AP US HISTORY
REVIEW
IT IS NOT THE ELITE IT IS
THE
PREPARED
DISCOVERY AND
SETTLEMENT
EUROPE IN 16th CENTURY
 Renaissance
 Reformation
 Age
of Exploration
 England, Spain, France
 Trade and Wars
SPANISH EXPLORATION
 Gold,
Glory and the Gospel
 Columbus
 Conquistadors
– Young, Restless, Adventure
 Encomienda
System
– 90% of Native Population decimated
– Slavery
 1st
Indians
 2nd Africans
 Cortez
= Tenochtitland/Aztecs
 Mestizos
 Mulattos
 Horses,
Cattle, Pigs
 Catholic = Jesuits (Missions)
 Columbian Exchange
– CBS
– Potato
– Improved Life
– STD’s
 Repatimento
 Bartholmew
de la Casas
– Black Legend=Spain Kills for Christ
 Cabeza
da Vaca
FRENCH EXPLORATION
 Fur,
Forts and
 Rivers important
 Mississippi River Valley
 Louisiana
 Catholic
 Only 20K
 Intermarriage with Indians
– Trading Rights
 Courers
de Boers
 Alliances with Natives
– Algonquin
– Guns and Alcohol
 Ohio
River Valley
 St.
ENGLISH EXPLORATION
Augustine (Spanish)
– 1st North American Settlement
 Richard
Hakluyt
– Land of Milk and Honey
 Joint
Stock Companies
– Make $
 Roanoke
JAMESTOWN
 Single
men
– No experience in Farming or Fishing
 Starving
Time
– Searching for Riches
 John
Smith
– No Work, No Eat
– Pocahontas
– Military Dictator
 Lord
de la Warr
– Replaces John Smith

John Rolfe
– Pocahontas
– Tobacco

Headright System
– Indentured Servants
– 50 acres for each servant
– Given land in the east

Indentured Servants
– Work for 7 years
– What did they get when freed?
– Went west to live (Indians)

Land
– Political Prestige and Status
– Needed workers
– Tobacco
 Plantation
Owners
– Dominated Society
– Social, Political and Economic
 Anglican
Church
– Tax Supported, Royalists
 1619
– WOMEN
– Tobacco
– House of Burgesses
 1st
Colonial Legislature
– 1st Africans
 RELIGIOUS
 Pilgrims
PLYMOUTH
= Separatists
– Break from Church England
– Children were Dutchified
 Mayflower
Compact
– Majority Rule
 Thanksgiving
= Indians
 Squanto = Saved them
 Governor
William Bradford
– Theocracy
 Communistic
– Community Work together/Sharing
– Utopia
 Absorbed
into MBC
AMERICAN INDIAN
 50
– 100 M prior to 1500
 Canada to South America
 Tribes
– Different languages, Religious and
Cultures
 Developed
Civilizations
– Incas = Peru
– Aztecs = Mesoamerica
– Agricultural = CBS
– Studied Math and Astronomy
 North
America less Developed
 Agriculture = Women
 Little property owned
 Communal Living
 Pueblos = Terraced Dwellings
 Mound Builders
– Egyptian like tombs
– Trade
5
Civilized Tribes
 Iroquois
= New York
– Hiawatha
– Military Confederacy
– Longhouse
 Polytheistic
 European
Contact
– 90% Died (Disease)
– Warfare Changed
– Trade
– Horse
– Religion
AMERICA, 1607 - 1700
CHESAPEAKE
 Virginia
and Maryland
 Tobacco = $$$
 Death Valley
 Men outnumbered Women 6-1
 Women
– Marriages = 2
– Property Owners
– Multiple Families
 Plantation
Owners = East
 Free
Indentured Servants = West
 Headright System
 Bacon’s Rebellion
– Expansion Westward = Indians
– Free Indentured Servants vs. Indians
and Plantation Owners
– African Slaves
 Lord
Baltimore
– Catholic Haven (Maryland)
– Quit Rents
– Puritans
 Maryland
Act of Toleration
– Christians
 GEOGRAPHY
– Southern Climate Good for Crops
– Malaria wiped out Indians
– Africans immune to Malaria
– One crop economy (Tobacco)
– Plantations
 SOCIAL
– Racism
– Slave Codes
– Miscegnation
– Bacon’s Rebellion
– Mortality Rate
 Social
Structure
– Based on the number of slaves/servants
– Plantation Owners
– Yeoman Farmers
– Free Indentured Servants
– Indentured Servants
– Slaves
NEW ENGLAND
Massachusetts Bay Colony
 Puritan Dominated

– Non-Separatists
– Purified The Church of England

John Calvin
– Predestination
– The Elect
– Visible Saints

Great Migration
– Puritans Come from England
– Caribbean

John Winthrop
– City Upon A Hill
 Congregation
Church
– Cambridge Agreement
– Community = Tax Supported
– Town Hall = Politics
– Each Church was Independent of others
 Halfway
Covenant
– Grandparent
 Harvard
– 1st University
– Ministers
 Family
= Father Dominated
Grandparents
 Merchant Class

– Political Influence
Towns/Villages
 Property and Church Requirements to Vote
 Women

–
–
–
–

Longer Marriages
No Property Rights
No Political Rights
Kids
Education = Bible
 Non-Puritans
– Anne Hutchinson = Antinomianism
– Roger Williams = Indians
– Quakers = Pacifists
 Great
Awakening
 Salem
– Witch Trials
– Destroyed the Puritans power
 Mercantilism
 Triangular
Trade
– Rum, Molasses, Slaves
 Economy
– Fishing = Cod instead of God
– Shipbuilding
– Lumber
– Fur
– Small Farms
 Short
growing season
 Rocky Soil
RESTORATION COLONIES

Middle Atlantic
– Bread Basket
– Cosmopolitan
– New York and Pennsylvania

South
– Slavery
– Rice, Indigo and Tobacco
– South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia
 South
Carolina = Plantation and Slave Codes
 North Carolina = Tobacco, Yeoman Farmers
 Georgia = Buffer, James Oglethorp
DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND
 NE
Town Hall Meetings
 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
– First Written Constitution
 New
England Confederation
– Puritan Colonies Unify for Defense
– Indians and French
 Glorious
Revolution
– Sir Edmund Andros creates Dominion of
New England

Dominion of New England
– Enforcement of Navigation Laws
– Town Hall Meetings Forbidden
– Restrictions on Church and Schools (AntiPuritan)
– Taxes without Colonial Legislature approval
– Smuggling
– Andros Removed

Leisler’s Rebellion
– Land given to the rich supporters of Catholic
King
– Poor vs. Rich
– Failed
 Salutary
Neglect
– Reduces British intervention in Colonial
Affairs
– 13 Colonial Governments
 Peter
Zenger Case (1735)
– Freedom of Expression and Press
– Corrupt Royal Governor Exposed
ORIGINS OF SLAVERY
 1619
the 1st Africans arrive
 Bacon’s Rebellion
 Life
 Stono Rebellion
AMERICAN SOCIETY,
1700s
THE ECONOMY

Navigation Acts
– Enforce Mercantilism
– Restrcited colonies to and from Colonies
– Brits did not want competition
 Hat,
Iron, Wool
– American Smuggling

Mercantilism
–
–
–
–
–
Britain became richer
Colonies had the rights of Englishment
Colonies had self-government
Colonies had military protection
Colonies developed trade and industry
 Salutary
Neglect
– Colonial Self-Government
– Colonies gave little interference
– Britain provided peace, protection and
commerce
– British immigrants = more consumers
for British goods
GREAT AWAKENING
 Maryland
– Catholics
– Act of Toleration
 Church
of England
– Anglican Church
– Royal Authority
 Separatists
– Pilgrims
– Dutchification
– Break from Church of England
 John
Calvin
– Predestination
– Elect
 Puritans
– Purify the Church of England of its
Catholicism
– Persecuted by England
– Great Migration
– Cambridge Agreement
– John Winthrop
 What
did the Puritans give us?
– Democracy
– Town Hall Meetings
– Concern for Civic Issues
– Schools
– Reform
– Protestant Work Ethic

Congregation Church
–
–
–
–
–
–

Puritans
Each church independent
Enforce God’s Law
Religious dissent persecuted
Clergy could NOT hold office
Only church members could vote
Anne Hutchinson
– Antinomianism
– Elect does not have to obey God’s Law or Civil
Law
– Direct Revelations from God = Heresy
– John Cotton = Favorite
– Banished
 Roger
Williams
– Land belongs to the Indians
– Indians deserve fair compensation
– Civil Government does NOT regulate
religion
– Separation of Church and State
 Jeremiad
– Parishioners need to be committed
 Halfway
Covenant
– Partial membership
– For the grandparents
 Salem
Witch Trials
– East vs. West
– Rich vs. Poor
– Farmers vs. Merchants
– Full Puritans vs. Half-Way Puritans
– Cotton Mather
– Religious leaders declines
 Universities
– Harvard (1st)
– William and Mary (1st in South)
– Train Ministers
 Rhode
Island = Freedom of Religion
 Pennsylvania
– William Penn’s Holy Experiment
– Haven for Quakers
– No Oaths
– No authority figures
– Pacifists
– Abolitionists
– Liberal Government (Philly)
– University of Penn (Secular)
 Presbyterians
– All Churches are unified
 First
Great Awakening
– Theological Doctrine Disputes
– Emotional Stagnation
– Anti-Calvinism
 Jonathan
Edwards
– Emphasized eternal Damnation
– Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
 Old
Lights vs. New Lights
– Old Lights = Anti- Emotion & Theatrics
– New Lights = Emotionalism (Baptists)
– Split Denominations
 Congregational
and Presbyterians
– Undermined clergy
 Old
Lights vs. New Lights
– Missionary work among Indians and
Slaves
– New Colleges
 Dartmouth,
Princeton, Brown
– Baptists benefited
NEW IMMIGRANTS
 17th
Century
– Indentured Servants
– African Slaves (Chattel)
 18th
Century
– England = 66%
– Africans = 20%
– Scots-Irish = 5.6%
– German = 4.5%
 Regions
– South = 90% of the Slaves
– New England = Puritan
– Middle Atlantic = Ethnically Mixed
 Scots-Irish
– Presbyterian
– Anti-British
– Frontiersmen
– Fought the Indians
 Germans
– Religious and Economic Oppression
– Lutheran
– No Loyalty to British Crown
ROAD TO
REVOLUTION
1754 - 1775
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

Albany Plan of Union (1754)
– Called to plan defense against French and
Indian attacks
– Home Rule for the Colonies
– Benjamin Franklin’s idea (Join or Die)

John Locke
– Life, Liberty and Property
– Consent of the Governed
– Protection of Natural Rights

Baron de Montesquieu
– Checks and Balances
– Separation of Powers
 Adam
Smith
– Economist
– Laissez Faire
– Private Enterprise
– Bible of Capitalism
 Ohio
River Valley
– Trade
– Fur and Fish
 England
vs. France = World War
 George
Washington
 Iroquois
– Pro-British
– French allied with most of the Indians
 Canada
= The Prize
 Treaty of Paris
– Ended the war
– France kicked out of North America
– Cajuns moved to Louisiana
IMPERIAL REORGANIZATION
 End
of Salutary Neglect
 Britain was in debt
 Pontiac’s Rebellion
 Proclamation Line of 1763
– Prohibited Americans from entering Ohio
River Valley
– British wanted to keep Indians happy
(Pontiac’s Rebellion)
– Trade with Indians more important than
keeping the colonials happy
– The Americans wanted into the Ohio Valley
– Americans had fought in the war to defeat the
Indians
– Americans had seen the weakness of British
soldiers

King George III
– Micromanager
– Manic depressant

Taxes
– To pay off British war debt
– Pay for protection (Soldiers)

Molasses Act
– Tax on molasses, rum and sugar
– New England traded rum for slaves
– New England dependent on slave trade
 Writs
of Assistance
– British search warrants
– Harass colonial shipping
– Stop colonial smuggling
 Currency
Act
– Colonials ordered to stop printing
money (Rhode Island)
– Colonial debts to be paid in hard
currency (Gold/Silver)
STAMP ACT

Sugar Act (1764)
– 1st tax to raise revenue
– Molasses Tax reduced
– Designed to control the illegal triangular trade

Stamp Act (1765)
– Raise revenue for British troops
– Stamps to be on all paper products
– Accused = Guilty until proven innocent
 Admiralty
Courts
– Brits wanted Americans to pay their fair share
 Stamp
Act Congress
– Colonials adopted Virginia Resolves
– Taxation by Colonial legislatures only
– Non-Importation Agreements
 Quartering
Act (1765)
– Provide food and shelter to British
troops
– Warehouses
 Sons
of Liberty
– Samuel Adams
– Vandals
– Tar and Feather
– Britain forced to repeal the Stamp Act
DECLARATORY ACT
 Declaratory
Act
– Issued same day Stamp Act repealed
– Laws passed by Parliament are official
 Quebec
Act
– French in Canada given access to Ohio
River Valley
– Catholicism allowed in Ohio Valley
– Americans feared rights were in danger
 James
Otis
– “No Taxation Without Representation”
 Patrick
Henry
– “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death”
 Taxes
– External Taxes = Imports (Sugar)
– Internal Taxes = Stamp
– Colonials believed only they could tax
themselves (Salutary Neglect)
 Virtual
Representation
– Brits believed all were represented in
Parliament
– Colonials did not vote for members of
Parliament
TOWNSHEND ACTS
 Townshend
Acts
– Small tax on lead, glass, silk and tea
– Revenue to pay governor & judges
salaries
– Reduce influence on colonies on
government officials
 John
Dickinson
– Letter from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
– No taxes for revenue
 Massachusetts
Circular Letter
– Ordered Parliament to repeal Townshend
Acts
– Other colonies joined
– British troops sent to Boston
– Non-Importation agreement reinstituted
– British imports drop 40%
 Boston
Massacre
– Crispus Attucks
– Propaganda (Paul Revere)
– Townshend Act repealed
 Committees
of Correspondence
– Propaganda
– Spying on British officials
– Inter-colonial unity developes
BOSTON TEA PARTY

Tea Act
– British East India Company given tea
monopoly
– Tax on tea = lower prices
– Sons of Liberty = Boston Tea Party

Intolerable Acts
–
–
–
–
Punish Boston
Boston Harbor closed
Massachusetts legislature shutdown
British murder of a colonial to be tried in
Britain
– Town Hall meetings forbidden
 First
Continental Congress
– Ordered a repeal of Intolerable Acts
– Organized militias
– Suspended trade with England
– Refusal to pay taxes
– Re-stated loyalty to King
 The
Association
– Non-Importation
– Non-Exportation
– Non-Consumption
THE AMERICAN
REVOLUTION
1775 - 1783
CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
 Lexington
and Concord
– Shot heard around the world
– April 19
 Second
Continental Congress
– George Washington named Commander
of Colonial Army
– Olive Branch Petition = Last Ditch
 Pre-1763
– Thomas Jefferson writes DOI
DECLARATION OF
INDEPENDENCE
 Thomas
Paine’s Common Sense
– Called King George III a royal brute
– America has a sacred mission
– Establish an independent, democratic
republic
– Needs to be untainted by association
with the corrupt Brits
 Declaration
of Independence
– Most Americans were loyal to British
until
 Hiring
of Hessians
 Burning of Colonial towns
 Promising slaves freedom in Brits win
– If Natural rights are not protected =
revolt
– “All Men are Created Equal”
– Charged the King, not Parliament
– Declared War = Break up letter
– Ending of slavery removed
FRENCH ALLIANCE
 Battle
of Saratoga
 Franco-American Alliance
– Military aid to fight
– US promised no treaty without France
WAR AND SOCIETY
 1/3
Patriots
 1/3 Loyalists
 1/3 Unconcerned
 Loyalists property confiscated
 War bonds and Loyalists property
 Aid from France
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

The Critical Period
– The time period in the 1780sd
– 1st Constitution of the US
– Congress had the power
 Each
state had one vote
 Bills required 2/3 vote for ratification
 Amendments required unanimous vote
 Congress conducts the war
 Congress makes treaties
– Weak central government
 States
had the power
– No executive branch
– Treaty of Paris
 Economy
– Huge national and state debts
– No currency
– Runaway inflation
– British flooded US with cheap products
after the war
– Loyalists holdings divided up
– America lost British markets
– Asia and Baltic markets opened up

The Good (Articles of Confederation)
– Treaty of Paris
– Land Ordinance of 1785
 Land
in the Old Northwest sold to pay debt
 Region was divided into townships
 Education was to be provide for
 Ohio region settlement = Organized
 South = No
– Northwest Ordinance of 1787
 3-step
plan for territories to become states
 New states have equal status with Original 13
 Forbade slavery north of the Ohio River
 Southerners could reclaim fugitive slaves

The Bad (The Articles of Confederation)
–
–
–
–
Land issue in the west delayed ratification
No power to regulate commerce
No power to tax
Newburgh Conspiracy
 Military
revolt over pay
 George Washington stopped it

The Ugly (The Articles of Confederation)
–
–
–
–
Interests on debt increasing
States fought over boundaries (Va/Md)
States had their own tariffs
States printed their own worthless currency (RI)
PEACE OF PARIS
Treaty of Paris, 1783
 France wanted repayment of loans
 British

–
–
–
–

Remained in Northwest Forts
Encouraged Indian attacks
Angry over debt owed them
Angry over loyalist lands
Spanish
– Closed Mississippi River
– Encouraged Indian attacks in SE
– James Wilkinson attempted to separate Kentucky
STATE GOVERNMENTS
 State
Constitutions
– Weak Governors
– Strong legislatures
– State’s Rights
– Each had Bill of Rights
WOMEN AND SLAVERY
 Women
– Managed farms and businesses during
the war
– Traveled as cooks and nurses during the
war
– Abigail Adams = Remember the Ladies
– Republican Motherhood
 Raise
the children to be good citizens
– Feme covert= Women cannot own
property
 Slavery
– Slaves fought in the war
– Anti-slavery societies in the North =
Quakers
– Slavery outlawed in the North by 1800
– Slavery not allowed north of the Ohio
River
– Slave Trade abolished in 1808
– Free Blacks in the North face
discrimination
– Slavery stronger in the South
– Cotton Gin (1793)
NEW REPUBLIC
1789 - 1801
U.S. CONSTITUTION
Philadelphia
 A bundle of compromises
 Great Compromise

– Large States vs. Small States
– US Senate = Equal representation
– House of Representatives
 Representation
based on population
3/5 Compromise = Slaves
 Commerce Compromise

– Congress regulates Commerce

George Washington
FEDERALISTS VS.
ANTI-FEDERALTISTS
 The
fight was over the lack of a Bill
of Rights in the US Constitution
 Federalists
 Anti-Federalists
 The Federalists Papers
 Ratification
BILL OF RIGHTS
 1st
Amendment
 2nd Amendment
 4th Amendment
 5th Amendment
 10th Amendment
HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PLAN

Funding at Par
– Government purchases war bonds at face
value
– Original bondholders (Vets) had sold at lesser
value
– Eastern investors benefited

Assumption Plan
–
–
–
–
–
Federal government assume state’s debts
National debt would cement the union
Northern states happy = they had debt
Southern states not happy = paid their debts
District of Columbia created in the South

Tariffs
– Imports at 8%
– Protection of industries was secondary

Excise Taxes
– Tax on Whiskey
– Western farmers used whiskey to barter
– Frontier America were Anti-Federalists

National Bank
– Federal Government deposits revenues into Bank
– Banks used Federal funds to stimulate the
economy (loans)
– Loose Interpretation of the US Constitution
 Federal
Power
 Elastic Clause
 Encourages Business
Hamiltonians
 Rule
by the “best” people
 Distrust of the Common Man
(Democracy)
 Strong Military (Whiskey Rebellion)
 Strong Central Government
 Pro-British
Jeffersonian Republicans
Government “for” the people
 Yeoman farmer/laborer
 Best government, governs the least
 National debt was curse for future
generations
 Freedom of Speech (Alien and Sedition Acts)
 Pro-French
 Nullification (Virginia and Kentucky
Resolutions)
 Pro-Immigrants
 Reduce the size of the military

WASHINGTON – FOREIGN
 Neutrality
Proclamation
– Stay out of European wars
– Protection of trade
– Citizen Genet
 Jay’s
Treaty
– Brits
– Brits
– Brits
– Brits
maintain forts in Old NW
armed Indians
captured ships and impressments
refused to stop
– Brits to re-paid pre-revolutionary debts
– Jeffersonians outraged = New Party
– War with Britain averted
 Pinckney’s
Treaty
– Spain grants access to Mississippi
– Land in Florida given to US
– Fear of US-Anglo alliance (Jay’s Treaty)
WASHINGTON – DOMESTIC
 Cabinet
divided between Hamilton
and Jefferson
 Hamilton favored the wealthy
 Hamilton favored manufacturing
 Whiskey Rebellion
– Ensured domestic tranquility
– No Shays’ Rebellion
 Federalist
and Democratic Republican
Parties form
 Indian problem solved
 Washington’s
Farewell Address
– Opposed political parties
– Warned against permanent treaties
JOHN ADAMS

Election of 1796
– Adams vs. Jefferson
– Jefferson = Vice President

Alien and Sedition Acts
– Reduce the power of TJ and anti-war protests
– Alien Act
 Naturalization
process increased to 14 years
 Deport dangerous aliens
 Anti-Immigrants that was pro-Jefferson
– Sedition Act
 Criticism
of president = No No
 Editors for Jefferson went to prison

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
–
–
–
–
Said Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional
States can nullify Congressional laws
Jefferson/Madison wrote them in secret
The Compact Theory (John Locke)
 13
states “created” national government
 States are the final judges of laws
– Not accepted by other states

War with France
– Anti-Jay treaty
– XYZ Affair creates war hysteria
– Quasi Naval War = Undeclared Naval War
 Convention
of 1800
– Ends the Franco-American Alliance
 Judiciary
Act of 1801
– Midnight Judges
– Federalists judges appointed by Adams
– John Marshall becomes Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court
– Marbury v. Madison
AGE OF JEFFERSON
1801 - 1824
Election of 1800

The Revolution
– Jefferson defeats Adams
– Hamilton helps TJ become president over Burr
– Peaceful change of power
“We are all Republicans, We are all
Federalists”
 Albert Gallatin (Treasury) = Reduce the
debt
 Encouraged an Agrarian nation

– Yeoman Farmer

Repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801
 Slashed
the military budget
 Retained most of Hamilton’s plans
– Assumption Plan
– Funding at Par
– National Bank
– Tariff
 Repealed
the Whiskey Excise Tax
 National Road
 Embargo Act
 States Rights
LOUISIANA PURCHASE
TJ wanted New Orleans and Florida
 Napoleon sold Louisiana ($15M)
 Strict vs. Loose Interpretation
 Federalist opposed
 Mississippi River
 Westward expansion for Farmer
 Relocation of Indians
 Ended European expansion in US
 Avoided war with France
 Lewis and Clark

AARON BURR
 Essex
Junto
– Radical Federalist plot secession
– Louisiana Purchase will weaken NE power
– Plotters wanted Hamilton, then Burr
 Hamilton
beats Burr in NY Governor’s
race
 Burr kills Hamilton
 Burr conspires to separate US
JOHN MARSHALL
 Federalist
Chief Justice
 Wanted a strong National
Government
 Marbury v. Madison
 McCulloch v. Maryland
 Dartmouth College v. Woodward
 Gibbons v. Ogden
OGRABME

Impressments
– Americans sailors forced into British navy
– 6K sailors, many died

Continental System (Napoleonic War)
– Napoleon closed all European ports to Britain
– Napoleon outlawed all trade with Britain
– US Ships would be confiscated

Orders in Council
– Brits order US Ships to stop in England first
– US Ships will be confiscated
 Chesapeake-Leopard
Affair
– Brits fired on US Ship (Chesapeake)
– Brits looking for deserters
– TJ readied for war (Military???)
 Embargo
Act (1807)
– TJ forbids all US exports
– TJ wanted France and England to respect
US trading rights as a neutral
– TJ was regulating the economy
– It almost destroys the US economy
– It starts the 1st Industrial Revolution
 Hamilton’s
Dream
 Non-Intercourse
Act (1809)
– Replaced Embargo Act
– Opened trade to all except Britain and
France
 Macon’s
Bill #2 (1810)
– Replaced Non-Intercourse Act
– First to respect US trading rights gets
US trade
– Napoleon jumps at it
– War with Britain is non inevitable
WAR OF 1812

War Hawks
– Young congressmen from the South and West
– Remembered the Glory of their fathers
– Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun

Madison’s War Message
–
–
–
–

Remove the Indian threat
End Impressments
Acquire Canada and Florida
Respect US trading rights
Tecumseh and the Prophet
– Battle of Tippecanoe
 Washington
D.C. = Brits burned the
White House
 Francis Scott Key = Star Spangled
Banner
HARTFORD CONVENTION
New England Federalists Hartford Convention
NE hinders war effort
Federalist party losing influence
Urged secession
– Wanted financial help from government from the
loss of trade
– End the 3/5 Compromise
– Change the voting rules
 2/3
vote required
 Embargo, War, etc.
– Limit the President to one term
– Federalists demands delivered after the
war is over
– Federalist Party becomes a regional
party that is dying
TREATY OF GHENT
Restoration of conquered territory
No mention of American grievances
US allowed to fish off of Cape Cod
NEW ORLEANS
– General Jackson defeats Brits in 30
minutes
– Nationalism and Pride
– Jackson is a War Hero
– War was already over when battle occurs
NATIONALISM AND ECONOMIC
EXPANSION

The American System (Henry Clay)
– Tariff of 1816
 Protect
Infant Industries
– Internal Improvements
 Canals
and Roads
– 2nd National Bank

Clay wanted to connect the regions
– Eastern trade/industry will flourish
– Roads will connect South and West
– Foodstuffs would travel to South and East

Election of 1820
– Near unanimous election of James Monroe
– No Federalist party candidate
Elimination of property qualifications for
voting
 John C. Calhoun

– Nationalists in 1816
– Favored States Rights in 1820s

Monroe Doctrine
– Told Europe to keep hands off of Latin
American democracies
– No new colonies
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS
 Post
war Euphoria
– July 4th celebrated
– Uncle Sam
– Star Spangled Banner
– Flag
– Eagle
– Dictionary
 July
4th, 1826
 Era
of Good Feelings was a misnomer
 Sectionalism
– East = Industry/Trade
– West = Breadbasket
– South = Cotton
 Tariff
= Hurt the South
 Internal Improvements
– Favored the West
 National
Bank
– Eastern Bankers vs. Farmers
 Sale
of Public Lands
– Favored West over New England
 Panic
of 1819
 Slavery = North vs. South
 One Party Politics in 1820
– Clay, Calhoun, John Quincy Adams and
Jackson
– Two party system on its way back
PANIC OF 1819
 Hostility
between West and East
 Over-speculation on Western lands
 Inflation and Economic drop off after
war
 BUS forced state banks to repay
loans in specie
 State banks forced farmers to repay
loans in specie
 Farmers lost their farms = no specie
SECTIONALISM
MISSOURI COMPROMISE
1820
 Henry
Clay the Great Compromiser
 No slavery north of 36-30
 Maine enters as Free State
 Missouri enters as Slave State
 “Firebell in the night”
 Talmadge Amendment
 Slavery becomes a national issue
CANADA AND FLORIDA
 Adams-Otis
Treaty
– 1st Seminole War
 General
– Florida
– Texas
 fad
Jackson
ELECTION OF 1824
 Corrupt
Bargain
 Tariff of Abominations (1828)
 South Carolina’s Exposition
ROADS AND CANALS
Raw materials to the East
 Products transported to the West and
South
 Each area was regionalized
 Turnpikes

– National Road (Federally funded)

Canals
– Erie Canal (DeWitt Clinton’s Big Ditch)

Rivers
– Steamboats (Clermont)
FACTORY SYSTEM
 Samuel
Slater
 Eli Whitney
 Sewing Machine
 Telegraph
 Lowell System
 Why in New England
LABOR MOVEMENT
 Northern
workers = immigrants
 “Wage slaves”
 Conditions
 Worker desires
– Higher wages
– Better working conditions
– Shorter hours
– Free education for their children
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
 Western
Farmers
 West becomes breadbasket
 John Deere = Plow
 Cyrus McCormick = Reaper
 Cash-crops
ANTEBELLUM SOUTH
KING COTTON
 1793
= Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin
 Land explosion
 Slaves needed
 50X more effective
 Panic of 1857
TRADE AND INDUSTRY
 England
= 80% of Southern Cotton
 North =Textile Mills
 57% of US Exports = Cotton
SOCIETY
Plantation Owners ruled the South
 1% owned 100+ slaves
 67% of slave owners owned less than 10
 Social status determined by ownership of
slaves
 75% did not own slaves, but most hoped
to
 The poorest whites = White trash
 Mountain Whites = Unionists
 Immigrants not welcomed

Southern Free Blacks
 Purchased
their freedom
 Mulattoes
 New
Orleans
 Some owned businesses and slaves
 Fear of a return to slavery
 Fewer released after Nat Turner
Northern Free Blacks
 Discrimination
 Limited
education and sufferage
 Segregation
 Irish
PECULIAR INSTITUTION
 Slavery
 Risk
= Injuries, Death & Runaways
 One crop economy
 Natural reproduction = Increase
600%
 Miscegnation
 Slave Auction = Horrific
BURDENS OF SLAVERY
 Loss
of dignity
 Punishment
 Denied education
 Sabotage/Slow down
 Runaways
– Florida, North, Canada
 Stono
Revolts = Slave Codes
 Denmark VEsey
 Nat Turner = Harsh Laws post 1830
THE NORTH
LABOR AND IMMIGRATION
URBAN SLUMS
NORTHWEST AGRICULTURE
AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER
LIFE ON THE FRONTIER
AGE OF JACKSON
DEMOCRACY AND
THE COMMON MAN
Government by the people
 Property qualifications removed
 Universal white manhood sufferage
 Panic of 1819 hurt the farmers
 Voter turnout high in the West
 2-party system emerged (1832)
 Campaigning and Nominating Conventions
(Anti-Masons)
 Political Power shift from East to West
 Anti-American System

 Andrew
Jackson uses the Veto (King
Andrew I)
 Spoils System
 Rotation in Office
 Kitchen Cabinet
SECOND PARTY SYSTEM
 Texas
– Stephen Austin
– Alamo
– San Jacinto
– Slavery
 Election
of 1836
 Whigs
 Democrats
STATES’ RIGHTS

Webster-Hayne Debate
–
–
–
–
State’s Rights Debate
Tariff
Nullification
Liberty and Union, now and Forever
 Daniel

Webster
End of John C. Calhoun
– Jefferson Day Toast (State’s Rights)
– Peggy Eaton Affair
Tariff of 1832
 Maysville Road Veto

NULLIFICATION CRISIS
1832-33
 Jackson
lowers the tariff of
abominations (1828)
 South Carolina wanted to nullify this
new tariff
 Talk of secession
 Jackson vs. Calhoun
 Henry Clay’s Tariff of 1833
 Force Bill of 1833
THE BANK WAR
 Jackson
is anti-monopolies
 Jackson favors laissez faire
 Jackson distrusts the BUS
 Clay wants to re-charter the BUS
 Jackson vetoes the Bank
 Nicholas Biddle
 Pet Banks
 Loans recalled
 Election of 1832 issue
MARTIN VAN BUREN
 Jackson’s
Specie Circular
 Panic of 1837
– Over-speculation
– Bank War
– Specie Circular
– Treasury Bill (Divorce Bill)
– Independent Treasury System
AMERICAN CULTURE
ANTEBELLUM
PERIOD
Age of Jackson
EDUCATION
Tax supported Education = North
 Urban workers
 Horace Mann
 Normal Schools
 Slaves = Forbidden
 Noah Webster = Dictionary
 McGuffey Readers

– Grade School
– Morality, Patriotism and Idealism
2nd Great Awakening = New Colleges
 Lyceum Movement = Adult education
 Oberlin college = Men, Women & Blacks

RELIGION
 2nd
Great Awakening starts the
reform movements
 Burned over District
– Hellfire and Damnation sermons
– Western New York
UTOPIA
 New
Harmony
– Robert Owen
– Kindergarten
– Free Public School and Library
– Communistic
 Brook
Farm
– Transcendentalists
 Oneida
Colony
– Free love, birth control and eugenics
– Equality of the genders
– Communal marriages
– Silverware
 Shakers
– Communistic
– Anti-Marriage
– Anti-sex
– Adopted Orphans
– Equality of the sexes
 Mormons
– Joseph Smith
– Brigham Young
– Utah
– Polygamy
TRANSCENDENTALISTS
 Truth
transcends the senses
 Inner light illuminates the truth
 Direct touch with God
 Taught Self-reliance, Selfimprovement and Self-Culture
 Ralph Waldo Emerson
 Henry David Thoreau
CULTURE
 Hudson
River Valley = Landscapes
 Architecture = Neo-Classical
– Thomas Jefferson = Monticello
WOMEN
Republican Motherhood
 Cult of Domesticity

– Glorified Homemaker

Industrial Revolution
– Separated the sexes
Fought for Prohibition and Abolition
 Leaders

– Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
– Susan B. Anthony
– Grimke Sisters
– Lucy Stone
– Amelia Bloomer
– Margaret Fuller
 Seneca
Falls Convention
– Declaration of Sentiments
– Women’s Right Movement
 Catherine
Beecher
– Request = Inventors help the homemaker
– Result = More work
 Social
– College
 Emma
Willard Troy Seminary
 Oberlin College
– Property
– Marriage and Children
 10%
avoided marriage
 Child centered family
 Average # of kids drop from 6 to 4.6
ABOLITIONISM
Quakers
 American Colonization Society

– Re-colonization to Africa
– Liberia = American born free blacks

Why support for return to Africa?
– “could not co-exist with whites” ()
– Fear of mongrelization of the races

William Lloyd Garrison editor of the
Liberator
– Demanded the uncompensated release of the
slaves
– Demanded North secede from the Union

American Anti-Slavery Society
– Wendell Phillips pushed for the Emancipation
Proclamation
Grimke Sisters = Southern Abolitionists
 Sojourner Truth = Abolitionist and
Women’s Rights advocate
 Frederick Douglass

–
–
–
–
–
Editor of the North Star
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
Escaped slave
Hoped politics would end slavery
Pushed for colored troops
TEMPERANCE
 Alcohol
abuse = Hurt Work/Family
 American Temperance Society
 Temperance = Moderation
 Prohibition = No Alcohol
 Neal S. Dow
– Father of Prohibition
– Maine Laws
DOROTHEA DIX
 She
proved that the mentally ill were
clinically insane and not perverse
 Prison Reform
– Auburn System
– Rehabilitation not punishment
LABOR AND IMMIGRATION
 Old
Immigrants
– Northern and Western Europeans
 Germans
– Largest group in the 19th century
– Farmers = Midwest
– Education
– Abolitionists
– Protestants
– High assimilation
– Beer
 Irish
– Potato famine
– Largest immigrant group in antebellum
– Large cities (NYC and Boston)
– Catholic and poor faced discrimination
– Took jobs at lower pay
– Competed with Blacks for jobs
– Race riot during Civil War (Draft)
– Democrat
– Police
– Anti-British
NATIVISM
 Feared
overpopulation and political
control by foreigners
 Anti-Catholic (Largest church in US)
 Order of the Star Spangled Banner
 Know-Nothing Party
 Wanted restrictions on Immigration
MANIFEST DESTINY
THE MISSION
 God
chose Americans to control the
Western hemisphere
 TOM =
 James K. Polk = Jacksonian
expansionist Democrat
 COIL =
TRAIL OF TEARS
 Thomas
Jefferson
 Andrew Jackson
 Indian Removal Act
 5 Civilized Tribes
 Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
 Cherokees
 Seminoles
WESTWARD EXPANSION
 Fur
Trappers
 Farmers
– Oregon
 Gold
– 49ers
 Trails
– Oregon
– Sante Fe
– Mormon
– California
 Stephen
TEXAS
Austin
 Catholic, No slaves, follow laws of
Mexico
– Yeah that didn’t happen
 Alamo
 San
Jacinto
 Election of 1836
– Jackson fears anti-slave vote
 Statehood
= Mexico threatens war
 Europe = Alliances
 1844
election
– Key issue is Texas and slavery
– Polk wins because Clay waffles in NY
 John
Tyler
– Joint Resolution
– Mandate from 1844 election of Polk
OREGON
 Fur
Trade
 Spain, Russia, Britain and US
 Oregon Trail
 Polk = 54 – 40
 49th parallel = averted war
MEXICAN WAR
 Slidell
Mission to buy California
– Trade with the Orient
 Bear
Flag Revolt
 Spot Resolutions =
 Henry David Thoreau
– Civil Disobedience
 Treaty
of Guadalupe Hidalgo
– Mexican Cession
 Wilmot
Proviso
– No slavery in territory acquired from
Mexico
– Defeated in the Senate
 Zachary
Taylor
 Training ground for military officers
1850s FOREIGN POLICY
 Commodore
Matthew Perry = Japan
 Ostend Manifest = Cuba
 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty = Canal
THE CRISIS OF THE
UNION
1850s
Pro-Slavery Arguments
 1820s
Southern anti-slavery
societies were abundant
 1830s anti-slavery societies were
gone (Nat Turner Rebellion)
 Nullification Crisis 1832 (States
Rights)
 Abolitionists literature banned
LEGAL
 Northwest Ordinance (1787)

– Banned slavery only in the North
Constitution = No mention of slavery
 Three-Fifths Compromise

– Slaves were only part of the census

Missouri Compromise
– Slavery allowed South of 36-30
Gag Resolution (1836) = Congress
 Prigg v. Pennsylvania
 Compromise of 1850 = Fugitive Slave Act

 Popular
Sovereignty
– Territories vote on slavery
 Dred
Scott
– Supreme Court ruled slaves were
property
– Supreme Court ruled slavery allowed in
ALL territories
 RELIGIOUS/HISTORY
 Bible
– Slavery was in the Bible (Genesis)
– Jesus did not oppose slavery
– Obey Your Masters
 Southern
Preachers
– In Africa they were heathens and
cannibals
– Slavery civilized them and gave them
Christianity
 Greeks
and Romans
– Aristotle approved of slavery
– Had Slaves
 ECONOMIC
 Property=
Dred Scott
 Textile Mills = New England
dependent of cotton from the slavery
 Banks
– Loans given for land and slaves
 57%
of exports
 Panic of 1857
 SOCIAL
 Slaves were considered “family”
 Slaves were said to be happy
compared to the “northern wage
slaves”
 Work in fresh air vs. stuffy factories
 Full employment for Blacks
 Cradle to Grave care given (Chattel)
Compromise of 1850
 California
 Henry
Clay
 John C. Calhoun
– Wanted two presidents
– secessionist
 Daniel
Webster
– 7th of March Speech
– Climate

POPFACT
–
–
–
–
–
Popular Sovereignty in the territories
Fugitive Slave Act
Abolition of slave trade in D.C.
California enters as free state
Texas gets $10M for NM territory
Fugitive Slave Act = Most Hated
 Personal Liberty Laws = North
 Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

– Horrors of slavery
– Slave trade = broken families
– Written in response to Fugitive Slave Act
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Stephen Douglas = Northern Pacific RR
 Popular Soveignty
 Lecompton Constitution
 Bleeding Kansas

– Burning of Lawrence
– Pottawtomie Creek Massacre = John Brown
– Sumner-Brooks Caning
 Crime
Against Kansas Speech in Congress
 Repealed
the Missouri Compromise
 Birth of Republican Party
Republican Party
 Non-extension
of slavery into the
territories
 Free-Soil Party, Northern Whigs and
Democrats
 Homestead for western farmers
 Immigrants
 Northern Pacific RR
DRED SCOTT
 Missouri
Compromise line
unconstitutional
 All blacks denied citizenship
 Free Soil does not make a black a
free man
 Slaves are considered property
Abraham Lincoln
 Lincoln-Douglas
Debates (1858)
– Freeport Doctrine
– Douglas wants popular Sovereignty
– Douglas opposes Lecompton
constitution and Dred Scott decision
– Douglas wins election for Illinois Senate
race, but Lincoln will win the Presidency
 Election
of 1860
Election of 1860 & Secession
Northern Democrats = Stephen Douglas
 Southern Democrats = John Breckinridge
 Constitutional Union = John Bell
 Republicans =
 Lincoln not on ballot in South
 Lincoln wins and South Carolina secedes a
month later
 James Buchanan
 Crittenden Compromise

– Extend 36-30 to California
– Lincoln rejects compromise
THE CIVIL WAR
1861 - 1865
Mobilization and Resources
Lincoln promises not to abolish slavery
 In 1861 Lincoln wants to preserve the
union
 In 1863 = Free the Slaves
 Union Forces

– 90% volunteers
– Substitutions
– Conscription Laws

Southern Forces
– Volunteers
– Poor man fighting a rich man’s war
– Pride, Honor, protect the way of life
 Finances
– 1st Income Tax
 Ended
after war
– Morrill Tariff
 Republicans
loved high tariffs
– Greenbacks replaced gold
– National Banking System
 In
place until 1913
– Confederacy
 Runaway
inflation
Internal Dissent
 Copperheads
 NYC
Draft Riots
Military Strategies
 Anaconda
Plan = Blockade of the South
 Fort Sumter
 Antietam = Emancipation Proclamation
 Gettysburg = Turning Point
 Vicksburg = Control of the Mississippi
 Sherman’s March to the Sea
 Appomattox Court House
Foreign Policy
 The
Trent Affair
 C.S.S. Alabama
 Charles Francis Adams
 Emancipation Proclamation = Uncle
Tom’s Cabin
 France in Mexico
Emancipation Proclamation
Antietam
 Freed slaves in areas under control
 No slaves freed in Confederacy
 Contraband
 African Americans (54th Massachusetts)

– 10% of Union Army
– Less Pay
– White officers

13th Amendment
Social, Political and Economic
 Exodusters
 Industry
– Northern Wartime to peace time
 Homestead
Act = Farmers
 Morrill Land Grant = Education
 Pacific Railway Act = Northern RR
 Republicans dominate party
RECONSTRUCTION
1865 - 1877
Presidential & Radical
Reconstruction Plans
13th Amendment = Abolishment of slavery
 14th Amendment = Civil Rights and
Citizenship for African-Americans
 15th Amendment = Voting Rights for Black
males
 Black Codes = Old Slave Codes
 Grandfather clause
 Literacy Test
 Poll Tax

 Lincoln’s
10% Plan
 Andrew Johnson
– Continued Lincoln’s plan
– Disenfranchised Leading Confederates
– Pardoned Planter Aristocrats
– Racist president
 Wade
– Davis Bill
– Radical Republicans
– Required 50% of voters
– State Suicide Theory
– Wanted South as a conquered territories
– Vetoed by Lincoln
 Radical
Republicans wanted to punish
the South and control the
government
 Military Reconstruction Acts
– Military Districts
– Disenfranchisement
– Required ratification of 14th Amendment
– Full suffrage for Blacks
– Opposed by Johnson
 Impeachment
of Andrew Johnson
– President battles with Congress
– Office of Tenure Act
– Secretary of War Edwin Stanton
– House and Senate votes
 Supreme
Court
– Slaughterhouse Cases
– Civil Rights Cases
– Plessy v. Ferguson
Southern State Governments
 Freedman’s
Bureau
– Northern whites wanted to help the
freedmen survive
– Food, clothing and Education
– 200K taught to read (Bible)
– 40 acres and a mule
– Negotiated labor contracts in favor of
white landowner
 Carpetbaggers
– Northern whites

Scalawags
– Southern Republicans
KKK
 Redeemers
 Force Act 1870) = Anti-KKK
 Compromise of 1877

–
–
–
–

Election of 1876
Hayes is chosen as president
Removal of Federal troops
Ends Reconstruction
Southern Black governments
– Improved Tax system
– Education improved
African-Americans
Politics, Education, & the Economy
 Agricultural
based economy = cotton
 Sharecropping and Crop Lien system
 Tenant farmers
 Northern investors in RR and textiles
THE NEW SOUTH
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
 Tuskegee
Institute
 Useful trade gains respect and
equality
 Wanted to develop economic and
educational resources
 Atlanta Compromise
– Called for Accommodation
– Accepted segregation publicly
 Paved
the way for the Plessy decision
Sharecropping and Crop-Lien
Industry
 South
destroyed by Civil War
 Birmingham = Steel
 Duke Family = Tobacco
 Textile Mills move to the South
– Lower taxes
– Lower wages
– Factory towns
– No unions
– Supply of labor high
Jim Crow
 Legalized
segregation of all public
facilities
 Plessy v. Ferguson (1897)
– RR car
– Segregated southern society until 1954
THE WEST
Western Railroads
 Transcontinental
Railroad
 Pacific Railway Act (1863)
 Union Pacific = Irish workers
 Central Pacific = Chinese workers
 Credit Mobilier Scandal
 Significance
– Promontory Point, Utah
– Linked the continent by rail and
– Expansion
– Trade
THE GREAT WEST
 Frederick
Jackson Turner
– Westward settlement developed America
– 1890s the Frontier was closed
 Native
Americans stood in the way of
expansion
 African-Americans
– Exodusters = Kansas and Oklahoma
– 25% of the cowboys
 Towns
developed along RR routes
Miners
 Copper,
lead, silver and Gold
 Gold discoveries paid for Civil War
 Copper Mining =
 Ghost towns
 Attracted population
 Increased conflict with Indians
 Introduced Silver into politices
Ranchers
 Railroad
and Refrigerated cars
 Long Drive from Texas to Kansas cow
towns
 Barbed wire
 Drought, winter and over-grazing
Homesteaders
 Homestead
Act
 Purchased land from RR
 Winter wheat
 Irrigation
 Land Runs
 Safety valve
 Immigrants = Advertising and RR
American Indian

The Plains Indians
– Comanche, Nez Perce, Cheyenne, Sioux,
Apache
Horse = Nomadic
 Buffalo = Source of life
 Rifle = Change of warfare
 Federal government viewed the Indian as
Independent nations and wards of the
state
 BIA

– Reservations
– Corrupt
Treaties = Broken
 Gold

– Sand Creek Massacre
– Little Big Horn
– Chief Joseph = I will fight no more forever
(Nez Perce)

Wounded Knee (1890)
– Ghost Dance Religion
– The last stand

1890 almost all Indian tribes on
reservations
– Buffalo decimated
– RR brought everyone west into Indians lands
– Disease and Alcohol
 Helen
Hunt Jackson
– A Century of Dishonor
 Dawes
Severalty Act
– Passed in response to Helen Hunt
Jackson
 Land
Runs
 1924 granted citizenship
 FDR
Dawes Act
– Dissolved tribes
– Tribal ownership of land denied
– Each family head given 160 acres
– Eradicated their culture
– Assimilation
– Boarding schools
INDUSTRIAL
AMERICA
GILDED AGE POLITICS
Mark Twain
 Election of 1868 (US Grant)

– Grand Army of the Republic
– Waving the Bloody Shirt
– African Americans for Grant and Republicans

Grant Scandals
–
–
–
–

Fiske and Gould
Whiskey Ring
Credit Mobilier = Transcontinental RR
Indian Reservations
Panic of 1873
– Over-production
– Bankers made risky loans
 Crime
of 1873
– Silver price reduced
– Hurt the west
– Bland-Allison Act
 Political
Issues
– Money and Tariff
 Democrats
– Immigrants
– Catholics/Lutherans
– Opposed to the Republican moral
standards
– Solid South/Industrial cities

Republicans
–
–
–
–
–
–

Victorian/Puritanical
Big Business
GAR
African-Americans
Middle Class WASPs
Laissez faire
Stalwarts (R)
– Spoils System

Mugwumps (R)
– Favored Reconstruction
– Anti-Grantism (Corruption)
– Thomas Nast

Half-Breeds (R)
– Civil Service Reform
Forgettable Presidents
 Pendleton Act

– James Garfield Assassinated
– Merit system resulted
– Civil Service Reform

Grover Cleveland
–
–
–
–

RRR
Laissez faire
Military pension
Lower tariff
Benjamin Harrison
– Billion Dollar Congress
– Sherman Silver Purchase Act

McKinley Tariff
– 48%
– Hurt farmers
– Republicans lost Congress and White House

Grover Cleveland (D)
– Non-consecutive two terms

Panic of 1893
–
–
–
–

Worst in 19th century
Stock Market crash
Over-speculation
JP Morgan
Coxey’s Army
– Wanted government relief for unemploymet
– Work projects
 Wilson-Gorman
Tariff
– Lower tariff desired (41%)
– Changes increased it to 48%
– Income Tax (Ruled unconstitutional)
Consolidation of Industry
 Andrew
Carnegie Vertical Integration
– Control of all stages of production
– Henry Clay Frick = 40 steel companies
– Bessemer process
 John
Rockefeller Horizontal Integration
– Trusts
– Consolidated competitors
– Rule or Ruin
– Standard Oil Company (90%)
 J.P.
Morgan Interlocking Directories
– Wall Street Bankers
– Holding companies
– Combined competitors to increase
profits
– U.S. Steel
Technological Developments

ROSE
–
–
–
–

R
O
S
E
Eli Whitney
– Interchangeable parts
– Assembly line
Farmers = 50% of nation still
 Economy unstable

– 1873, 1893, 1907, 1913, 1929
RAILROADS

Government subsidized RR
– Land grants
– Money

James G. Hill
– RR built without government $

Jay Gould
– Controlled Western RR

Robber Barons
– Owners of RR
– Political power by controlling Congress
– Pools
 Impact
of RR
– Industrial Revolution
– Raw materials taken East
– 3 Frontiers created =
– Exodus from the Eastern Cities to the
west
– Immigrants
– Time Zones
– Indian Reservations created
 Stock
watering
 Long Haul vs. Short Haul
 Laissez faire
Labor and Unions

National Labor Union (1866)
– Social and Labor Reforms
– 8 Hour workday

Molly Maguires (1875)
– Secret Irish Coal Miners
– Violent

Knights of Labor
–
–
–
–
–
–
One Big Union (Blacks and Women)
Cooperatives
8 hour workday
Child Labor
Government regulations
Destroyed by Haymarket Square Bombing
 American
Federation of Labor (1886)
– Samuel Gompers
– Skilled workers
– Bread and Butter Issues
– Organized strikes
 Great
Railway Strike (1877)
– 1st nationwide strike
– Federal troops used
 Haymarket
Square Bombing (1886)
– Knights of Labor and Anarchists
– Red Scare
– Yellow Dog contracts
 Homestead
Strike (1892)
– Carnegie Steel cut pay
– Pinkertons and State troops
 Pullman
Strike (1894)
– Company Town cut wages
– Company Town kept prices high
– Eugene V. Debs organizes 150K workers
– Court Injunction against strike
– Paralyzed nation
– Federal Troops = US Mail
 In
Re Debs
Politics and Trusts

Munn v. Illinois (1877)
– Granger Laws constitutional
– Regulated RR on Short Haul/Long Haul

Wabash Case
– Overturned Munn v. Illinois
– Only Federal government can regulate
interstate commerce

Civil Rights Cases
– A corporation is a person (14th Amendment)

ICC
– 1st attempt to regulate business
– Blocked by Supreme Court
 Sherman
Anti-Trust Act (1890)
– Forbade Trusts as restraint of trade
– Supreme Court favored Trusts
– It was used mainly to limit labor unions
Immigration
New Immigration (1880-1920s)
 Eastern and Southern Europe
 33% of Americans were foreign born or 1
parent was foreign born
 Ellis Island (Europe) and San Francisco
(Asia)
 Large cities
 Lived in ethnic communities
 Catholic, Orthodox, Jewish, non-protestant
 Most immigrants were illiterate with little
knowledge of democracy

 Catholic
and Hebrew schools
 Foreign newspapers, stores &
theaters
 Statue of Liberty
– Give me your tired, your poor, your
huddled masses
 Economics,
persecution, and warfare
brought immigrants to America
 Steam powered ships shortened
travel time
 Birds of Passage
 “Melting
Pot”
– Assimilation into mainstream America
 Why
Americans did not want the New
Immigrants?
– Accused of bringing socialism,
communism and anarchy into US
– Low standard of living
– Inferior blood
– Starvation wages
– Catholics and Jews
– Problems in the cities were caused by
them
 Who
wanted the Immigrants
– Industry
– Political Machines
– Steamships/RR
– Western states
 Social
Reformers
– Social Gospel Movement
 Urban
churches and services for poor and
immigrants
– Settlement House
 Help
immigrants survive in the big cities
CHINESE
Burlingame Treaty
 Railroad and Gold (Coolies)
 Laundry service
 Mostly men
 China town
 10% of California population
 Denis Kearney led the movement to
exclude Chinese

– Could not work on public works projects
– Could not work for state based companies

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
JAPANESE
Hawaii = sugar
 Russo-Japanese War

– Japanese came to California to escape

San Francisco School Board
– Segregated Japanese students
– Earthquake as reason

Gentlemen’s Agreement
– Stop the flow of Japanese to US
– California ends segregation policy

Great White Fleet
– Show of American power to Japan
Social Darwinism

Charles Darwin
– Survival of the Fittest

Herbert Spencer
– Advocated Social Darwinism
– Natural selection = millionaires

Divine Providence
– Decreed by God

Gospel of Wealth (Andrew Carnegie)
– Money to be given for public good
– Wealthy improved race/civilization
– God’s Will
Social Gospel
 Fear
of Revolution
 Christianity should improve life now
 Improve unemployment/alcoholism
 Churches in working class districts
 WWJD
 Salvation Army = Poverty
URBAN SOCIETY
19th Century
Urbanization and Lure of the City
 By
1900 = 40% lived in cities
 Skyscrapers changed city landscape
 Streetcar suburbs
 City Districts
– Industry, Business, Residential areas
– Race, Ethnicity and Class divisions
 Department
stores
 Entertainment
WOMEN

Economic opportunities increased
– Telephone and Typewriter
– Social Worker
– Secretaries

Acceptable middle-class jobs
– Nursing
– Teaching

Lower class working women
– Domestic Servants (Black and Immigrants)
– Textile Mills

CULT OF DOMESTICITY
 Jane
Addams Hull House
– Settlement House Movement
– Live among the poor
– Help immigrants cope
– Nutrition, health, English taught
– Women’s activism and social reform
 Florence
Kelley
– Working conditions and hours
 Charlotte
Perkins Gilman
– Women should not be dependents
– Child care and convinence stores
 Victorian
Age
City Problems
 Machine
Politics
 Unsanitary conditions
 Crime
 Dumbbell Tenements
Machine Politics
Big cities were controlled by political
machines
 Boss Tweed

– Tammany Hall NYC
– Corruption

Immigrants
– Provided employment, housing and Food
– Schools, Hospitals and Parks for Immigrants
– Vote for political machine candidates

Thomas Nast
– Cartoons

Hurricane
– Galveston
Intellectual Movements
 Tax-supported
elementary schools
 Public high schools
 Normal schools = Teachers
 Kindergarten
 Chautauqua Movement = Adults
 Illiteracy improved
 Morrill Land Grant Act
Cultural Movements
Edward Bellamy = Utopian Socialism
 Henry D. Lloyd = Investigative Journalism
 Jacob Riis

– Photos of the rat infested slums of NYC
Horatio Alger = Rags to riches
 Realism

– Materialism of Urban Society

Ashcan School of Art
– Urban experiences
Popular Entertainment
POPULISM AND
PROGRESSIVISM
Agrarian Discontent

Grangers
–
–
–
–
–
Farmers
Education and Social Activities
Established Co-ps
Success politically in Midwest
Granger Laws
 Regulated
business (RR)
– Munn v. Illinois
– Wabash Case

Farmers Alliance
–
–
–
–
Social, Political and Educational activities
Sub-treasury plan
Joined the Knights of Labor
Formed into Populist Party
Political Issues
Free Silver
 Crime of 1873

– Westerners wanted inflation
– Government valued Silver 1/16 of Gold

Bland-Allison Act
– Government buys $2-4M of silver a month

Sherman Silver Purchase Act
– Doubles the amount of silver to be purchased

Populist Party = Omaha Platform
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Free Silver
Inflation
Postal Savings Bank
Income Tax
Regulation of RR, communications and utilities
Election of US Senators
Lower tariff
Restriction of Immigrants
8 Hour workday
IRR
 Initiative
 Referendum
 Recall
 Election
 William
of 1896
McKinley
– Mark Hanna’s Boy
– Function of government to aid business
– Trickle Down Theory
– Protective Tariff
– Gold
– Workers warned of a Bryan victory
 William
Jennings Bryan
– Cross of Gold Speech
– Unlimited coinage of Silver (16-1)
– Populist and Democratic candidate
 Results
of Election
– Farmers political influenced declined
– African Americans leave Republicans
– Wizard of Oz
Municipal Reform
 Progressive
reform begins at local
and state levels
 No direct financial relief or jobs
provided
 Government provides social and
economic assistance
 Government corrects social and
economic problems
 Galveston,
Texas
– Hurricane
– Commission system established
– City Manager
– Reduced power of political bosses
 Immigrants
lose influence
– Business gain control of local
government = Chamber of Commerce
State Reforms
 Lincoln
Stephens
– Investigated US Senators and Trusts
 Jacob
Riis
– Slums of New York City
 Upton
Sinclair
– Sanitation conditions in meat packing
plants
 Ida
M. Tarbell
– Anti - Lynching Laws
 Cosmopolitan
 Wisconsin
Experiment
– Robert La Follette
– Regulation of utilities and RR
– Direct primary
– IRR
– Direct election of US Senators
– State Income tax
– Australian Ballot box
 Secret
ballot
 Disenfranchised the poor and illiterate
National Reforms
 16th
Amendment
 17th Amendment
US Senators
 18th Amendment
 19th Amendment
Suffrage
= Income Tax
= Direct election of
= Prohibition
= Women’s
Square Deal
 CCC
 Anthracite
Coal Strike
 Trust Buster = Northern Securities
 Hepburn and Elkins Act = RR
 Meat Inspection Act
 Food and Drug Act
 Gifford Pinchot
 Newlands Reclamation Act
 National
Parks
 Panic of 1907
– Wall Street overspeculation
– TR blamed = trust busting
– JP Morgan
– Elastic money supply needed
Taft
Trustbuster
 Mann-Elkins Act

– Regulated telephone, telegraph (ICC)

Payne Aldrich Tariff
– Promised to be lower
– Higher
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
 Uncle Joe Cannon

– Hated Speaker of the House by Progressives
– Supported by Taft

US Steel = Tennessee Iron and Coal
ELECTION OF 1912

Teddy Roosevelt (Progressive)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

Osawatomie Speech (New Nationalism)
Regulation of large corporations
Lower tariff
Income/Inheritance tax
Labor reform
IRR
Campaign finance reform
Bull Moose Party
William H. Taft (Republican
– Old Guard Republicans nomination

Woodrow Wilson (Democrat)
–
–
–
–
–

Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)
–
–
–
–

New Federalism
Favored small enterprise
Trustbusing
Strong State’s Rights
Child Labor and Women’s Rights =
Government ownership of RR and utilities
Better housing
Factory inspections
Supported by the IWW
TR-Taft split = Wilson wins
Wilson

Attack the triple wall of privilege
– Tariffs, Banks, Trusts

Underwood Tariff
– Reduced tariff to 29%
– Income Tax

Federal Reserve Act
– Elastic Money supply
– Designed to prevent panics and depressions

Federal Trade Commission
– Monitor industries
– Cease and desist orders for unfair activities
 Clayton
Anti-Trust Act
– Listed business practices not allowed
– Exempted labor and farm groups
– Legalized strikes
 Federal
Highway Act
– Rural
 Keating-Owens
Child Labor Act
– Interstate Commerce
 Adamson
Act
– 8 hour workday for Interstate
commerce
PROHIBITION
 WCTU
and Anti-Saloon League
 Carrie A. Nation
 50% dry in WW I
 World War I = Un-American
 18th Amendment
 Volstead Act
Women


Seneca Falls (1848)
Abolition and Women’s Suffrage
– Antebellum

NWSA
– No men
– Angered over 15th Amendment

AWSA
– Yes to men
– Black Male suffrage was a stepping stone

Carrie Chapman Catt = NAWSA
– De-emphasized women’s suffrage as a right
– Homemaker needed a voice in government that
concerned them
– Lobbied Congress
 West
– 1st to give women the right to vote
 Prohibition
 War
Effort
 Alice Paul = Militant
 Jeanette Rankin
 19th Amendment
 Equal Rights Amendment
– Same rights as in 14th Amendment
– Alice Paul
Black America

Great Migration
– North to work in industry during WW I

Race Riots
– Returning vets
– KKK

W.E.B. DuBois
– Anti-BTW
– Demanded immediate economic and social
equality
– Niagara movment
– Immediate end to segregation and
discrimination
– Talented tenth
– NAACP
– The Crisis
– Illiteracy rate declined
 Woodrow
Wilson
– History book on Reconstruction
– Racist
– Birth of a Nation = Glorifies KKK
– Segregation in federal government
SUPREME COURT
 Muller
v. Oregon
– Women
 Lochner
v. New York1
– 10 hour workday
 Adkins
v. Children’s Hospital
– Minimum wage for women
unconstitutional
 Schenck
v. United States
– Limited free speech
– Fire
AMERICAN FOREIGN
POLICY
1868 - 1919
American Imperialism
1868 William Seward purchase of Alaska
 Alfred T. Mahan

– Control of the Sea to have an Empire
– US Navy built up
– Canal needed to two ocean navy

Reverend Josiah Strong
– Spread religion and democracy
– Backward peoples

Darwinism
– Weaker nations dominated by stronger nations
 Cuba
 Spanish-American
War
 Treaty of Paris (1898)
 Philippines
 Platt Amendment
 Open Door Policy
 Teddy Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy
 William Howard Taft
 Woodrow Wilson
 Venezuela
– Cleveland warns Britain to leave
Venezuela alone
– Monroe Doctrine
 Hawaii
 Cuba
– Sugar
– Reconcentration Camps = 100K killed
– Pulitzer and Hearst = Yellow Journalism
– De Lome Letter = McKinley corrupt
– USS Maine Explosion

Spanish-American War
–
–
–
–

Mark Hanna and Wall Street opposed the war
Teller Amendment = Cuba promised freedom
Admiral Dewey
San Juan Hill = Rough Riders
Treaty of Paris (1898)
– Ended Spanish – American War
– Cuba freed
– Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines = US

Philippines
–
–
–
–
Asia Trade
They were heathens (Catholic)
Raw materials
Insurrection = Emilio Aguinaldo
 Platt
Amendment
– Limited Cuban freedom
– Guantanamo Bay
 Open
Door Policy
– China
– European/Japan dominated trade
– Open Door Note = Let US in
– Boxer Rebellion
ROOSEVELT’S BIG STICK
POLICY
 Big
Stick = Strong military
 Panama Canal
 Gunboat Diplomacy
 Roosevelt Corollary = Policeman
 Russo-Japanese War
 Gentlemen’s Agreemen
 Great White Fleet
 Japan
 Taft’s
Dollar Diplomacy
– Wall Street investments abroad
 Wilson’s
Moral/Missionary Diplomacy
– Latin America = Select moral leaders
– Pancho Villa and Mexico
– General Pershing invades
War in Europe
 World
War I = The Great War
 Trench warfare
 14 Points
– Freedom of the Seas
– Abolish secret treaties
– Self-Determination
– League of Nations
American Neutrality
“To make the world safe for democracy”
 “War to end all wars”
 “Peace without victory”
 Economic interests

– Shipping
– Loans (JP Morgan)
– Agriculture
Pro-British = culture, language, economics
 Propaganda
 Neutrality at first

World War I
Home Front

Creel Committee
– Propaganda
– Censorship
– Liberty Leagues

Schenck v. United States
– Sedition Act
– Espionage Age

Bernard Baruch = War Industries Board
– RR Traffic problems
– Control of Industry
– Raw materials, Production, Prices, Labor

Women
– Industry and Farms
– Vital to the war effort
– 19th Amendment

African-Americans
– Migration to the North

Herbert Hoover = Food Administration
– Voluntary compliance
– Victory Gardens
– Prohibition = 18th Amendment
 Un-American
to drink
– Farm exports up 25%
 Bond
Drives
 Income Tax
 Selective Service Act
 Inflation
 US = Creditor Nation
World War I
 Lusitania
 Sussex
Ultimatum
 Zimmerman Telegram
 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
 General John “Black Jack” Pershing
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
Russian Revolution = Communism
 Allies wanted to Punish Germany

– Article 231
Reparations = $31B
 League of Nations = Article X
 Election of 1918 = Republicans
 Wilson keeps only 4 of the 14 Points
 Irreconilables
 Lodge Reservations
 Treaty defeated in US Senate

Red Scare
 Russian
Revolution
 Seattle General Strike
 Boston Police Strike
 Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
– Palmer Raids
– May Day
– Deportations
 NY
State Legislature
THE ROARING
TWENTIES
Election of 1920
 The
key issue was League of Nations
 Americans were tired of reforms
 Warren G. Harding
– Return to Normalcy
Business Economy

Henry Ford
–
–
–
–
–
–

Model T
Assembly Line
Employees = consumers
Auto replaced steel
Supporting industries
Highways
“The American Plan”
– Welfare Capitalism
– Open Shop

Supreme Court
– Conservative
– Anti-Unions

rgb
Consumer Economy
 Andrew
Mellon = Laissez faire
 Revolving Credit
 Installment buying
 Bruce Barton
– The Man Nobody Knows
– Jesus
 Advertising
 Modern
Appliances
 Charles
Lindbergh
 Movies/Sports
– Hollywood
– Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey
 Margin/Buying
– Stock Market
– 10% down
– American Dream
Harding
Return to Normalcy
 League of Nations rejected
 Harding Scandals

– The Ohio Gang
– Teapot Dome Scandal
Government not for the people when
Mother nature strikes
 Fordney-McCumber Tariff

– Higher

Andrew Mellon
– Trickle Down Economics
– Laissez faire
– Reduced the debt
Coolidge
 Trickle
Down Economics
 Laissez faire
 McNary-Haugen Bill
– Farmers suffering in the 1920s
– Farm subsidies
– Vetoed twice
Hoover
“Poverty will be banished”
 Rugged individualism

– No relief for the poor
Crash of 1929
 Hoovervilles
 Charities

– Volunteerism

Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
– $2B to help banks, Wall Street, industry
– $300M to help states with public projects
 Hawley-Smoot
Tariff
– 60%
– Worsened depression
 Bonus
Army
Culture

Scopes Trial
–
–
–
–

Religious Fundamentalism vs. Modernism
Theory of Evolution on trial
William Jennings Bryan
Clarence Darrow
Prohibition
– Drys
 Religious,
Rural, Midwest/South
– Wets
 Immigrants,
Cities
– Alcohol crime and poverty
 Electricity
– Cities had electricity
– Rural = nope
 Automobile
 Radio
 Jazz
 Crime
– Organized Crime
– Al Capone
 Dr.
Sigmund Freud
 Lost Generation
Nativism
Isolationism
 Fear of Communism, Socialism and
Anarchists
 Immigration Acts

– 1921 Immigration Act
 Nationality
Quotas established
 3% based on 1910 census
– 1924 National Origins Act
 2%
based on 1890 census
– Eastern and Southern Europeans
– Asians banned

Sacco-Vanzetti
 Mexicans
– During WW I needed to work farms
– Immigration Acts = No limit on
Mexicans
– Depression leads to deportation
African Americans
 Tulsa
and Chicago Race Riots
– Returning Veterans
– KKK
 Jim
Crow
 KKK reborn
– South and Midwest
– Birth of a Nation
– Groups =
– Pro-Wasp
– Democratic Party
 Marcus
Garvey
– Back to Africa
– Racial Pride/Separatism
– Nation of Islam
 Harlem
Renaissance
– Artistic movement
– Pain, sorrow, and Discrimination
 Jazz
Age
– Cotton Club
– Triangle
 Ghettoes
Women
WCTU = 18th Amendment
 19th Amendment
 League of Women Voters
 Equal Rights Amendment

– Alice Paul
Flappers =
 Margaret Sanger =
 Employment

– Typewriter, Telephone, Teachers
– 57% domestic servants
Sexual Revolution
 Divorce

Foreign Policy
 Isolationism
 Red
Scare
 Washington Naval Conference
– 5-5-3
 Kellogg-Briand
Pact
– War illegal
 Dawes
Plan
– Help to Germany
 Hoover-Stimson
Doctrine
THE GREAT
DEPRESSION
Causes
Effects
 30%
unemployment
 25% bank failures
 25% farms lost
 Thousands of businesses failed
 Low self-esteem
THE NEW DEAL
Franklin D. Roosevelt
FDR promises a New Deal
 The only thing to fear is fear itself
 Brain Trust
 Eleanor Roosevelt
 Frances Perkins
 Practical solutions for practical problems
 Hundred Days
 Relief, Recovery and Reform
 Fireside chats
 First New Deal
 Second New Deal

Banking and Housing
 1st
objective = banks
 Banking Crisis
 Banking holiday
 Gold Standard
 Emergency Banking Relief Act
 Glass-Steagall Act
– FDIC
 SEC
Housing and Agriculture
HOLC
 AAA
 Dust Bowl
 Resettlement Administration
 Rural Electrification Administration
 TVA

– Muscle Shoals
– Hydroelectric power/Jobs
– Creeping socialism

FHA
– Low cost housing and loans

Native Americans
Labor and Union










CCC
FERA
CWA
PWA
WPA
Federal Arts Project
National Industrial Recovery Administration
NRA
Wagner Act
Minimum wage
New Deal Coalition
 African
Americans
 Labor Unions
 Middle Class homeowners
 Solid South
Critics of the New Deal

Father Charles Coughlin
– Radio Priest
– Anti-FDR
Dr. Francis Townsend
 Senator Huey P. Long

– Share Our Wealth
– Poor

Social Security
– Inspired by critics
– Benefits to the unemployed, old-age, workers
comp
 Supreme
Court
– Conservative Republican
– Schechter v. United States
– Butler v. United States
 Judiciary
Reorganization Bill
– 9 to 15 justices
– Accused FDR of court packing
– Result
Recession of 1937-38
 FDR
wants a balanced budget
 John Maynard Keynes
– Deficit Spending
– Prime the Pump
 Conservative
Coalition
– Republicans and Southern Democrats
– Blocks future New Deal Legislation
– Civil Rights delayed
WORLD WAR II
Italy
 Benito
Mussolini
 Father of Fascism
 Ethiopia
 Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
Nazi Germany
 Adolf
Hitler
 Fascists
 Mein Kampf
 Spanish Civil War
 1936 Summer Olympics
 Munich Conference
 Poland
 Battle of Britain
 Invasion of Soviet Union
Japan
 Emperor
Hirohito
 Military Dictatorship
 Competed with US over dominance
in Asia
 Manchuria
 China and SE Asia
 Needed raw materials and land
 Embargoes
Policy of Neutrality
Pearl Harbor
 Japan
attempts to knock US out with
one punch
 December 7th, 1941
 A date which will live in infamy
Multi-front War
 Defeat
Germany first
 Bataan Death March
 General Dwight D. Eisenhower
 Normany = D-Day
 Battle of the Bulge = General Patton
 Battle of Midway
 Island Hopping
 Iwo Jima
 Okinawa
Diplomacy


Atlantic Charter
Casablanca Conference
– Unconditional Surrender

Tehran Conference
– Big Three

FDR, Churchill, Stalin
– 2nd Front promised

Yalta Conference
–
–
–
–

Japan
Free elections promised in Eastern Europe
Germany to be divided
United Nations
Potsdam Conference
– Truman orders dropping of Atomic Bomb
– Big 3 alliance breaking down
Atomic Bomb
 Albert
Einstein
 Manhattan Project
– Atomic Bomb = Los Alamos
– J. Robert Oppenheimer
 Potsdam
Conference
 Hiroshima and Nagasaki
 Japan Surrenders
 Holocaust
 East
vs. West returns
– No free elections in Eastern Europe
– US and USSR = superpowers
– Cold War begins 1946
WORLD WAR II
Home Front
Mobilization and Economy
 War
Production Board
– Control of raw materials
 Sunbelt
– Military bases
– Industry shift from NE
– Air conditioning
 War
Labor Board
– Control inflation
– 29% lower than WW I
 Office
of Price Administration
– Froze prices
– Rationing = coupons
 National
– Income
– 1932 =
– 1939 =
– 1945 =
Debt
taxes
$19B
$40B
$259B
Women
 Rosie
the Riveter
– 5M join the work force
– Assembly line work
 WACs
= military service
Civil Liberties

African-Americans
– Race Riots
– A. Philip Randolph
 March
on Washington
– FDR
 Hiring

of African Americans in defense jobs
Mexican-Americans
– Bracero Program
– Zoot Suit Riots

Japanese-Americans
– Executive Order 9066
– Internment Camps
THE COLD WAR
Origins
US wanted to spread democracy around
the world
 Winston Churchill = Iron Curtain
 Fear communism was spreading
 USSR wanted a Buffer zone

– No free elections in Eastern Europe
– USSR fears another invasion

Korea, Vietnam and Germany partitioned
– N Korea = Communist
– N Vietnam = Communist
– East Germany = Communist

Berlin
– West Berlin controlled by US
– West Berlin is an island deep in E Germany

United Nations
– Security Council
– US, USSR, France, England, China
– Each had a veto vote
Nuremburg Trials = Nazi
 Japan

– Reconstruction led by General Douglas
MacArthur
– Becomes a democracy and economic
powerhouse
Truman and Containment
 George
Kennan
 Truman Doctrine
 Marshall Plan
 NSC Number 68
 Berlin Airlift
 NATO
China
 Falls
to communism in 1949
 Chairman Mao Zedong
Korean War
 North
Korea invades South Korea
 UN minus USSR joins in the war
under US command
 General MacArthur pushes back
(Inchon)
 China pushes UN forces back
 Truman wants a limited war
– Fears China and USSR response
 MacArthur
wants to use nukes
– Demands unconditional surrender
 Truman
fires MacArthur for
insubordination
 Ike threatens to use nukes as
president
 Truce ends fighting
 DMZ
Vietnam (1950s)

North Vietnam
– Communist
– Ho Chi Minh

South Vietnam
– Pro-Democracy
– Ngo Diem

Dien Bien Phu
– French defeated

Geneva
– Promise of elections to unify country
– Ike convinces Diem to not hold elections
– Vietcong retaliates

Domino Theory
McCARTHYISM
 Alger
Hiss
 Fear of a Nuclear War
 Fear of the spread of Communism
 Loyalty program
 McCarran Internal Security Act
 Rosenbergs
 Hollywood Ten
 Sputnik
 Senator
Joseph McCarthy
 Arthur Miller’s The Crucible
Eisenhower
Kennedy
Impact on America Society
THE 1950s
Modern Civil Rights Movement

Truman
– Desegregated Armed forces
– Jackie Robinson
Eisenhower =
 Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

–
–
–
–
NAACP used lawsuits to fight Plessy
Earl Warren chosen by Ike to be Chief Justice
Thurgood Marshall
Separate but Unequal overturned Plessy v.
Ferguson
– Ordered to desegregate schools with all
deliberate speed
– KKK became more violent
– Massive Resistance = State aid cut

Montgomery Bus Boycotts (1955-56)
– Rosa Parks
– Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr led the boycott
– Supreme Court desegregated bus line

Crisis in Little Rock (1957)
– Governor Faubus blocks 9 students
– Ike sent in the federal troops
– 1st time federal troops sent into South to
enforce the Constitution

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
– SCLC
– Nonviolent Resistance
– Inspired by Gandhi, Thoreau, and Jesus
 SNCC
– Student movement started with Dr. King
– Jail not bail
– Greensboro sit-in
– Variations of sit-ins
FAIR DEAL
Truman’s domestic policy to expand the
New Deal
 Election of 1948

– Split in Democratic party
– State’s Rights
 Strom
Thurmond
 Segregation
– “Dewey Wins” - oops
Blocked by conservative coalition
 Taft-Hartley Act
 Open Shop
 AFL-CIO merger
 Jimmy Hoffa

Affluent Society
Post-war consumerism
 The Affluent Society

– John Kenneth Galbraith
– The Good life
Refrigerator, TV and Washing Machines
 FHA

– Loans for homes

G.I. Bill
– Loans to veterans for education, farms,
businesses
Credit Card
 Automobiles

“The Other America”
 Michael
Harrington’s response to the
Affluent Society
 20% of America lived in poverty
– 40% of African-Americans
 Leads
to LBJ’s Great Society
WOMEN
 Cult
of Domesticity
– Traditional role of homemaker
– Anti-Rosie the Riveter
 Television
stereotypes
– Father Knows Best
– I Love Lucy
 Baby
boom
 Dr. Benjamin Spock
– Ideal woman takes care of the child
 Divorce
rate increases
Suburbia
 Interstate
Highway System
 Middle Class / Whites
 Levittown
Conformity
Non-Conformists

Beatniks
– Jack Kerouac
– Sex, Jazz, distrust in America, Spontaneity
– First Thought, Best Thought

Elvis
– King of Rock and Roll
– Crossed line between Black and White music

Rock and Roll
– Devil’s music

James Dean
Science
 Sputnik
 National
Defense Education Act
– In response to Sputnik
– University research on military
technology
– Foreign Language, Science and Math
 NASA
– Space race with the USSR
 Polio
– Jonas Salk
Culture
 The
Feminine Mystique
– Betty Freidan
– Frustrations of the Suburbia housewife
 Baby
Boom
 Elvis
 Levittown
– White flight
– Suburbs
– Mass produced homes

Religion
–
–
–
–
Under God
In Go We Trust
Church, Prayed, God
Billy Graham
Kinsey Report
 Sunbelt

– Climate
– Air Conditioner
– Aerospace/Defense

Television shows
– Propaganda for cult of domesticity
– TV guide
– TV dinners
THE SIXTIES
New Frontier
The Great Society
Civil Rights
Vietnam (1960s)
Europe
Détente
Anti-War Movement
Counterculture
THE FINAL UNIT
1968 - 1991
Election of 1968
Nixon and Vietnam
China and Russia
Watergate
Energy Crisis
Stagflation
The New Right
Reagan Revolution
End of the Cold War
George W. Bush
 Berlin
Wall falls
 USSR falls
 Persian Gulf War
– Iraq invades Kuwait
– Operation Desert Storm
 “No
New Taxes”
Bill Clinton
 Brady
Bill
 OKC Bombing
 Contract with America
– Republican attack on budget deficits and
welfare programs
 NAFTA
– Free trade zone in North America
 Monica
Lewinsky
Immigration after 1965

Cubans
– Fled to US after Castro’s takeover
– By 1980 700K
– Largest legal immigrant group in post-WW II

Immigration Act 1965
–
–
–
–
–

Discontinued national origins act
1st come, 1st serve
Artists, scientists, political refugees & athletes
Asia (Vietnam)
Latin American (Economic)
500K illegal aliens each year
 English
only debates
 Melting Pot or Salad Bowl
 Public services and Immigration
Restrictions debates
 Arizona
Domestic and Foreign Terrorism
 OKC
bombing
 World Trade Center
Sunbelt Migration
 Shift
from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt
 Retirees
 Climate
 Air Conditioner
 Defense jobs
 High Tech jobs
The Graying of America
Environmental Issues
Descargar

AP US HISTORY REVIEW