Peru is on the Western
(Pacific) coast of South
Peru is just smaller than
Alaska and has 2.88%
arable farmland
Population 29.2 million
• Government: Multiparty
constitutional republic,
Pres. Garcia Perez elected
President in 2006 ,
formed a government by
• Languages : Spanish,
• Religion: Catholicism,
Hanan Pacha ( Inti, the
Sun God, and Mama
Quilla, the Moon
Coat of arms features
a shield bearing a
vicuna (similar to an
alpacca or llama),
cinchona tree (the
source of quinine),
and a yellow
cornucopia spilling
out gold coins, all
framed by a green
• Gross national income per capita $7,950
• Literacy 93%
The Inca referred to their
empire as Tawantinsuyu.
The language quechua was
imposed on the empire by the
ruling elite and their dialect
became the official “quechua”
of the Incan Empire
The Incan Empire
c 1500
capital was Cusco, Peru
covered modern Peru, parts of Ecuador, Bolivia,
Argentina, and Colombia
In Quechua the term Tawantin
is a group of four things. Suyu
means "region" or "province".
The empire was divided into
four suyus, whose corners met
at the capital, Cusco (Qosqo).
The term “Inca” means “Lord”
and referred top the elite of the
Quipu or talking knot, record keeping devices
The Last Supper by Marcos Sapaca Inca, Cuzco Cathederal , 1753
Sapaca was a member of the Cuzco School, an art center in which Spanish painters taught
native students to paint religious works. Notice the viscacha (not cuy) and glasses of chicha.
Please do not eat guinea pigs in Peru!
Demographics by age: % <15 years: 29%, %>65: 6.4%
Median age 26.2
Health Indicators for Peru
• Life Expectancy: 74/77
• Child Mortality: 21 per
1,000 live births
• Maternal Mortality: 98 per
100,000 births
• Top Causes of Death:
Pneumonias, Heart
Disease, Strokes, Stomach
Cancer, Peri-natal, TB, Liver
Diseases, HIV, Diarrhea
Child Mortality : 21 per 1,000 live births
• Important indicator of
Community Health
• Disparities follow the
vulnerability pathways:
poor, remote rural
populations, indigenous
people, immigrants
internally displaced
peoples, and refugees.
Urbanization : 77%
Expenditure on Health $400
per person per year (4.6%
UN R/P 20% : 15.2
World Bank GINI Coefficient:
Status of women: poor-fair
Prepare to get dirty…..

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