Welcome to Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570 Literacy for English Language Learners Instructor: Marcia.Gaudet SFSD K-12 ELL Instructional Coach Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570 Class #2 – Friday, June 24 • 12:00 to 3:30 Circle Up – Greeting, Sharing, ABC Pop Share Book & Sample books The Danger of the Single Story – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg Discussion of reading: Peregoy 5, CAL 1–4, Tucker Discuss Elizabeth Skelton - Intro to TPRS - DVD • Today Turn in: Reading Reflection • For Next Thursday: Read Peregory 6, CAL 5,6,7 • Observation Papers Due Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570 Literacy for ELL - Course Overview June & July 1- Reading focus for ELLs » Understanding the challenges for ELLs with no prior literacy: assessments & research-based strategies July 6 & 7- Writing focus for ELLs » Challenges of teaching ELLs with no prior literacy in their first language and research-based strategies August 2 & 3 –WIDA, Collier & Presentations » whose reading and writing levels are below grade level How to adapt grade level curr for ELLs to teach content standards so they are progressing in literacy skills Course Outline – June 30 & July 1 Reading Focus for ELLs Thursday, June 30 – Peregoy – Chapter 6, pages 200- 223 – TPR Lesson demonstrations begin! Friday, July 1 – Reflection paper on reading for week due – Observation Paper Due – Include language level of students – CAL Text: What’s Different: Chapters 5,6, & 7 Stephen Krashen’s 5-pronged theory of Language Aquisition 1. Language acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process much like how children pick up their first language. 2. The monitor: If students learn language through rules rather than naturally fluency will be delayed. 3. The natural order of acquisition: ELs will first acquire that which has the most meaning, form comes later. 4. Providing comprehensible input – to acquire language. 5. The affective filter: a cognitive shut-down if anxious. Classroom Strategies to Promote Early Literacy Holistic strategies Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom Books, books, books Daily Routines Reading Aloud to Students With your grade level: Brainstorm ideas you might use for each of the areas above with the age group and content area you are/will be teaching. Make a list you can share! P 176-180 Augustana EDUC 397/597 Literacy for ELL - Course Overview MTWR - MC 164 6 - 9:30pm Week #1 - Reading focus for ELLs » Understanding the challenges for ELLs with no prior literacy and research-based strategies Week #2 - Writing focus for ELLs » Challenges of teaching ELLs with no prior literacy in their first language and research-based strategies Week #3 - Literacy Development for ELLs » Grammar and Vocabulary - differentiation for ELLs Week #4 - WIDA + Differentiation for ELLs » whose reading and writing levels are below grade level How to adapt grade level curr for ELLs to teach content standards so they are progressing in literacy skills Course Outline - Week #1 Reading Focus for ELLs Monday, January 3 – Introductions, Course Requirements, Challenges to ELL Literacy! – Select Multicultural book to present to class. Sign up today. – Sign up for preferences for ELL Teacher observation. Tuesday, January 4 – Peregoy - pp 152-182: Emergent Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write and Read - Basic steps a students goes through in learning to read. Wednesday, January 5 – Peregoy - pp 183-199:Emergent Literacy – Skelton: Pages 1-11: Making content comprehensible - Watch DVD on TPR! Thursday, January 6 – Peregoy, pp 200-223: Words and Meanings: English Learners Vocabulary Development. Reflection paper on reading for week due + Sign up for TPR! – Skelton: Pages 12-23 & 19-31 Our Challenge In the SFSD we are serving four types of Els 1) ELs born in the U.S. and educated here 2) ELs new to the U.S. with strong educational backgrounds 3) ELs new to the U.S. with interrupted education but have literacy in their first language 4) ELs new to the U.S. with no prior literacy Reasons for limited literacy • There are 115 million children in the world who do not attend primary school. • In Africa, only 59% attend school at all, and only 1 in 3 will complete primary school. Why? - Their families need them to work – fetching water, farming, or even working in bonded labor to pay off a debt. - 29% of the world’s children ages 5-14 are engaged in child labor. Reasons for limited literacy A Long Walk to Water by Linda Sue Park Reasons for limited literacy Schools in refugee camps often have limited resources. In some camps children must pay to attend the schools. Reasons for limited literacy There are many reasons for limited literacy: • The US spends about $1780 per capita on primary and secondary education. • Uganda spends just about $5.00 per capita Today: 1 in 6 adults in the world is illiterate 2/3 of the illiterate are women Important to remember “Our people did not carry their stories in heavy books, but in our songs.” – Home of the Brave • Cultures without literacy are rich in relationships – if you need to know how to do something, you don’t Google it, you ask a friend. • Parents from these cultures who come here, highly value education! Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching 2nd Language Speakers to Read English 1. Not all languages are alphabetic; neither do they share the same syntactic characteristics. 2. Reading models include the same set of three processing dimensions: • visual • phonological • syntactic *Phonology: the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language. *Syntax - the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural language. 3. What is not considered in reading models is the second language reader’s prior knowledge of the sound-letter correspondences in the native language experiences with them. Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching 2nd Language Speakers to Read English 4. ELLs come from around the globe & bring different sets of language experiences with them. 5. Teachers need to understand the similarities and differences between students’ languages and writing systems and English in order to be able to teach English language learners. Chinese Numbers 1. Write the number of toes you have. 2. Write the answer to 4 + 4 = _____ 3. Write the number of days in a week. 4. Write your phone number. What is Phonemic Awareness? “Knowing the sounds of a language is a prerequisite to being able to start to match it with print.” – Ramirez 2000 “ Phonemic awareness if the ability to notice, think, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words.” – Adler 2001 What is Phonemic Awareness? This means that individuals are aware of how the individual sounds in words work. They can break words into their component sounds, identify onsets and rhymes, and make new words by deleting or replacing sounds. Words are made of speech sounds called phonemes. Phonemes are the small, discrete spoken sounds of a language that help to distinguish one word for another. For example, change the first phoneme in the word bat to /h/. Changing the /b/ to /h/ changes the word from bat to hat and also changes the meaning of the word. Some Ways Students Develop Phonemic Awareness Word Play What is left if I take away the m in mice? What is let if I take away the p in bump? What is left if I take away the p in bump? Rhyming Games One, two, buckle your shoe. Three, four, shut the door One, two, stir the stew. Three, four, lie on the floor. Nursery Rhymes ice eye bum Some Ways Children Develop Phonemic Awareness Picture Books With Rhymes It’s Theresa Mirror, mirror in my claw Who’s the prettiest dinosaur of all? Her horns are purple, and her lips are read. There’s a scalloped frill behind her head. Theresa Triceratops it must be. No dinosaur in the world is prettier than she. -Written by Dorothy Kauffman Phonics Is… …the predictable relationship between the sounds (phonemes) of spoken language and the letters and spellings (graphemes) that represent those sounds in written language (Antunez, 2002). Phonics Instruction Is… …a way of teaching reading. It focuses on teaching children to understand the relationships between the sounds of the spoken words they hear and the letters of written words they see in print so they can use these relationships to read and write words (Adler, 2001; Heilman, 1968) Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching Phonics • Phonics programs for native English speakers generally begin with consonants, because they tend to have a close one-to-one correspondence with one letter to one sound. • Phonics instruction that is systematic and explicit contributes to a student’s growth in reading. Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching Phonics • For ELLs, instruction in phonemic awareness that includes letter-sound associates, or phonics, is more likely to be productive then teaching speech sounds alone (Adams, Foorman, Lunderg, & Beeler, 1998; Oudeans, 2004, cited in August & Shanahan, 2006). Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching Phonics • Phonics instruction should begin with the most frequently occurring letter-sound relationships in English so that children can read words as soon as possible. (Texas Education Agency, n.d.) • All students can best benefit from phonics instruction that is taught in meaningful contexts (Peregoy & Boyles, 2001; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). What is Required for Skilled Reading? • Skilled reading clearly requires skill in both decoding and comprehension… • A student who cannot decode cannot read; a student who cannot comprehend cannot read either. • Literacy – reading ability – can be found only in the presence of both decoding and comprehension. Both skills are necessary; neither is sufficient. Some English language learners may Speak languages that do not have the visual, phonological, or syntactic matches of spoken and written English (Bernhardt, 2003) Be literate in their native language but know very little oral English (Bernhardt, 2003) not be literate in their native language, so English is the language in which they develop literacy (Bernhardt, 2003) Some English language learners may Need to develop a phonological concept for English words (Bernhardt, 2003) Develop early reading skills in many of the same ways as native English speakers (Ramirez, 2000) Be able to use what they now about the phonological features of their native language to develop phonemic awareness in English (Bernhardt, 2003) Some English language learners may Need to learn the alphabetic writing system of English because the writing system of their native language is different from what of English (Durgunoglu, Nagy, & Hancin-Bhatt, 1991)) Benefit from instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics that teaches English speech sounds alone and lettersound associations (Adams, Foorman, Lundberg, & Beeler, 1998; Oudeans, 2004, cited in August & Shanahan, 2006) Older Learners need: Language Experience Approach Picture Books with mature themes/Nonfiction texts Learn as much as you can about a student’s first language • Spanish has 24 distinct sounds - Words usually end in vowels - Vowels very consistent in sound • English as 44 distinct sounds (System 44) • Swahili – every word ends in a vowel • Arabic – read from right to left • Is it an Asian pictorial language? plural? • Are there male and female pronouns in their first language? Assessment It is important to assess Els at the beginning of each semester to know where they are starting and to measure their growth. • The DRA is an assessment used for beginning readers. It can be useful for EL to determine what level of reading a student has in English. Next Week we will look at this more Small Groups are a must • Begin each semester with a reading assessment to determine reading level • Adjust classroom routine to accommodate small group instruction to differentiate • Begin with illustrated repetitive text Small Group Reading Instruction Before Reading • Teach key vocabulary • Preview & Predict During Reading • Model Reading / model decoding strategies • Focus on the first sound in words After Reading • Review and Retell story • Shared writing Retell by drawing pictures, then writing 1. 2. 3. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ __________________ __________________ 4. 5. 6. ____________________ ____________________ __________________ ____________________ ____________________ __________________ Break Thank you for bringing snacks today! Following Break – Tucker Signs Setting the context for literacy You may be preparing to teach older students, how could a chapter that begins by discussing literacy in a Kindergarten class be relevant to you? **Stand up, move around and find someone you have not talked with yet. Find out what level your partner teaches or is preparing to teach, discuss the question and then you will share your partner’s thoughts with the class. What does the research say? Large body of research on literacy development in first language Far less research on literacy development for second language literacy development - even less for students with no literacy in their first language - which is much of the challenge with the African refugee population K-12! What does the research say? The research we do have shows that the English reading and writing development processes are essentially similar for both English learners and native English speakers (Edelsky, 1981a, 1981b; Goodman & Goodman, 1978; Hudelson, 1984; Urzua, 1987). – My concern: Refugee Act passed in 1980 - that is when the USA began getting refugees from African nations with no prior literacy and languages with a completely different structure from Romantic languages. There is a need for more research! What does the research say? For all learners, literacy development is a complex process that takes place over a lengthy period of time. • Academic fluency takes 5 to 7 years • Longer if there is no literacy in student’s first language What does the research say? There are two important differences in literacy development for ELLs: 1. A student’s English Language proficiency 2. A student’s ability to read and write in their primary language (Hudelson, 1987) Research shows English learners can benefit from English literacy instruction well before they have developed full control of the language orally! What does the research say? Oral and written English can develop more or less simultaneously, provided that instruction is carefully organized to be meaningful and relevant. – Stephen Krashen calls this comprehensible input. When students are focused on understanding the meaning of a message…they are naturally acquiring language What does the research say? If English learners are literate in their primary language, they may bring knowledge, skills, and attitudes about reading and writing that transfer to the task of English reading. Research and theory consistently support the benefits of teaching children to read and write in their primary language first. What does the research say? Research consistently shows that – English language proficiency and – Primary language literacy contribute to the ease with which English learners develop English reading and writing skills. …..now think of the challenges of students who have no generational literacy…no one they know or their parents know have ever been able to read or write in their language Contrasting the Emergent Literacy & Reading Readiness Perspectives Note: The authors of our text believe the emergent literacy perspective offers the most effective teaching practices for ELLs. We will be looking at how children learn to read at a young age and then apply this knowledge to ELL students who come to us at all ages with no prior literacy in their first language. How will you teach an eight grade students who does not yet know to read or is just now reading at a first grade reading in English? Reading Readiness Perspective Popular in much of the world in the 20th century Believe children are not developmentally ready to read until they reach a mental age of 6.6 years so reading not taught until 1st grade Writing postponed until 1st grade and focused on proper letter formation rather than communicating Kindergarten for socialization, oral language development, not literacy Reading Readiness Subskills Auditory discrimination • Identify and differentiate familiar sounds (car horn, dog barking) • identify rhyming words •I dentify sounds of letters Visual discrimination Visual motor skills • Recognize colors, shapes • Cut with scissors • Color inside the lines • hop on one foot Large motor skills Research Conclusions For native English speakers and English learners many reading readiness subskill prerequisites turned out to be unnecessary hindrances to literacy development. Example: students who were already reading were told they could not advance to 1st grade because they could not color inside the lines. The assumption was that a student was not ready to learn to read until they could color inside the lines. Emergent Literacy Perspective The Emergent Literacy Perspective was pioneered by Marie Clay (1975) in New Zealand, also known as the founder of Reading Recovery and Emilio Ferrerio and AnaTeberosky in Latin America (1982). According to this perspective children begin to develop written language knowledge as soon as they are first exposed to reading and writing. Emergent Literacy Perspective Literacy development is viewed as somewhat parallel to oral language development in process - that is when children are exposed to how the written word is used around them: – Lists, notes, letters, storybooks, road signs, product labels, and other environmental print. What about cultures where this is not there? How will this impact literacy dev? Ex: Rwanda - picture/not print Emergent Literacy Perspective If, from this highly functional written input, children gradually construct knowledge of the functions and forms of print, what will be the impact for students who do not come from this cultural background that involves literacy? How will it impact girls whose mothers have never been allowed to read or write? Example: Sudan – Discuss with your table partner: How would this be different for students growing up in a culture with very little literacy? Emergent Literacy Perspective Although early research on emergent literacy highlighted children’s natural tendencies to develop literacy through immersion - another line of inquiry took hold in the 1990’s that focused on how explicit, direct instruction might help “emergent literate: children learn to decode written words. They examined the aspect of the Alphabetic principle. Alphabetic principle 3 concepts inherent in the alphabetic principle: - 1. The speech stream can be broken down into sounds or phonemes - 2. Letters of the alphabet can represent these speech sounds; - 3. Knowing letter-sound correspondences permits a reader to “recode” words from written form to oral The outcome of this research; Education policies calling for a balanced approach which includes: – An emphasis on explicit instruction on phonemic awareness (the ability to discriminate speech sounds in words) and – Phonics - specific letter-sound correspondences Conclusions from the research: The reading readiness perspective was based on the best scientific knowledge in the first half of the past century. However, literacy research in recent decades refutes the major assumptions of the reading readiness perspective and calls into question many of the practices. Emergent Literacy research recommendations for all: 1. Acknowledge that all children bring literacy knowledge to school, although they vary in their literacy concepts & skills. 2. Immerse children in variety of functional reading and writing experiences that display the purposes of literacy while demonstrating and modeling the processes of reading and writing. Emergent Literacy research recommendations for all: 3. Enrich dramatic play centers with functional print, including lists, tablets, prescription forms, phone books, and other props, to encourage children to experiment with reading and writing during play. – Talk with your 9:00 partner: Why would you do this? If this is important, how could this be adapted for older ELL learners? Emergent Literacy research recommendations for all: 4. Accept and celebrate children’s progress in their gradual approximations to conventional literacy. 5. Encourage children to read and write at home and to talk to their parents about their reading and writing. Talk with others from your grade level- Application for ELL? 6. Offer explicit instruction on phonemic awareness and phonics based on assessed need. Differences Between Oral and Written Language Development Oral Language Development Written Language Development Every culture develops oral language. Not every culture develops written language. Almost every child learns the Not every child learns the written language of his or her community. language of his or her community. Oral language is learned with little For most children written explicit instruction. language must be learned with a lot of explicit instruction. Oral language is the primary vehicle for meeting our basic needs. Written language is not the primary vehicle for meeting our basic needs. P 160 Highlighting Literacy Functions in Your Classroom If students have had little prior experience with reading and writing it is important to explicitly talk about how these can be used for different purposes, such as: – – – – – – Card - to send birthday greetings far away List - to remember what to buy at store Personal phone book - friend’s numbers Driver’s manual - to study for driving test Job application forms - to apply for a job Computer - to look up news from home country P 161 Highlighting Literacy Functions in Your Classroom Talk with others from your grade level: Make a list of additional reading and writing examples that are purposeful and relevant to the age level of ELL student you are or will be working with. Also make a list of things their parents might want help reading or writing. p 161 Exploring the Visual Form of Written Language As you read pages 162 - 165 - examples were given from cultures where literacy is highly valued: developmental writing examples were from English, Hebrew, Chinese, and Arabic. Talk with your table & Make a chart to answer the following: 1. What process did the research identify as being similar in all these cultures? 2. How would it be different with different types of languages? 3.How would that process be the same or different for a student whose parents are not literate? Write on display paper to share What are the writing strategies children use when learning to write? What similar strategies are used in English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Description/definition of developmental scripting strategies: What are the writing strategies children use when learning to write? Spanish How are these written languages different from English? How would the writing strategies be different coming from these languages? Arabic Chinese Non-literate culture Print Concepts that Emerge in Emergent Literacy 1. Print carries meaning. It conveys a message. 2. Spoken words can be written down and preserved. 3. Written words can be spoken, that is, read out loud. 4. In English, words are read from left to right, top to bottom. 5. In English and other languages that use alphabets, the speech stream can be divided into sounds, and these sounds are represented by letters or groups of letters. This is the alphabetic principle. 6. The speech stream has a linear sequence in time that corresponds to written language’s linear sequence on the page. 7. Sound/symbol correspondences are consistent, but in English there are many exceptions. p 166 How do students learn these abstract concepts? It is through immersion in a literacy-rich environment with lots of stories read aloud and lots of opportunities for children to write on their own that they begin to understand the marvelous truths about print, its relationships to spoken language, and its power to communicate across time and space. This is the purpose of the Immersion Centers in the SFSD. Talk with grade level: What activities/literature could you use for your age level ELLs to create this literacy-rich environment? *Reason for literature sharing in class. Print concepts in Emergent Literacy The alphabetic principle: the idea that language sounds are represented by letters and letter sequences (unlike a pictorial language such as Chinese). Research suggests that once students grasp; – The idea that words consist of different phonemes and – That letters represent these phonemes, they can benefit from phonics instruction. Print concepts in Emergent Literacy Graphophonemic units - letter-sound correspondences Phoneme - the smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning in a language Grapheme - the letter or letter combination, such as d or th, that represents that sound Phonemic awareness - the awareness of individual sounds that constitute spoken word – Phonemic awareness should not, however, be considered a prerequisite for literacy instruction as rhyming takes a great deal of time for ELLs to hear! p.167 Print Concepts That Emerge in Emergent Literacy Exposure to written language promotes phonemic awareness by showing children how oral language sounds are divided, sequenced, and represented by letters and letter sequences. Reading poems, stories and song lyrics aloud while students read along is one way. Print Concepts That Emerge in Emergent Literacy A student’s emergent writing demonstrates the extend of their understanding of the alphabetic principle and other concepts about the forms and functions of print. Invented or Temporary Spelling Just as children’s oral language “errors” (e.g., “he goed” for “he went”) represent logical, developmental hypotheses about grammar, so also children’s and older students’ invented spellings (e.g. bar for bear) represent their logical, developmental hypotheses about how to spell. This step represents a high level cognitive process in which student “think through” how sounds and letters relate to one another. Invented spelling represents an important step on the way to conventional spelling which will assist both reading and writing development. P 168 Invented or Temporary Spelling How does invented spelling, which students use to work out sound/symbol correspondence, look for ELLs? - ELLs spelling shows us what they are hearing. “Dear Mom…don’t forget to tace owt my paperes foron my Wensday onvilope” “thar wus a lost dog and hee Koodinnt finde a hom but hee finlee fawnd a onr” A Research Question for teachers of non-literate refugees to document! What is the difference between younger and older learners whose first exposure to literacy is in their second language? How to do the research? Document your teaching strategies and corresponding student progress over time. Sharing these findings will expand the research available on these older students not literate in their primary language! p.171 Writing Research Findings As we look further into writing next week - I will be sharing some of the research on writing I have been doing over the past five years. English Language learners… learn English in hands-on, concrete ways As they learn English vocabulary in meaningful contexts they can begin to read it and write it. Remember; showing them a picture of a ball is not a way to teach a “b” sound if the word for ball in their language is “crunck.” Home and School Environments that Nurture Emergent Literacy The most important concept to bring from this portion is the realization that even parents who are from a nonliterate background have a high value for education and high aspirations for their children. Over 50% of my parents want their children to be doctors and the students hold those same aspirations. P 171-176 Classroom Strategies to Promote Early Literacy Early Literacy Goals - regardless of age: 1. Awareness and appreciation of the variety of purposes reading and writing serve 2. Understanding of relationships between print and oral language, including the alphabetic principle 3. Knowledge of print conventions, such as left-toright, top-to-bottom sequencing 4. Knowledge of specific sound/symbol correspondences, or phonics 5. Ability to recognize a growing number of words on sight. P 176-182 Classroom Strategies to Promote Early Literacy Holistic strategies - stores, poems, songs, and recipes - that serve real, day to day purposes Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom Books, books, books - teacher read, student created, student journals, etc.! Using Daily Routines to Highlight the form and Functions of Print - Wall dictionary Reading Aloud to Students with TPR strategies! Classroom Strategies to Promote Early Literacy Holistic strategies Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom Books, books, books Daily Routines Reading Aloud to Students With your grade level: Brainstorm ideas you might use for each of the areas above with the age group and content area you are/will be teaching. Make a list you can share! P 176-180 Course Outline – June 23 & 24 Reading Focus for ELLs Thursday, June 23 – – – – Introductions, Course Requirements, Challenges to ELL Literacy! Select Multicultural book to present to class. Sign up today. Sign up for preferences for ELL Teacher observation. Reading for Friday: Peregoy Chapter 5, CAL 1 – 4, Skelton Friday, June 24 – Peregoy – Chapter 5: Emergent Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write and Read - Basic steps a students goes through in learning to read. – CAL Reading: Chapter 1 - 4 – Skelton: Making content comprehensible - Watch DVD on TPR! – Reflection paper on reading for week due + Sign up for TPR!