Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Hardware and Software in the
Enterprise
6.1
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Objectives
1. Capabilities of computer hardware and
computer software.
2. Major issues in the management of
hardware and software assets.
6.2
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Hardware components of a computer system
Figure 6-1
6.3
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
The Computer System
Bit
• Binary digit
• Represents 0 or 1
Byte
• String of eight bits
• Stores one number, symbol, character, part of
picture
6.4
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Bits and bytes
Figure 6-2
6.5
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
The Computer System
The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Arithmetic-Logic Unit: Perform principle
logical/mathematical operations
• Control Unit (CU): Control and coordinate other
parts of computer
– Machine Cycle: The series of operations required to
process a single machine instruction.
6.6
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
The CPU and primary storage
Figure 6-3
6.7
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
The Computer System
Primary Storage
•
•
•
•
6.8
Located near CPU
Stores all or part of active software programs
Stores operating system programs
Stores data the programs are using
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
The Computer System
Primary Storage
• Composed of semi-conductors
– Integrated circuits (ICs) made by printed tiny transistors on small
silicon chips.
• RAM (random access memory)
– Used for short-term, temporary storage.
– Any randomly chosen location can be accessed in the same amount
of time.
– Memory is lost, when power is off.
• ROM (read-only memory)
– Semiconductor memory chips with burn-in program instructions.
– Store important and frequent use programs.
6.9
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Computer Processing
Microprocessors
• Semiconductor chips integrate memory, logic, and control
circuits for an entire CPU onto a single chip.
• Speed depends on
– Number of bits processed at one time (word length).
– Amount of data that can be moved between CPU, primary storage,
and other devices (data bus width).
– Cycle speed (MHz, millions of cycles per second).
• RISC (reduced instruction set computing) increases speed
by embedding frequently used instructions in a CPS.
– Can execute multiple instructions in a single machine cycle.
– Used for scientific, workstation computing.
6.10
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Computer Processing
Parallel processing
• Multiple CPUs work simultaneously on same
problem by breaking down a problem into smaller
parts (with a special software).
• More than one instruction processed at a time
• Massively parallel computers: use hundreds,
thousands of inexpensive and commonly used
processing chips.
6.11
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Sequential and parallel processing
Figure 6-4
6.12
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Storage, Input, and Output Technology
Secondary Storage Technology
• Used for relatively long-term storage of data outside CPU.
• Nonvolatile and retain data even when the power is off.
• Devices:
– Magnetic disk: floppies, hard disks, removable disk drives, RAID
(Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)
– Optical disk (compact disks, CD, or laser optical disks): CD-ROM
(compact disk read-only memory, up to 700 MB), CD-RW (CDReWrite), DVD (digital video disk or digital versatile disk, 4.7 GB
minimum)
– Magnetic tape (inexpensive, sequential access)
6.13
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Storage, Input, and Output Technology
Storage Networking
• Enable firms to manage all storage resources centrally by
providing an overall storage plan for all storage devices in
the enterprise.
• Storage networking arrangements:
– direct-attached storage: storage devices are connected and accessed
directly through a server. Access bottleneck is possible.
– network-attached storage (NAS): RAID with a dedicated server.
– storage area networks (SAN): dedicated high-speed storage
network. SAN creates a large pool of storage that can be shared by
multiple servers and users.
6.14
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
A storage area network (SAN)
Figure 6-5
6.15
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Storage, Input, and Output Technology
Input and Output Devices
• Input devices: Gather data and convert them
into electronic form for computer use.
• Output devices: Display data after they are
processed.
6.16
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Storage, Input, and Output Technology
Input Devices
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
6.17
Keyboard and mouse
Touch screen
Optical character recognition (OCR)
Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR)
Pen-based input
Digital scanner
Audio input
Sensors
Radio-frequency identification (RFID)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Storage, Input, and Output Technology
Output Devices
• Cathode-ray tube (CRT) or video display terminals
(VDTs)
• Printers
• Audio output
6.18
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Storage, Input, and Output Technology
Batch Processing
• Accumulates and stores transactions in group or batch until
time to process them
• Found primarily in older systems for occasional reporting
• Use tape storage
Online Processing
• Transactions processed immediately
• Use disk storage
6.19
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure
Storage, Input, and Output Technology
Interactive Multimedia
• Integrates sound, video or animation, graphics, text into computerbased application.
• Foundation of new consumer products and services: e-books, enewspapers, e-classrooms, video conferencing, imaging design,
video/voice mails.
• Streaming technology: Technology for transferring and processing data
as a steady and continuous stream.
• New compression standards: MP3 (MPEG3), Motion Picture Experts
Group, audio layer 3. Compress audio files down to one-tenth or onetwelfth of their original size with virtually no loss in quality.
6.20
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems
Classifying Computers
• Mainframe: Largest computer with massive memory and
rapid processing power; handles massive amounts of data
and complicated processes; used for large business,
scientific, military applications.
• Midrange computer: Smaller, less expensive
minicomputers or servers; used for smaller organizations
or managing networks of other computer.
– Minicomputers: Used in systems for universities, factories,
research labs.
– Servers: Manage internal company networks or Web sites.
• Server Farm: Large group of servers maintained by a commercial
vendor and made available to subscribers for e-commerce and other
activities requiring heavy use of servers.
6.21
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems
Classifying Computers
• Personal computer: Portable or desktop
microcomputer.
• Workstation: More powerful desktop computer
used for computation-intense tasks such as
mathematical and graphical processing.
• Supercomputer: Sophisticated, powerful computer
used for tasks requiring rapid, complex
calculations; weapons research, weather
forecasting.
6.22
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems
Computer Networks and Client/Server Computing
• Distributed processing: Distribution of processing
work among multiple computers.
– Client/server computing: Splits processing between
“clients” and “servers” on network.
• Centralized processing: Accomplished by one
large central computer.
6.23
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems
Client/server computing
Figure 6-6
6.24
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems
Types of client/server computing
Figure 6-7
6.25
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems
Network Computers and Peer-to-Peer Computing
• Network computer (NC): Simplified desktop computer,
does not store data permanently; minimal memory, storage,
and processor power; software and application are
downloaded as needed.
• Peer-to-peer computing: Distributed processing that links
computers through Internet or private networks; computers
work together without a server or any central controlling
authority. (Examples: Kazaa)
– Grid computing: Applies unused computational resources of many
networked computers to solve a large, complex problem.
(Examples: DNA project, Bank-One risk analysis)
6.26
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
• Software program: A series of statements or
instructions to the computer
– Coding, programming, programmer, developer.
• Two major types of software:
– System software: Generalized programs that manage
the computer’s resources (system programmer)
– Application software: Programs written for or by users
to perform a specific task (application programmer)
6.27
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
The major types of software
Figure 6-8
6.28
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
System Software and PC Operating Systems
• Operating system software: Manages the computer system,
resources; controls memory, input, output, and task
scheduling
– Capabilities: multi-programming, virtual storage, time-sharing,
multi-processing
• Computer language translation programs: Compiles or
interprets source code of high-level language programs (C,
FORTRAN, BASIC) into object code - machine language
the computer can execute
• Utility programs: Perform routine, repetitive tasks such as
copying, clearing primary storage
6.29
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
System Software and PC Operating Systems
Operating System Capabilities
• Multiprogramming: Concurrent use of CPU by multiple
programs
• Virtual storage: Breaks programs into smaller portions to
read as needed
• Time-sharing: Allows many users to share CPU time
• Multi-processing: Links two or more CPUs to work in
parallel in single computer system
6.30
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
System Software and PC Operating Systems
PC Operating Systems
• Software written for one OS generally cannot run
on another
• Graphical User Interface (GUI): Make extensive
use of icons, buttons, bars, boxes, and windows to
perform input tasks.
– Become dominant model for user interface for
operating systems and applications.
6.31
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
System Software and PC Operating Systems
Leading PC Operating Systems
•
•
•
•
•
•
Windows XP (eXPerience) Home / Professional
Windows 2000, high performance for network servers
Windows Server 2003, server OS
Windows 98/ME (priori to Windows XP)
Windows CE, for handheld and wireless devices
Unix, reliable, scalable, portable, multi-tasking, multi-processing,
multi-user access, networking
• Linux, unix OS for PCs, open-source software
• Mac OS
• DOS, 16-bit OS
6.32
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Application Programming Languages
Machine
language
C
1st generation; binary code; slow and labor
intensive
Operating systems; application software
C++
Object-oriented; application software
COBOL
Business administration; alphanumeric
processing; reporting (Common Business
Oriented Language)
Visual Basic Visual tool; Windows applications
6.33
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Application Programming Languages
6.34
FORTRAN
Processing numeric data; scientific,
engineering programs
BASIC
Used for teaching
Pascal
Used primarily for teaching programming
Assembly
language
Second generation; close to machine
language; system software
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools
• Fourth generation languages: Enable end users to develop
applications with minimal or no assistance; less procedural
• Procedural languages: Require sequence of steps
• Nonprocedural languages: Specify tasks but not details on
sequence
– Natural languages: Nonprocedural languages resembling human
speech
• Query languages: Software tools for providing online
answers to information requests
6.35
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages
6.36
PC software tools
General-purpose packages
WordPerfect, Microsoft Access
Query language
Retrieve data stored in databases or
files
SQL
Report generator
Retrieve data, more formatting control;
Crystal Reports
Graphics language
Retrieve data, graphics format
SAS Graph; Systat
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages
6.37
Application generator
Preprogrammed modules
FOCUS, Microsoft FrontPage
Application software
package
Commercial software replacing need
for custom, in-house software
PeopleSoft HCM, SAP R/3
Very high-level
programming
language
Generate code with fewer instructions;
productivity tool for programmers
APL, Nomad2
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools
Object-Oriented Programming
• Combine data and methods (procedures) into one
object
• Objects are independent, reusable building blocks
• Based on concepts of class and inheritance
6.38
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Class and inheritance
Figure 6-9
6.39
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools
Java
•
•
•
•
•
6.40
Object-oriented
Platform-independent
Robust; handles data, graphics, video, sound
Can create “applets”; often used on Web
Java applications tend to run slower than “native”
programs
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools
• Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): Page description
language; creates Web pages and other hypermedia
documents (instructions are called tags)
• XML (eXtensible Markup Language): Describes data as a
web document for programs to use; provides standard
format for data exchange (DTD, Document Type
Definition; Ex., RosettaNet)
• XHTML: Reformulates HTML with XML document-type
definitions
6.41
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Application Software Packages and Productivity Software
• Word processing software: Store data electronically as a computer file;
Create, format, print documents, spelling / grammar check, mail merge
– Microsoft Word, WordPerfect
• Desktop publishing software: Produce professional-quality documents
with greater formatting, design capabilities for text, graphics, and
photos
– Adobe PageMaker, QuarkXpress
• Spreadsheets: Display and store data in grid for calculating numerical
data; recalculation, modeling, what-if analysis, break-even analysis
– Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3
• Data management software: Store, manipulate data in lists and
databases; query, reporting
– Microsoft Access, Oracle, Sybase
6.42
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Text and the spell-checking option in Microsoft Word
Figure 6-10
6.43
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Spreadsheet software
Figure 6-11
6.44
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Data management software
Figure 6-12
6.45
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Application Software Packages and Productivity Software
• Presentation graphics: Create professional-quality graphics and
multimedia presentations
– Microsoft PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics, Aldus Persuasion,
Paint-Shop-Pro
• Integrated Software Packages and Suites: Combine two or more
applications; easy data transfer
– Microsoft Office, OpenOffice, StarOffice
• E-mail software: Computer exchange of messages; broadcast, forward,
attachment
• Web browsers: Access and display Web, Internet resources
• Groupware: Support activities of workgroups; group writing and
commenting, info sharing, e-meeting, scheduling, e-mail
– Microsoft Office (business version), Lotus Notes, LiveLink (OpenText),
Groov (peer-to-peer)
6.46
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business
• Enterprise software: Integrates multiple business processes
• Legacy system: System in place for long time
• Middleware: Software that connects two disparate systems;
in-house or vendor solution
• Enterprise application integration (EAI) software:
Middleware to create hub connecting applications and
application clusters
– WebMethods, Tibco, CrossWorlds, SeeBeyond, BEA, Vitria
6.47
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Enterprise application integration (EAI) software versus traditional integration
Figure 6-13
6.48
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business
• Web services: Universal standards using Internet
technology for exchanging data between systems
• Web server: Manages requests for Web pages on
computer where they are stored
• Application server: Middleware software handling
application operations between user and back-end
business systems
6.49
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
A multitiered architecture for e-commerce and e-business
Figure 6-14
6.50
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Window on Technology
Application Integration to the Rescue
• How can enterprise application integration and
Web services technology provide value for
organizations?
• What management, organization, and technology
issues should be addressed when making the
decision about whether to use these technologies?
6.51
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Managing Hardware and Software Assets
Hardware Technology Requirements
For Electronic Commerce and the Digital Firm
• Selection and use of computer hardware and software
technology can have a profound impact on business
performance.
• Capacity planning: Process of predicting when a computer
hardware system becomes saturated
– Max users, future software applications, min response time (Ex.
Nasdaq)
• Scalability: Ability of a computer, product, or system to
expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking
down
6.52
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Managing Hardware and Software Assets
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of Technology Assets
• Includes both direct and indirect costs
• Hardware and software acquisitions account for
only 20% of TCO
• TCO for a PC may run to three times original
purchase price
• Hidden costs can make distributed architecture
more expensive than centralized mainframes
– Support staff, down time, network management
6.53
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Managing Hardware and Software Assets
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Cost Components
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
6.54
Hardware acquisition
Software acquisition
Installation
Training
Support
Maintenance
Infrastructure
Downtime
Space and energy
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Managing Hardware and Software Assets
Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service Providers
• Storage service provider (SSP): Provides online access to
storage devices and storage area network technology
– Availability, reliability, flexibility, response time.
• Application service provider (ASP): Delivers applications
over networks on subscription basis
– Payroll, HR, sales force automation, financial management,
benefit, tax calculation
• Management service provider: Manages applications,
systems, security, storage, Web sites, system performance
6.55
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Types of Software
Model of an Application Service Provider (ASP)
Figure 6-15
6.56
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e
Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
Managing Hardware and Software Assets
Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service Providers
• Business continuity provider: Defines procedures
for recovery from system malfunctions, disaster
recovery
• Utility computing (on-demand computing, usagebased pricing; IBM): Model in which companies
pay only for resources used in a specific time
period
6.57
© 2005 by Prentice Hall
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