
to
determine what level of reading a student
has in English.
Next Week we will look at this more
Small Groups are a must
• Begin each semester with a reading
assessment to determine reading level
• Adjust classroom routine to accommodate
small group instruction to differentiate
• Begin with illustrated repetitive text
Small Group Reading Instruction
Before Reading
• Teach key vocabulary
• Preview & Predict
During Reading
• Model Reading / model decoding strategies
• Focus on the first sound in words
After Reading • Review and Retell story • Shared writing
Retell by drawing pictures, then writing
1.
2.
3.
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
__________________
__________________
4.
5.
6.
____________________ ____________________ __________________
____________________ ____________________ __________________
Break
Thank you for bringing snacks today!
Following Break – Tucker Signs
Setting the context for literacy
You may be preparing to teach older
students, how could a chapter that begins by
discussing literacy in a Kindergarten class be
relevant to you?
**Stand up, move around and find someone
you have not talked with yet.
Find out what level your partner teaches
or is preparing to teach, discuss the question
and then you will share your partner’s
thoughts with the class.
What does the research say?
Large body of research on literacy
development in first language
Far less research on literacy development for
second language literacy development - even
less for students with no literacy in their first
language - which is much of the challenge
with the African refugee population K-12!
What does the research say?
The research we do have shows that the
English reading and writing development
processes are essentially similar for both
English learners and native English speakers
(Edelsky, 1981a, 1981b; Goodman & Goodman, 1978; Hudelson, 1984;
Urzua, 1987).
– My concern: Refugee Act passed in 1980 - that is when the USA began
getting refugees from African nations with no prior literacy and languages
with a completely different structure from Romantic languages. There is a
need for more research!
What does the research say?
For all learners, literacy development is
a complex process that takes place over
a lengthy period of time.
• Academic fluency takes 5 to 7 years
• Longer if there is no literacy in student’s
first language
What does the research say?
There are two important differences in
literacy development for ELLs:
1. A student’s English Language proficiency
2. A student’s ability to read and write in their
primary language (Hudelson, 1987)
Research shows English learners can benefit from
English literacy instruction well before they have
developed full control of the language orally!
What does the research say?
Oral and written English can develop more or
less simultaneously, provided that instruction
is carefully organized to be meaningful and
relevant.
– Stephen Krashen calls this comprehensible input.
When students are focused on understanding the
meaning of a message…they are naturally
acquiring language
What does the research say?
If English learners are literate in their primary
language, they may bring knowledge, skills,
and attitudes about reading and writing that
transfer to the task of English reading.
Research and theory consistently support the
benefits of teaching children to read and write
in their primary language first.
What does the research say?
Research consistently shows that
– English language proficiency and
– Primary language literacy
contribute to the ease with which English
learners develop English reading and writing
skills.
…..now think of the challenges of students who have
no generational literacy…no one they know or
their parents know have ever been able to read or
write in their language
Contrasting the Emergent Literacy &
Reading Readiness Perspectives
Note: The authors of our text believe the
emergent literacy perspective offers the
most effective teaching practices for ELLs.
We will be looking at how children learn to read at a young
age and then apply this knowledge to ELL students who
come to us at all ages with no prior literacy in their first
language. How will you teach an eight grade students
who does not yet know to read or is just now reading at a
first grade reading in English?
Reading Readiness Perspective
Popular in much of the world in the 20th century
Believe children are not developmentally ready to read
until they reach a mental age of 6.6 years so reading not
taught until 1st grade
Writing postponed until 1st grade and focused on proper
letter formation rather than communicating
Kindergarten for socialization, oral language
development, not literacy
Reading Readiness Subskills
Auditory discrimination
• Identify and differentiate
familiar sounds (car
horn, dog barking)
• identify rhyming words
•I dentify sounds of letters
Visual discrimination
Visual motor skills
• Recognize colors, shapes
• Cut with scissors
• Color inside the lines
• hop on one foot
Large motor skills
Research Conclusions
For native English speakers and English learners
many reading readiness subskill prerequisites
turned out to be unnecessary hindrances to
literacy development.
Example: students who were already reading were told
they could not advance to 1st grade because they could
not color inside the lines.
The assumption was that a student was not ready to learn
to read until they could color inside the lines.
Emergent Literacy Perspective
The Emergent Literacy Perspective was
pioneered by Marie Clay (1975) in New
Zealand, also known as the founder of
Reading Recovery and Emilio Ferrerio and
AnaTeberosky in Latin America (1982).
According to this perspective children begin
to develop written language knowledge as
soon as they are first exposed to reading and
writing.
Emergent Literacy Perspective
Literacy development is viewed as
somewhat parallel to oral language
development in process - that is when
children are exposed to how the written
word is used around them:
– Lists, notes, letters, storybooks, road signs, product
labels, and other environmental print.
What about cultures where this is not there? How will this
impact literacy dev? Ex: Rwanda - picture/not print
Emergent Literacy Perspective
If, from this highly functional written input, children
gradually construct knowledge of the functions and forms
of print, what will be the impact for students who do not
come from this cultural background that involves literacy?
How will it impact girls whose mothers have never been
allowed to read or write? Example: Sudan
– Discuss with your table partner: How would this be
different for students growing up in a culture with very
little literacy?
Emergent Literacy Perspective
Although early research on emergent literacy
highlighted children’s natural tendencies to
develop literacy through immersion - another
line of inquiry took hold in the 1990’s that
focused on how explicit, direct instruction might
help “emergent literate: children learn to decode
written words. They examined the aspect of the
Alphabetic principle.
Alphabetic principle
3 concepts inherent in the alphabetic principle:
- 1. The speech stream can be broken down into sounds or phonemes
- 2. Letters of the alphabet can represent these speech sounds;
- 3. Knowing letter-sound correspondences permits a reader to “recode”
words from written form to oral
The outcome of this research; Education policies calling for a balanced
approach which includes:
– An emphasis on explicit instruction on phonemic awareness (the ability to
discriminate speech sounds in words) and
– Phonics - specific letter-sound correspondences
Conclusions from the research:
The reading readiness perspective was
based on the best scientific knowledge in the
first half of the past century.
However, literacy research in recent decades
refutes the major assumptions of the reading
readiness perspective and calls into question
many of the practices.
Emergent Literacy research
recommendations for all:
1. Acknowledge that all children bring literacy
knowledge to school, although they vary in their
literacy concepts & skills.
2. Immerse children in variety of functional
reading and writing experiences that display the
purposes of literacy while demonstrating and
modeling the processes of reading and writing.
Emergent Literacy research
recommendations for all:
3. Enrich dramatic play centers with
functional print, including lists, tablets,
prescription forms, phone books, and
other props, to encourage children to
experiment with reading and writing
during play.
– Talk with your 9:00 partner: Why would you
do this? If this is important, how could this
be adapted for older ELL learners?
Emergent Literacy research
recommendations for all:
4. Accept and celebrate children’s progress in their
gradual approximations to conventional literacy.
5. Encourage children to read and write at home
and to talk to their parents about their reading and
writing.
Talk with others from your grade level- Application for ELL?
6. Offer explicit instruction on phonemic
awareness and phonics based on assessed need.
Differences Between Oral and
Written Language Development
Oral Language Development
Written Language Development
Every culture develops oral
language.
Not every culture develops written
language.
Almost every child learns the
Not every child learns the written
language of his or her community. language of his or her community.
Oral language is learned with little For most children written
explicit instruction.
language must be learned with a
lot of explicit instruction.
Oral language is the primary
vehicle for meeting our basic
needs.
Written language is not the
primary vehicle for meeting our
basic needs.
P 160
Highlighting Literacy Functions
in Your Classroom
If students have had little prior experience
with reading and writing it is important to
explicitly talk about how these can be used
for different purposes, such as:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Card - to send birthday greetings far away
List - to remember what to buy at store
Personal phone book - friend’s numbers
Driver’s manual - to study for driving test
Job application forms - to apply for a job
Computer - to look up news from home country
P 161
Highlighting Literacy
Functions in Your Classroom
Talk with others from your grade level:
Make a list of additional reading and
writing examples that are purposeful
and relevant to the age level of ELL
student you are or will be working with.
Also make a list of things their parents
might want help reading or writing.
p 161
Exploring the Visual Form of
Written Language
As you read pages 162 - 165 - examples were given
from cultures where literacy is highly valued:
developmental writing examples were from
English, Hebrew, Chinese, and Arabic.
Talk with your table & Make a chart to answer the following:
1. What process did the research identify as being similar
in all these cultures?
2. How would it be different with different types of
languages?
3.How would that process be the same or different for a
student whose parents are not literate?
Write on display paper to share
What are the writing strategies
children use when learning to write?
What similar strategies are used in
English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Description/definition of
developmental scripting strategies:
What are the writing strategies
children use when learning to write?
Spanish
How are these
written languages
different from
English?
How would the
writing strategies
be different
coming from these
languages?
Arabic
Chinese
Non-literate
culture
Print Concepts that Emerge in
Emergent Literacy
1. Print carries meaning. It conveys a message.
2. Spoken words can be written down and preserved.
3. Written words can be spoken, that is, read out loud.
4. In English, words are read from left to right, top to bottom.
5. In English and other languages that use alphabets, the speech
stream can be divided into sounds, and these sounds are represented
by letters or groups of letters. This is the alphabetic principle.
6. The speech stream has a linear sequence in time that corresponds
to written language’s linear sequence on the page.
7. Sound/symbol correspondences are consistent, but in English there
are many exceptions.
p 166
How do students learn these
abstract concepts?
It is through immersion in a literacy-rich environment with
lots of stories read aloud and lots of opportunities for
children to write on their own that they begin to
understand the marvelous truths about print, its
relationships to spoken language, and its power to
communicate across time and space.
This is the purpose of the Immersion Centers in the SFSD.
Talk with grade level: What activities/literature could you use for
your age level ELLs to create this literacy-rich environment?
*Reason for literature sharing in class.
Print concepts in Emergent Literacy
The alphabetic principle: the idea that language
sounds are represented by letters and letter
sequences (unlike a pictorial language such as
Chinese).
Research suggests that once students grasp;
– The idea that words consist of different phonemes and
– That letters represent these phonemes,
they can benefit from phonics instruction.
Print concepts in Emergent Literacy
Graphophonemic units - letter-sound
correspondences
Phoneme - the smallest unit of sound that makes
a difference in meaning in a language
Grapheme - the letter or letter combination, such
as d or th, that represents that sound
Phonemic awareness - the awareness of
individual sounds that constitute spoken word
– Phonemic awareness should not, however, be considered a
prerequisite for literacy instruction as rhyming takes a great deal
of time for ELLs to hear!
p.167
Print Concepts That Emerge
in Emergent Literacy
Exposure to written language promotes
phonemic awareness by showing children
how oral language sounds are divided,
sequenced, and represented by letters and
letter sequences. Reading poems, stories
and song lyrics aloud while students read
along is one way.
Print Concepts That Emerge
in Emergent Literacy
A student’s emergent writing demonstrates
the extend of their understanding of the
alphabetic principle and other concepts about
the forms and functions of print.
Invented or Temporary Spelling
Just as children’s oral language “errors” (e.g., “he goed” for
“he went”) represent logical, developmental hypotheses
about grammar, so also children’s and older students’
invented spellings (e.g. bar for bear) represent their logical,
developmental hypotheses about how to spell. This step
represents a high level cognitive process in which student
“think through” how sounds and letters relate to one another.
Invented spelling represents an important step on the way to
conventional spelling which will assist both reading and
writing development.
P 168
Invented or Temporary
Spelling
How does invented spelling, which students use to work
out sound/symbol correspondence, look for ELLs?
- ELLs spelling shows us what they are hearing.
“Dear Mom…don’t forget to tace owt my paperes foron
my Wensday onvilope”
“thar wus a lost dog and hee Koodinnt finde a hom but
hee finlee fawnd a onr”
A Research Question for teachers of
non-literate refugees to document!
What is the difference between younger and
older learners whose first exposure to literacy
is in their second language?
How to do the research? Document your
teaching strategies and corresponding
student progress over time. Sharing these
findings will expand the research available on
these older students not literate in their
primary language!
p.171
Writing Research Findings
As we look further into writing next
week - I will be sharing some of the
research on writing I have been doing
over the past five years.
English Language learners…
learn English in hands-on, concrete ways
As they learn English vocabulary in
meaningful contexts they can begin to read it
and write it.
Remember; showing them a picture of a ball is not a way to teach a “b” sound if the word
for ball in their language is “crunck.”
Home and School Environments that
Nurture Emergent Literacy
The most important concept to bring
from this portion is the realization that
even parents who are from a nonliterate background have a high value
for education and high aspirations for
their children. Over 50% of my parents
want their children to be doctors and the
students hold those same aspirations.
P 171-176
Classroom Strategies to
Promote Early Literacy
Early Literacy Goals - regardless of age:
1. Awareness and appreciation of the variety of
purposes reading and writing serve
2. Understanding of relationships between print and
oral language, including the alphabetic principle
3. Knowledge of print conventions, such as left-toright, top-to-bottom sequencing
4. Knowledge of specific sound/symbol
correspondences, or phonics
5. Ability to recognize a growing number of words on
sight.
P 176-182
Classroom Strategies to
Promote Early Literacy
Holistic strategies - stores, poems, songs, and
recipes - that serve real, day to day purposes
Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom
Books, books, books - teacher read, student
created, student journals, etc.!
Using Daily Routines to Highlight the form and
Functions of Print - Wall dictionary
Reading Aloud to Students with TPR strategies!
Classroom Strategies to
Promote Early Literacy
Holistic strategies
Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom
Books, books, books
Daily Routines
Reading Aloud to Students
With your grade level: Brainstorm ideas you
might use for each of the areas above with
the age group and content area you are/will
be teaching. Make a list you can share!
P 176-180
Course Outline – June 23 & 24
Reading Focus for ELLs
Thursday, June 23
–
–
–
–
Introductions, Course Requirements, Challenges to ELL Literacy!
Select Multicultural book to present to class. Sign up today.
Sign up for preferences for ELL Teacher observation.
Reading for Friday: Peregoy Chapter 5, CAL 1 – 4, Skelton
Friday, June 24
– Peregoy – Chapter 5: Emergent Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write
and Read - Basic steps a students goes through in learning to read.
– CAL Reading: Chapter 1 - 4
– Skelton: Making content comprehensible - Watch DVD on TPR!
– Reflection paper on reading for week due + Sign up for TPR!
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Separating Difference & Disability Dr. Catherine Collier