Latino Family Engagement: How to Effectively Engage and Connect with Latino Parents and Youth Andrew Behnke and Sue Rosman The Rundown Demographics Case Studies Parent Empowerment Resource Next and Culture List Steps U.S. Population Today in Millions 255 14 2 17 17 Non-Foreign Born Citizens Naturalized Citizens Legal Residents/Refugees/Asylees Temporary/Other Immigrant Status Undocumented (Migration Policy Institute, 2006; Pew Hispanic, 2007) U.S. Latino Population Today in Millions 29 11 7 1 9 Non-Foreign Born Citizens Naturalized Citizens Legal Residents/Refugees/Asylees Temporary/Other Immigrant Status Undocumented (Migration Policy Institute, 2006; Pew Hispanic, 2007) Size of the Latino Population (Census 2000, Public Use Microdata, 2006) Growth in Latino Population Gain of 200% + 100.0 to 199.9 57.9 to 99.9 0.0 to 57.8 -0.1to -10 Loss of 10% + NC Latino Population 1990 = 2000 = 2007 = 56,667 378,963 643,333 = = = 1.1% 4.7% 7.1% Births to Latinos increased by 1208% from 1990 to 2006. The number went from 1,754 in 1990 to 21,202 in 2006 or 17% of births. (NC Vital Statistics, 2008; Census; 2007) Foreign-Born Population in Other Countries (2003) Germany Canada Switzerland Australia Costa Rica Kuwait – – – – – – Source: OECD Factbook: Axiss Australia. 2006- Faith Action International House 8.9% 18.2% 20.0% 22.8% 24.9% 44.1% Foreign-Born Population in Other Countries (2003) USA – Germany 8.9% – 12.4% Canada Switzerland Australia Costa Rica Kuwait – – – – – Source: OECD Factbook: Axiss Australia. 2006- Faith Action International House 18.2% 20.0% 22.8% 24.9% 44.1% Latino Family Diversity Commonalities and Diversity Immigrants from over 20 countries One size does not fit all Language Acculturation Generation Status SES Life history Latino Cultural Values often Clash with the “American Way” Latino families must cope with the values and expectations of two very distinct cultures as they navigate their way through the multifaceted educational system. They must deal with an unfamiliar system powerful enough to alter their relationships with their children, their extended families, and the communities where they live. Latino Values Machismo – Marianismo misunderstood Respeto Familismo Simpatia Confianza More Values Personalismo- warm genuine close proximity, hand shaking discussing personal issues gifts – offering food & drinks formal at first -> personal Latino Cultural Beliefs The concept of family engagement is an American concept. Teachers in Mexico are seen as high ranking members of society, on par with doctors, lawyers and priests. Typically, children are taught to respect teachers and not to question them. Some Latino wouldn’t think of going into a classroom and telling the teacher what to do or question their motives and teaching styles! In Spanish, the word educación can have different meanings than it does in English. Latino Cultural Beliefs Above all, they expect children to acquire “Buena educación” or good manners (Delgado-Gaitan & Trueba, 1991) Families see their essential role as ensuring that children have food, clothing, shelter and that they are socialized into the norms and expectations of the family. Get to know a parent’s culture and their expected role within the culture. Education Basics in Mexico Education is free up to 9th grade. Those that can afford it continue onto higher grades. Books are free. Basic classes: Math, Social Studies, Science/Biology, Spanish, History, Geography, Chemistry, and English. Special Education does not exist. After 9th grade those that can’t afford to continue look for work or immigrate to the U.S. There is a scholarship system but is very limited. Education Basics in Mexico Schedule differences / uniforms No school services such as free lunch or school nurse School reform was implemented a few years ago to included grades 7th-9th as mandatory and free Teachers considered experts Parent-teacher relationships not generally encouraged Case Studies Potential Hispanic HS Students in NC 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020 (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, WICHE, 2003) Recent Trends in NC Latino population 53% pre-K involvement the lowest in the state More than half of North Carolina's Latino girls are expected to be pregnant before their 20th birthday. Latino boys are struggling more than any other group – African American boys next. (Hess, 2000; Zuniga, 2004) Recent Trends in NC Latino population 44% - 52% of all H.S. Latinos did not graduate in 4 years 2006 in NC. Only about 3% of NC university students are Latino (Laird, DeBell, & Chapman, 2006). Why Do Latino Students Leave School? Working by Age 14-15 / Family Obligations Generational Poverty Marry Young / Childbirth Gangs / Delinquency Limited Higher Education Opportunities (Perriera, 2007) Dropouts in the US Race & Ethnic Characteristics Race/Ethnicity Dropout Rate White, non-Hispanic 7.3% Black, non-Hispanic 10.9% Hispanic 27.0% Hispanic, immigrant 44.2% Asian/Pacific Islander 3.8% (National Center for Education Statistics, 2002. Dropout Rates in the United States: 2000) Native American 57.0% (Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Civic Report 31 Public School Graduation Rates 2000) (Laird, DeBell, & Chapman, 2006). How Dropouts Hurt North Carolina Lost State Income Tax Revenue $995 Incarceration Costs $1,946 Medicaid Costs $1,496 Annual Public Cost per Dropout $4,437 Dropouts = Annual cost of $7.5 Billion in lost earnings Aggregate of $11 Billion annual impact on North Carolina’s economy (Gottlob, 2007) Latino Parents & Academics Parental involvement has consistently been shown to be related to these outcomes (e.g., Delgado-Gaitan, 1992, 1994; Flouri & Buchanan, 2004; Gutman, Sameroff, & Eccles, 2002; Plunkett & Bámaca-Gómez, 2003) In fact, parent involvement was found the single strongest predictor of Latino academic performance (Zuniga, 2004) Latino Parents & Academics Youth achievement is greater when parents: are involved in school activities are generally knowledgeable about the school system monitor and help their children with their homework provide verbal encouragement are informed of the youth’s progress read in front of their children set higher expectation levels for their children’s academic performance (Delgado-Gaitan, 1992, 1994; Epstein, 1992; Gutman, Sameroff, & Eccles, 2002; Herman, Dornbusch, Herron, & Herting, 1997; Okagaki & Frensch, 1995; Plunkett & Bámaca-Gómez, 2003; Shumow & Miller, 2001) Language/Literacy Barriers to Latino Parent Involvement Unfamiliar and intimidating systems Overcome Barriers Personnel Together Attitudes of Life factors Past Educational Experiences Child care Work schedules Transportation Lack of Information Language Barriers During the first week of school, Linda has been given an application for free and reduced lunches, which she had completed and turned in, leaving blank the questions she couldn’t answer. Linda has been given a number and told she was provisionally approved. A few days later, Linda decided to try one of the lines, one offering pizza or sub sandwiches. When she got to the cash register, the cashier explained that this line accepted only cash and that the number was only good at the regular line. With almost no English, Linda only understood that she needed cash to pay for her food. She did not have enough, she had to return most or all of her food. Her face still turned just telling the story! *Youth stories presented are part of Rev. María Teresa Unger Palmer 2003 Dissertation at UNC Chapel Hill. Language Barriers 41% Speak English Very Well Indigenous languages Variations in Spanish dialects Code switching Implications for school settings Assure a trusted translator can help you (avoid child translation) (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006) Literacy as a Barrier Literate in Spanish, English, or neither? False assumption that if they speak Spanish they can read Spanish Implications for intervention Immigration Status as a Barrier Undocumented persons Trust issues Necessary to assure confidentiality Hesitancy to use services Classroom visits Resident vs. Citizen vs. Worker Social Security Questions No Child Left Behind Title 1 Title VI of 1965 Civil Rights Mental Health Barriers Immigrant experiences Fear among undocumented persons Heightened need for psychological services Children traumatized Posttraumatic stress high among immigrants Employment Barriers Odd shifts - 2/3 work off regular hours Arduous and Monotonous Labor Lowest wages but highest hours worked Lowest unemployment rates in many states but most frequently laid off and for longest spells Successful Practices for Engaging Parents Create a warm, caring, and inviting school environment. Communication is the major focus. make personal calls and visit the home with the support of parent liaisons or translators. Acknowledge parents’ cultural values and view them as strengths Successful Practices for Engaging Parents Recognize the families’ strengths. Resilience Resourcefulness Nurturance and support of extended family High educational expectations for their children (Behnke et al., 2005; Delgado-Gaitan, 1992; Henderson & Mapp, 2002) Invite members of the extended family to participate in the school activities. Youth Achievement is Greater when Schools: involve parents in after school activities. provide bilingual secretaries and counselors. recruit immigrant parents as advocates, mentors, and volunteers. involve immigrant parents in steering committees. provide materials in their languages. ensure meetings and opportunities for involvement occur at times when parents can attend. reach out to parents personally (1 ON 1) and make the school a safe place for parents. (Barbour & Barbour, 2001; Delgado-Gaitan, 1992, 1994; Epstein, 1995; Epstein & Salinas, 2004; Machado-Casas, 2005; Scribner, Young, & Pedroza, 1999; Valdes, 1996) Suggestions for Parents Read to their child. Discuss the day’s events. Help with homework and special projects. Limit television viewing time. Watch TV with their children and talk about program messages. How Schools Can Involve Fathers Make a special effort to include fathers in: Parent/teacher conferences. After-school and extracurricular activities. Mentoring and tutoring activities. Encourage fathers to be involved Let fathers follow their interests: Internet, magazines, sports Effective and Engaging Parent/Teacher Conferences Hold meetings in locations individuals are familiar with. Consider the work schedule of the families- Flexibility Evenings and weekends are best. Remember footbol (soccer), telenovelas, local events, religious festivals, etc. Effective and Engaging Parent/Teacher Conferences Hang signs in Spanish leading to the meeting room, restrooms, and other needed facilities. Focus on positive first a portfolio of child’s successes Discuss growth areas and plan End on a positive Effective and Engaging Events with Parents Extend the invitation to all family members. Make things less Formal Provide childcare nearby. Fun activities: role plays, hands-on activities, drama, video, use of personal history, culturally relevant materials. Written material a supporting player Involving Parents Appeal to parents and to children “Mom this is something you are doing for your child” and “Juanita lets get your dad coming out” Already involved parents recruiting others Incentives to recruit Commercial sponsorship? Just Remember Are you addressing: language culture beliefs Is it based on: funds of knowledge interests strengths Hispanic/Latino Organizations Adelante Education Coalition: www.adelantenc.org NABE: www.nabe.org National Association of Bilingual Education LULAC: www.lulac.org League of United Latin American Citizens MALDEF: Mexican American Legal Defense & Education Fund, www.maldef.org Nation Council of La Raza: www.nclr.org Pew Hispanic Center:www.kff.org/kaiserpolls/pomr012604nr.cfm A Dream Deffered: http://adreamdeferred.org/ Next Steps What is one thing you can do that will help you work with Latino parents? What additional training or support do you need?