History of Computing Machines CSC 2001 TTU Disclaimer lots of stuff will be left out enabling discoveries/inventions electricity, vacuum tube, relays, typewriter, etc… some theoretical developments Motivation For most of history, computation has been a labor intensive (and therefore expensive) process. drive down cost of labor (ethics?) get work done faster Timeline: 1621 Calculator rulers (pre-cursors of sliderulers) More modern one… Timeline: 1623 Mechanical adding machine could count past 9 Timeline: 1642 Blaise Pascal mechanism to calculate with 8 figures and carrying of 10's , 100's, and 1000's etc not popular - hard to manufacture only Pascal and one of his workmen could fix them Timeline: 1660 Watch making technology makes Pascal calculator more possible Timeline: 1672 Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz devise machine that could divide and multiply also wanted to develop a generalized symbolic language and an algebra to go with his machines, so that: "the truth of any proposition in any field of human inquiry could be determined by simple calculation." failed at that, but what else did Leibniz do? Leibniz "It is unworthy of excellent men to lose hours like slaves in the labor of calculation which could safely be relegated to anyone else if machines were used.” For most around this time, calculators were useless curiosities Timeline: 1694 Leibniz built a machine that beside the basic calculations also could take the root from a number Timeline: 1728 Falcon (France) first programmable loom. He used wooden punched cards tied together with ropes. This was the first punched card ever. The combinations of the holes in the cards were the instructions to the loom mechanism. This is what we now usually call the first program ever. The invention of the punched card meant the beginning of automation - a machine can perform a sequence of actions without interference of a human being. (ethics) Timeline: 1769 Chess playing machine hoax Timeline:1784 Johann Mueller described intentions to build machine that could calculate and print results Timeline: 1799 Luddites ??? Timeline: 1822 Charles Babbage designed a calculator. The concept of this machine was that it's operated by punched cards and the results printed on paper thought technology needed was too advanced to actually build Timeline: 1832 Georg and Edvard Scheutz (Sweden) decide to build Babbage’s Difference Engine completed in 1853 Timeline: 1834 Charles Babbage begins work on Analytical Engine It was to be capable of carrying out any mathematical operation. Instructions would tell it what operation to perform and in what order. It would have a memory with a capacity of onethousand 50-digit numbers, it would draw on auxiliary functions such as logarithm tables (of which it would possess its own library) and subroutines. Analytical Engine Countess Ada Augusta Lovelace daughter of Lord Byron worked closely with Babbage planned his computational problems has been called the world's first programmer designs some of the first examples of a computer programs (1843) How was she commemorated by the U.S DoD? Timeline: 1857 Sir Charles Wheatstone introduced the first application of paper tapes as a medium for the preparation, storage, and transmission of data also the inventor of the accordion Timeline: 1869 William Stanley Jevons first practical logical machine that is based on the principles of Boolean algebra (True/False) Timeline: 1887 Dorr E. Felt Comptometer “The Machine Gun of the Office” Timeline: 1888 William S. Burroughs more successful than Felt really starts the office calculator industry (1892) still manually powered first version: hard to operate with one exception… “a field agent who operated his calculator so well he refused to sell it, preferring to haul it from saloon to saloon in a wheelbarrow betting drinks on his accuracy.” Burroughs later versions could print results Timeline: 1889 Herman Hollerith (MIT) first electromechanical adding and sorting machine had to win a contest to prove its utility first major use?? started the Tabulating and Recording Company (what did that become?) Timeline: 1889 Multiplier machine Leon Bollee huge and impractical Timeline: 1893 Otto Steiger introduces the Millionaire a multiplier designed for big business but also used by scientists Timeline: 1900 Jevon’s Logical Piano could solve a problem faster than by hand Timeline: 1902 The Dalton 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 1, 3, 0, 6, 8 modern keyboard design? Timeline: 1914 Thomas Watson joins the Tabulating Machine Company. He transforms it into IBM. Timeline: 1917 “ROBOT” in a play called R.U.R (Rossum's Universal Robots) by Czech dramatist Karel Capek. intelligent machines meant to serve their human makers take over the world and destroy humanity Timeline: 1918 Enigma machine first used significance??? Timeline: 1920 The first cash register that prints numbers is introduced on the market by C-T-R (later IBM). Timeline: 1935 IBM 601 a punch card machine with an arithmetic unit based on relays. capable of doing a multiplication in 1 second about 1500 of them will eventually be made Timeline: 1936 Konrad Zuse started to construct the Z1, world's first programmable computer, in his bedroom. This machine became so large that it occupied his parents’ living room as well. Timeline: 1936 Alan Turing publishes 'On Computable Numbers' explained his ideas on the 'Universal Turing Machine', an electronic calculator that could make any calculation or logical operation his ideas will determine the internal architecture of computers in the future Turing Award Timeline: 1937 Claude E. Shannon writes his master's thesis on machine logic realizes that an electric circuit used the same concept as Boolean Algebra. If an electric circuit is designed according to Boolean rules, it can be used to represent logic. Expressions can be validated and calculations be made. It became clear that information could be manipulated by a machine Timeline: 1939 George R. Stibitz makes a call to a computer hundreds of kilometers away with a teletype console The "Model K" at the other side rattles for some time as well. The program that ran at the other side then sends the result back. It all takes less than a minute. The machine is built on a kitchen table. Timeline: 1942 Dr. John V. Atanasoff and his assistant Clifford Berry build the first electronic digital computer, named ABC (some controversy) not programmable Timeline: 1942 Konrad Zuse An improved version of the Z4 is used to calculate the aerodynamic characteristics of wings and rudders. Nonetheless the Z4 is still a mechanical machine. Hitler put project on hold. Timeline: 1942 Dr. John Mauchly and John Eckert commissioned to design a electronic machine that could compute trajectory table quickly for US Army results in ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) in 1946 Timeline: 1943 Howard Aiken first programmable calculator MARK I HUGE!! few tons of ice per day for its cooling, multiplication of 2 numbers of 23 digits is done in 3 seconds Timeline: 1943 John von Neumann develops the first programmable calculator with a memory von Neumann architecture Timeline: 1951 first generation of modern programmed electronic computers included UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) Timeline: 1951 Wang Labs founded first invention is the ferrite core memory - a system of copper wires mounted on a frame. At cross points a ferrite core is mounted. When a cross point becomes conductive (electrical current is running through the wires) the ferrite core becomes magnetic. By detecting which core is magnetic and which not one could "determinate" certain values. made by hand more solid and reliable than vacuum tubes Timeline: 1952 IBM Model 701 1 Kb RAM first machine to use a tape drive Timeline: 1952 Grace Hopper published "The Education of a Computer” developed the first software that could translate symbols of higher computer languages into machine language What is that kind of program called? COMPILER Grace Hopper PhD mathematics from Yale Eventually a Rear Admiral in the Navy first bug (1951) COBOL (1959) Common Business Oriented Language Timeline: 1954 John Backus an employee of IBM designed the programming language FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) challenge for it to be accepted Timeline: 1955 John McCarthy coins term “Artificial Intelligence” Timeline: 1956 Bob Patrick and Owen Mock first Operating System is designed GM/NAA-I/O IBM 704 Timeline: 1958 Control Data Corporation created their contribution to the supercomputer market with the fully transistorized -- CDC 1604 Seymour Cray was the chief architect Timeline: 1960 DEC released its first mini computer: PDP-1 priced at $125,000 to $250,000 first in a very famous family of computers first commercial modem Bell Dataphone 103 with the speed of 300 bps (bits per second = appr 30 characters per second) Timeline: 1963 audio cassette is invented by Phillips Timeline: 1964 SABRE first commercial network by IBM six years to build this air reservation program and the hardware belonging to it BASIC developed (Beginner’s Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code) CAD (IBM and GM) First Local Area Network Timeline: 1965 mouse invented Timeline: 1968 field of Software Engineering start NATO first demo of keyboard, keypad, mouse and windows showed the use of a word processor, a hypertext system, and remote collaborative work priced too high Timeline: 1969 Arpanet Honeywell H316 "Kitchen Computer" sold via a Neiman- Marcus 1969 catalog over $10,000 The computer can be programmed to keep track of various things like golf scores, investments. It can also plan dinners and keep membership lists of charity organizations. Timeline: 1970 Ken Thompson develops the programming language 'B’ Relational Database by Ted Codd Pascal (Niklaus Wirth) first computer chips from Intel Timeline: 1971-75 UNIX Kernighan and Ritchie develop “C” Atari - Pong Internet now has 25 computers Z80 Motorola 6800 Microsoft founded Bill Gates and Paul Allen Timeline: 1976-77 Ethernet described CRAY-1 invented Apple II released Digital came out with first VAX (VAX11/780) TRS-80 model 1 my first computer Timeline: 1978-80 TCP/IP Intel’s 8086 and 8087 First commercial spreadsheet (VisiCalc) Three students at two campuses of UNC used the Unix to Unix Copy Program (uucp) to put messages in a newsgroup. Usenet was born. Timeline: 1981-84 Microsoft buys QDOS Apple introduces its first hard drive (5MB $3500) IBM PCs 3.5 inch floppy TRON Commodore 64 Microsoft Word announced Macintosh IBM-AT/MS-DOS 3.0 Timeline: 1985-88 Windows, MS-DOS 3.1 OS/2 NeXT 386 processors IRC (Internet Relay Chat) invented Internet worm Timeline: 1989-90 486 WWW and HTML (Tim Berners-Lee) CERN Timeline: 1991-93 Linux (Linus Torvalds) Pentium NCSA Mosaic Windows 3.1 PowerPC chip Adobe Acrobat Apple Newton References http://www.thocp.net/ http://www.computerhistory.org/ http://www.xnumber.com/xnumber/cmhistory.htm Lesson Appreciate what we have and what it took to get us here!!