OCLC Online Computer Library Center
DDC number building for shelf
arrangement
Julianne Beall
Assistant Editor, DDC
Library of Congress
July 4, 2006
Vienna
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Broad outline
 Part 1. Elements of typical call numbers
 Part 2. Class numbers
 Part 3. Book numbers and other methods
of subarrangement
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Part 1. Elements of typical call numbers
 Call number = class number + book
number (or other method of alphabetic
subarrangement)
 Example:
 641.5972
 .B3433
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Call number
 A set of letters, numerals or other symbols (in
combination or alone) used by a library to
identify a specific copy of a work. A call
number consists of the class number and book
number (or Cutter number).
 It may also contain other data such as date,
volume number, copy number and location
symbol.
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Class number
 Notation that designates the class to which a
given item belongs.
 Example: 641.5972 Cooking characteristic
of Mexico
 Used for Rick Bayless's Mexican kitchen :
capturing the vibrant flavors of a worldclass cuisine
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Book number
 The part of a call number that distinguishes a
specific item from other items within the same
class number, also called a Cutter number. A
book number is composed of letters from the
author's name and numbers.
 Example: .B3433 for Bayless, Rick
 From OCLC Cutter Four-Figure Table
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Other method of alphabetic
subarrangement
 Instead of formal book numbers, many
libraries prefer simple methods of
alphabetic subarrangement
 Example: Bay for Bayless, Rick
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Part 2. Class numbers
 Broad classification and logical
abridgment
 Building with tables (numbered auxiliary
tables)
 Building with add tables
 Building with other add notes
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Broad classification
 The classification of works in broad categories
by logical abridgment, even when more
specific numbers are available, e.g., the use of
641.5 Cooking instead of 641.5972 Mexican
cooking for a cookbook of Mexican recipes.
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Logical abridgment
 The abridged number is the same as the
full number, but shorter
 The number is abridged at a logical place
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Abridged edition
 A shortened version of the Dewey Decimal
Classification (DDC) system that is a logical
truncation of the notational and structural
hierarchy of the corresponding full edition on
which it is based. The abridged edition is
intended for general collections of 20,000
titles or less.
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Segmentation marks (/ or ‘)
 Records from Library of Congress and Library and
Archives Canada include segmentation marks in
Dewey class numbers
 These marks show end of abridged number
 The slash (/) appears in MARC records
 The prime mark (‘) appears in Cataloging in
Publication printed in books
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Example of segmentation
 641.5/6314
 The abridged number (641.5) means
cooking
 The full number (641.56314) means
cooking for people with diabetes
 Never include segmentation marks in call
numbers
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Building with tables (numbered auxiliary
tables)
 Numbers from auxiliary tables are never
used alone for shelf arrangement
 They may, however, be used alone in a
database for resource discovery
 Today we won’t be able to cover all six
auxiliary tables; we will cover the
following tables:
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Tables to be covered today
 Table 2. Geographic Areas, Historical Periods,
Persons
 Table 1. Standard Subdivisions
 Table 3A. Subdivisions for Works by or about
Individual Authors
 Table 3B. Subdivisions for Works by or about More
than One Author
 Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups
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Table 2. Geographic Areas, Historical
Periods, Persons
 The following numbers are never used
alone, but may be used as required
(either directly when so noted or through
the interposition of notation T1—09 from
Table 1) with any number from the
schedules, e.g., wages (331.29) in Japan
(T2—52 in this table): 331.2952 ; railroad
transportation (385) in Brazil (T2—81 in
this table): 385.0981
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641.593-641.599 Cooking characteristic
of specific continents, countries,
localities
Add to base number 641.59 notation T2—3T2—9 from Table 2 , e.g., Southern
cooking (United States) 641.5975
T2—75
Southeastern United States
(South Atlantic states)
Class here southern states
641.59+[T2—]75=641.5975
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641.59+[T2—]436=641.59436 (etc.)
 641.59436
Austrian cooking
 641.5943613

641.5944
Cooking of Vienna
French cooking
 641.59442
Cooking of Normandy
 641.59449
Cooking of Provence
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641.59+[T2—]45=641.5945 (etc.)
 641.5945
Italian cooking
 641.59455
Cooking of Tuscany
 641.59458
Cooking of Sicily
 641.595
Asian cooking
 641.5951
Chinese cooking
 641.5952
Japanese cooking
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Facet
 Any of the various categories into which a
given class may be divided, e.g., division
of the class "people" into the categories
of ethnicity, age, education and language
spoken. Each category contains terms
based on a single characteristic of
division, e.g., children, adolescents and
adults are characteristics of division of
the "ages" category.
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Facet indicator
 A digit used to introduce notation
representing a characteristic of the
subject. For example, "0" is often used as
a facet indicator to introduce standard
subdivision concepts.
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Rule for logical abridgment
 Never abridge a number so as to leave a “0” or
other facet indicator at the end, in the part
following the decimal point
 Dewey numbers may end with “0” before the
decimal point
 Examples:
630 is O.K.
 630.90 is not O.K.
 630.9 is O.K.
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Table 1. Standard Subdivisions
 The following notation is never used
alone, but may be used as required with
any regular schedule number, e.g.,
workbooks (T1—076 in this table) in
arithmetic (513): 513.076. When adding
to a number from the schedules, always
insert a decimal point between the third
and fourth digits of the complete number
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T1—09 Historical, geographic, persons
treatment
 T1—092
Persons
Biography, autobiography, description and critical appraisal
of work, diaries . . .
Class here treatment of individuals
 T1—093-T1—099 Treatment by specific
continents, countries, localities;
extraterrestrial worlds
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T1—09 Historical, geographic, persons
treatment
 T1—093-T1—099 Treatment by
specific continents, countries,
localities; extraterrestrial worlds
Add to base number T1—09 notation T2—3-T2—9
from Table 2, e.g., the subject in North America
T1—097, in Brazil T1—0981
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630 Agriculture and related technologies
 Standard subdivisions are added for
agriculture and related technologies
together, for agriculture alone
 630.9
 630.92
Agriculture—history
Agricultural workers, farmers
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63+[T1—]09+[T2—]4=630.94 (etc.)
 630.94 Agriculture—Europe
 630.9436 Agriculture—Austria
 630.94363
Agriculture—Salzburg
province
 630.944 Agriculture—France
 630.94438
Agriculture—Lorraine
 630.945 Agriculture—Italy
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634.9+[T1—]09=634.909 (etc.)
 634.9 Forestry
 634.909 Forestry—history
 634.9092 Foresters
 634.9094 Forestry—Europe
 634.909436
Forestry—Austria
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Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups
The following numbers are never used alone, but
may be used as required (either directly when so
noted or through the interposition of notation T1—
089 from Table 1) with any number from the
schedules, e.g., civil and political rights ( 323.11 )
of Navajo Indians ( T5—9726 in this table):
323.119726 ; ceramic arts ( 738 ) of Jews ( T5—
924 in this table): 738.089924 . They may also be
used when so noted with numbers from other
tables, e.g., notation T2—174 from Table 2
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Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups (2)
Except where instructed otherwise, and
unless it is redundant, add 0 to the
number from this table and to the result
add notation T2—1 or T2—3-T2—9 from
Table 2 for area in which a group is or
was located, e.g., Germans in Brazil T5—
31081 , but Germans in Germany T5—31 ;
Jews in Germany or Jews from Germany
T5—924043
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305.805-305.89 Specific ethnic and
national groups
Add to base number 305.8 notation T5—
05-T5—9 from Table 5, e.g.,
comprehensive works on Jews 305.8924,
Chinese 305.8951, Chinese Australians
305.8951094, Inuit 305.89712
305.8+[T5—]951+0+[T2—]94=
305.8951094
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305.8+[T5—]31 (etc.)
 305.831
Germans
 305.835
Swiss
 305.836
Austrians
 305.841
French
 305.851
Italians
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305.8+[T5—]41+0+[T2—]494=
305.8410494
 305.835
Swiss
 305.836
Austrians
 305.841
French
 305.8410494
 305.851
 305.8510494
French-speaking
Swiss
Italians
Italian-speaking
Swiss
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830.1-838 Subdivisions of German
literature
 Add to base number 83 as instructed at
beginning of Table 3, e.g., a collection of
German literature 830.8
 T3B—08 Collections of literary texts in
more than one form
 83+[T3B—]08=830.8
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Table 3B. Subdivisions for Works by or
about More than One Author
 T3B—08 Collections of literary texts in
more than one form
 T3B—09 History, description, critical
appraisal of works in more
than one form
 830.8
German literature—collections
 830.9
German literature—history and criticism
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830.1-838 Subdivisions of German
literature
 Add to base number 83 as instructed at beginning
of Table 3, e.g., a collection of German literature
830.8
 PERIOD TABLE
.....
 912
1900-1945
 914
1945-1990
 92
1990-
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Table 3A. Subdivisions for Works by or
about Individual Authors
 T3A—1
Poetry
 T3A—11-T3A—19
Poetry of specific
periods
Add to T3A—1 notation from the period
table for the specific literature in 810890, e.g., earliest period T3A—11; do not
add standard subdivisions
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83+[T3A—]1+912=831.912 (etc.)
 Specific literature (German) + specific
form (poetry) + literary period (19001945) (etc.)
 831.912
German poetry—1900-1945
 831.914
German poetry—1945-1990
 831.92
German poetry—1990-
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598
*Aves (Birds)
Class here land birds, ornithology
*Add as instructed under 592-599
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Add table at 592-599
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592-599 Specific taxonomic groups of
animals
Except for modifications shown under
specific entries, add to each subdivision
identified by * as follows:
 1 General topics of natural history of
animals
Add to base number 1 the numbers following 591
in 591.3-591.7, e.g., beneficial animals 163
 598+1+[591.]63=598.163
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“1” as facet indicator
 In the add table at 592-599, “1” introduces the
facet: General topics of natural history of animals
 Never abridge a number built using this add table
with the facet indicator “1” at the end of the
number after the decimal point
 “1” is also used as facet indicator elsewhere in life
sciences (570-590) and in music (780)
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598+1+[591.]63=598.163
 591 Specific topics in natural history of
animals
 591.6
 591.63
Miscellaneous nontaxonomic kinds
of animals
Beneficial animals
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598+1+[591.]38=598.138 (etc.)
 598.138
Birds—evolution
 598.139
Baby birds
 598.1468
 598.15
Eggs—birds
Behavior—birds
 598.156
Life cycle—birds
 598.1564
Birds' nests
 598.1568
Migratory birds
 598.176
Aquatic birds
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338.4 Secondary industries and services
 338.47001-338.47999
products and services
Subdivisions for
Add to base number 338.47 notation 001-999,
e.g., gasoline production industry
338.4766553827, tourist industry 338.4791 . . . .
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338.47+004=338.47004 (etc.)
 338.47004
Computer industry
 338.47004678
 338.470705
Internet industry
Publishing industry
 338.47374013 Adult vocational
education and training
services industry
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338.47+6151=338.476151 (etc.)
 338.476151
Drugs (Pharmaceuticals)
industry
 338.476205
Nanotechnology industry
 338.47621381
 338.4762382
Electronic equipment
industry
Shipbuilding industry
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338.47+624=338.47624 (etc.)
 338.47624
Construction industry
 338.4764794
Hotel industry
 338.4764795
Food services industry
 338.4766
Chemical industries
 338.476621
Fireworks industry
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338.47+664853=338.47664853 (etc.)
 338.47664853
 338.476649
Frozen vegetables
industry
Meat processing industry
 338.4766492
Beef processing industry
 338.4766493
Chicken (Meat) processing
industry
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338.47+666=338.47666 (etc.)
 338.47666
Ceramics industry
 338.476691
Iron industry—metallurgy
 338.47669142 Steel industry—metallurgy
 338.47674
Lumber industry
 338.47674142
 338.4767483
Hardwood lumber
industry
Composite woods industry
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Part 3. Book numbers and other methods
of subarrangement
 All methods of subarrangement are
optional and not part of DDC proper
 Many different methods of
subarrangement are used in Dewey
libraries
 In a very few places in the DDC there are
instructions for subarrangement—but
they are optional
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Arrange alphabetically
 Rare instruction in DDC
 Always optional
 006.74 Markup languages
Arrange alphabetically by name of language, e.g.,
XML
 006.74
 .X6
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Arrange chronologically
 Rare instruction in DDC
 Optional
 796.98 Winter Olympic games
Arrange specific games chronologically
 796.98
 2006
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Individual biographies
 Arrange alphabetically by name of
biographee
 Example: biography of forester Emile
Grandjean
 634.9092
 .G764
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Double Cuttering
 If you use Cutter numbers to arrange
alphabetically by topic (e.g., name of
biographee), you may then add a second
Cutter number for the author’s name.
 As with all forms of subarrangement,
double Cuttering is not part of DDC proper
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Example of double Cuttering
 Biography of forester Emile Grandjean
 Grandjean : man of the forests
By Gordon S. Bowen
 634.9092
 .G764B6754
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Dewey Cutter Program
 http://www.oclc.org/dewey/support/pro
gram/default.htm
 Free download
 OCLC Four-Figure Cutter Tables
 Compatible with Cutter Three-Figure Author Table
 Compatible with Cutter-Sanborn Three-Figure
Author Table
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Dewey Cutter Program
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Cutter Four-Figure Table: examples
 Sa565
(Sanders, Margaret)
 Sch721
(Schreiber, Albert)
 Sch723
(Schreiber, John)
 Sch7243 (Schreiber, Nancy)
 Sch7247 (Schreiber, Robert)
 Sch725
(Schreiber, William)
 St835
(Streeter, Joan)
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Cutter-Sanborn Four-Figure Table:
examples
 S2156 (Sanders, Margaret)
 S3781 (Schreiber, Albert)
 S3783 (Schreiber, John)
 S37843 (Schreiber, Nancy)
 S37845 (Schreiber, Robert)
 S37847 (Schreiber, William)
 S9154 (Streeter, Joan)
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Other methods of alphabetic
subarrangement
 Many libraries use all or part of an
author’s name for alphabetic
subarrangement
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Example of another method of alphabetic
subarrangement
 Sanders
 Schreiber, A
 Schreiber, J
 Schreiber, N
 Schreiber, R
 Schreiber, W
 Streeter
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Resources and links (1)
 ddc-deutsch:
 http://www.ddc-deutsch.de/
 Dewey Cutter Program:
 http://www.oclc.org/dewey/support/pro
gram/default.htm
OCLC Online Computer Library Center
Resources and links (2)
 Comaromi, John P. Book numbers: a
historical study and practical guide to
their use. Littleton, Colo.: Libraries
Unlimited, 1981
 Lehnus, Donald J. Book numbers: history,
principles, and application. Chicago:
American Library Association, 1980
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Resources and links (3)
 Online DDC Catalogs:
 http://www.oclc.org/dewey/about/worl
dwide/default.htm
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