CH. 1
A DIFFERENT CANADA
WONDERS OF THE LAURIER AGE
Cars & gas stations
emerged in Can.
- mixed reactions.
Bikes became the
rage. Even changed
the way ladies
dressed.
Silver Dart - 1st
Flight
in Canada
By Fessenden
1909, N. S.-McCurdy Can. = #1 telephone user
1902 Morse Code –
in the world.
Across the Atlantic.
Tommy Burns, only Can.
heavyweight
champ.
Babe Ruth’s 1st homerun hit
In Toronto, 1909.
Ten time
defending
Champ.
1st Can. movie showing.
Can. = 1st radio broadcast.
In 1912, it would save 700
lives aboard the Titanic.
WONDERS OF THE LAURIER AGE
1912
Calgary Stampede
Tom Longboat
Six Nations Reserve
Long Dist. Run Champ.
1909
Grey Cup Champs
Artist Emily Carr 1st worked as a
cartoonist in Victoria.
WONDERS OF THE LAURIER AGE
Available in Can. By 1910
Coke was first marketed as
Medicine.
1900 Hershey’s chocolate
5 cent chocolate bars
MALE
Public Morals
By-laws
1900 Bathing suits
The success of Coke prompted
Toronto Pharmacist to develop
Canada Dry Ginger Ale.
FEMALE
WOMEN OF THE ERA
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Fought for Prohibition
NELLY McCLUNG – The Suffrage Movement
Prairie women = 1st to vote => ‘work by your man.’
THE SOCIAL ISSUES
- Child Labour
THE MORAL CODES
- Pollution
- poverty
OF WOMEN
- Prohibition
- Courtship = family affair
- Few property or children rights
- Divorce was rare
- No legal rights (unless they committed the crime)
- Men entitled to wife’s salary.
- Jobs = servants / factory workers
- A few = Dr.s, teachers, nurses
CANADA - 1905


Alberta & Saskatchewan
joined Confederation.
Issues.
 Manifest Destiny
 political & economic.
 Independence from
Britain. Good or bad???
 English vs. French.
 End of the depression.




Minerals, lumber, wheat, &
manufactured goods.
Yukon gold.
Immigration.
Social reforms.

Women, natives, & workers.
LAURIER IS ELECTED - 1896
Sir Wilfred Laurier
First Liberal PM in over 20 yrs.
 First French PM.


$5 Bill

Conflict & Compromise


$250 Fine / 1 yr. Jail
French hoped Laurier would protect French
language and Roman Catholic religion.
Hoped Fr. & Eng could get along.
Often walked a fine line – side with Fr. Or
Eng.???
 Manitoba Act – Manitoba established
English only schools => violation of
Manitoba Act.
• Laurier won election standing up for
Fr. Rights.
MacDonald refused to intervene in
Manitoba school issue & lost election.
IMPERIALISM: A FRENCHENGLISH SPLIT
Most English-Canadians were loyal to the British
Empire (Imperialists). ‘French-Canadiens’
preferred to think of themselves as independent.
THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR
BOER WAR
BOER WAR
Britain wanted to ensure equal rights to all
British citizens in South Africa.
NOTE – Diamonds and gold were
discovered in the area.
They met resistance from the Boers (early Dutch descendants in the area)
who felt the British were taking their land.
England showed its force by calling on its colonies to help defeat the Boers.
English-Canadians – “Help mother country”.
French-Canadians – “This is not our war”.
Laurier’s Compromise
Only send volunteers (7300).
THE ALASKA BOUNDARY DISPUTE
When the US bought Alaska from Russia, no one cared about
Panhandle border until gold was discovered in the Yukon.
THE ISSUE – Canada could not gain access without US
permission to enter fiords.
THE SOLUTION – A six man tribunal was established to find
a solution.
Jury – 3 Americans, 2 Canadians, 1 British.
PROBLEM – Britain did not want to anger US as needed their
support in a border dispute in Venezuela. Tired from Boer
War and did not want another conflict.
THE VOTE - Four (US & Brt.) to Two (Can.)
=> The US was granted the Alaskan Panhandle.
THE CONSEQUENCES – Canada felt Brt. had ‘stabbed us in
the back.’
- calls for greater independence.
NOTE – The Klondike Gold Rush stimulated investment,
immigration, & established the Yukon Territory in 1898.
Alaskan Boundary Tribunal
THE NAVAL ISSUE
By the 1900s Germany’s
Navy was becoming a force.
In 1906, Britain countered with the HMS
Dreadnought. The first “all-big-gun”battleship.
With Germany threatening the British navy, Britain put out the call to her colonies.
“ We defend you. You should help pay.”
English – “Send money to our protectors.”
French – “Build our own navy.”
Laurier’s Compromise => 1910 Naval Service Act Canada
would build its own ships & lend to Britain in time of need.
Imperialists – “Tin Pot Navy.”
French – tied Can. to British policy.
THE LAURIER BOOM

Farming – Demand for wheat.
REASONS FOR LAURIER’S BOOM:
Fishing
 World economies increased.
 Canadian markets expanded.
 S. African & Yukon gold increased
world capital.
Railways
 Industry demanded raw resources.
Transportation
 Lumber, fish & minerals.
 Shipping & Railroads improved
allowing Canada to compete.
 Rising world prices helped farmers.
Yukon
Gold
 Manufacturing & hydroelectricity
increased factory output.
Hydro
Lumber
CANADA’S CHANGING POPULATION
CANADA WAS BOOMING AND
LAURIER NEEDED MORE PEOPLE
IMMIGRATION



THE LAST BEST WEST
 US homestead lands full & people
came to Canada.
 Clifford Sifton – Minister of Interior.
 Settle the west / advertising (see p. 259).
 Open-door policy.
 Eastern & Central Europeans, US assimilation,
colored immigrants, orphans.
Clifford
 Prairie Life - $, travel, flies, weather.
Sifton
PUSH -PULL FACTORS
 No/free land, famine, poverty, overcrowding,
political beliefs, rigid social systems.
URBAN LIVING
 1/3 immigrants went to cities.
 Ghettos, poor wages, long hours.
Canadian
Immigrants
CLOSING THE DOOR TO IMMIGRATION

Sifton’s ‘Open Door’ Policy.




British Columbia

Asiatic Exclusion League - Chinatown

Asiatic Exclusion League – opponents of
Asian workers.
 Destroyed Chinatown when refused to
ban Chinese immigrants.
Komagata Maru


East Indians aboard the Komagata Maru
Saw unskilled immigrants as a threat to
livelihoods.
 Employers hiring cheap labour.
French feared loss of culture/language.
Assimilation not likely with E. Europeans &
non-white.
East Indians challenged Continuous Passage
law by chartering their own steamer.
Authorities forced ship out of Vancouver.
THE STRUGGLE FOR HUMAN
RIGHTS


Women’s Suffrage
 The Right to Vote / Franchise
 Maternal feminists – felt women could bring a
fresh, compassionate perspective to politics.
 Improve status of women who often lived a
harsh life.
 Led by Nellie McClung.
st
 Prairie women = 1 to vote => ‘work by your
man.’
 B.C. started in 1871 & women gained vote in
1917.
Social Reforms
 Prohibition – blamed most social ills (poverty,
child neglect, & abuse) on alcoholism.
 Formed the Womens Christian Temperance
Union (WCTU).
Nellie McClung
CULTURAL EXTINCTION





Gov’ts main objective was assimilation &
treaties/reserves to free up land for settlement.
The Natives used the Royal Proclamation of 1763
and the Indian Act of 1876 to protect their land & Residential
schools
culture.
Residential schools
 Could not practice customs or languages.
 Banned the Potlatch
Prov./Federal responsibilities.
 Fed. = Indian Affairs
Prov. = Native Lands
*
Land Claim Issues
 1916 – Royal Commission.
 Allied Tribes of B.C. rejected report.
 Nisga’a Land Claim – 1st signed modern treaty.
* Nisga’a Land Claim
THE RISE OF UNIONS
The ‘boom era’ of the Laurier period was not
enjoyed by all. The gap between rich & poor
widened.
Between 1880 & 1910 workers organized labour
unions.
- Ten % of workers joined.
Craigdarroch Castle – Victoria
$650 000 to build.
- Risky as unskilled labourers are easy to replace.
- Gov’t & laws favoured employers.
- Often resulted in violence.
British Columbia – Dunsmuir Coal Mines.
- poor dangerous work conditions & low wages.
- hired strikebreakers.
- hired Asian workers to replace strikers.
UTAH PHILLIPS
“Where the Fraser River Flows”
- ugly two year strike with violence & cruelties.
- in all 179 miners arrested & 39 sent to prison.
http://www.last.fm/music/Utah+Phillips/_/Where+the+Fraser+River+Flows
AN ECONOMY TRANSFORMED
1907 VICTORIA VIDEO
FOOTAGE
http://www.hallmarksociety.ca/Harbeck/1907v.htm
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CH. 7 THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN CANADA