Strategies for
Universalizing
Secondary Education:
Role of Boards
19th – 21st December, 2008, Ranchi
India’s Big Challenge
Country
Population
Urban
Population
Population
below 15
years (%)
India
1130 Million
30%
33%
China
1310 Million
40%
20%
Brazil
186 Million
84%
27%
US
300 Million
80%
20%
Japan
128 Million
66%
13%
Country
Life
Expectancy
Adult
Literacy
Enrollment
India
63.7
61%
63%
Sri Lanka
71.6
90%
62%
China
72.5
91%
69%
Brazil
71.7
89%
87%
Malaysia
73.7
88%
Mexico
75.6
92%
Large young
population
 Could be an asset if
educated and employed
 Potential social
tensions if not well
educated
Literacy: Long Way to Go
Rationale for Secondary Education
Secondary Education:










Develops faculties of critical thinking, abstraction,
insight, skills and competence at a higher level
Foundation for higher education
Requirement for employment and labour market quality
Critical to social and economic development and growth
Rates of return on secondary education are high
Rising demand from elementary leavers
International competitiveness
Gender equity
Requirement for primary teachers
Poverty reduction and equity
Why Universalisation ?
• 19% of world’s children live in India.
• Comprise 42% of country’s total
population.
• Are voiceless and vulnerable.
• Cannot advocate for themselves.
• Well being of society depends on
investment in development of children.
National Policy on Education, 1986
(as modified in 1992)
“ Access to Secondary Education
will be widened with emphasis on
enrolment of girls, SCs & STs
particularly in science, commerce
and vocational streams.”
(Para 5.13)
Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE),
Committee on Universalisation of Secondary
Education - Report of June, 2005
 The guiding principles of Universal Secondary
Education -- Universal Access, Equality and Social
Justice
 Norms for schooling to be developed for each state with
common national parameters
 Pressure on secondary education being felt and It will
not be wise to wait till 2010
 Financial requirement for universal elementary and
secondary education is 5.1% of the GDP
 Investment towards Universal Secondary Education
must be made not later than 2006-07.
Current schemes of Govt. of India
 ICT in Schools
 Integrated Education for the Disabled
Children
 “SUCCESS” – Universalisation of Access to
Secondary Education
 Means-cum-Merit Scholarship
 Incentive for Girls
 Girls’ Hostel
 Vocationalisation of Secondary Education
 To universalize secondary education (class
IX and X) during the 12th Five Year Plan
Challenges in Secondary Education
Access
Issues
Gender
Socio-Economic
Disability
Equity
Disadvantaged
Quality
Expansion of Secondary Education
Goal
To make secondary education of good quality available,
accessible and affordable to all young persons
Objectives
 To make all secondary schools conform to prescribed
norms
 Availability and access to every one
 Within 5 Kms for Secondary schools
 7 to 10 Kms for Higher Secondary schools in the
11th Plan and within 5 Km in the 12th Plan.
 Equity through removal of gender, socio-economic and
disability barriers
 To ensure education of good quality for all students
Expansion of Secondary Education
Physical Targets







Additional enrolment by 2011-12
Strengthening of schools
Upgradation of higher primary
schools
Additional teachers in existing
schools
Additional teachers for upgraded
schools
Additional Kendriya Vidyalayas and
Navodaya Vidyalayas
Girls’ hostels
: 66 lakh
: 44,000
: 17,000
: 3.02 lakh
: 3.61
: 1000 + 700
: 3500
Expansion of Secondary Education
General Strategies
 Upgrade existing schools to achieve
prescribed norms
 Expand capacity of existing schools
 Open new schools (mostly by upgradation) in
areas with gaps
 Encourage good quality private schools
 Expand facilities for open and distance
learning
 Step up allocation to secondary education
from 0.9% of GDP to 2% of GDP in stages.
Expansion of Secondary Education
Components
1.
Infrastructure











2.
3.


ICT
Models
Class-rooms
Furniture
4. School budget
Toilets
Drinking Water
5. School Management
Laboratory

Headmasters’ capacity
Library
building
Electricity

Management Committee
Phone and Internet

Involvement of local bodies
Sports facilities
Music Facilities
6. Supervision and
Repair and Maintenance
monitoring
Teachers



Teaching aids
Recruitment
Deployment
Training

7.
School inspection
Incentives for girls, SC/ST,
minorities and rural
students
Improving
Quality
in
Secondary
Education
Curriculum
Beyond
Transaction
Examination
Reforms in
Secondary
Education
Teachers
Empowerment
Drop outs
Infrastructure
Methodology
Quality
•ICT/Technology
Secondary Education (IX-X):
Indicators
S. No. Indicators
Boys
Girls
Total
1
Enrolment (IXX)
1.46
crore
1.01
crore
2.43
crore
2
Gross
57.39
Enrolment Ratio
(IX-X)
45.28
51.65
3
Dropout rate
(Class I-X)
63.88
61.92
60.41
Source:- Selected Educational Statistics, 2004-05
Secondary Education (IX-X):
Some Facts
CBSE
1
No. of Secondary schools
1.02 lakh
8210
2
No. of Higher Secondary schools
0.50 lakh
5170
3
No. of students ( Classes IX-X)
2.43 crore
7.5 lakhs
4
Estimated No. of students in classes IX-X in 2.89 crore
2007-08
5.4 lakhs
5
Population of 14-16 age group
4.71 crore
12.9 lakhs
6
No. of Teachers
10.82 lakh 0.9lakhs
Source:- Selected Educational Statistics, 2004-05
Access
No. of Secondary Schools ( Classes IX-X) per 100 Sq. Km.
9
8
7
6
5
8
6
5
5
5
5
5
3
2
1
N
K
a r A.P
M nat
ah
a
ar k a
as
ht
ra
O
ri
ss
a
P
un
ja
b
W
.B
A .
ss
H am
ar
ya
na
K
er
al
a
J
&
K
0.5
T.
2
.P
2
M
3
U
.P
In
5
4
di
G a
uj
ar
at
H
.
R
ja P.
st
ha
n
4
3
2
1
0
A
ll
No. of Schools
States having schools less and more than all India average
States
8
In
Pu
15
14 15
10 9
10
5
9
8
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
States
16
17
18
.
20
H.
P
di
a
n
Ut
tra jab
kh
an
d
Ch
T
a n .N.
di
ga
rh
Ch
ha M.P
.
tti
sg
ar
h
W
.B
.
Bi
Jh
ha
ar
r
kh
an
d
U.
P.
De
l
Gu hi
ja
ra
t
J&
Ke K
Ra rala
j
M a st
h
ah
ar an
as
h
Ha tra
ry
an
a
As
Ka sa
m
rn
at
ak
a
A.
P
Or .
is
sa
Al
l
No. of Schools
Access
No. of Secondary Schools (Classes IX-X) per lakh Population
States having schools less than all India average
25
23
19 19
10 10 10
3
0
Percentage of Schools by
Management
Management
All India
Secondary
(IX-X)
CBSE
Higher
Secondary
(XI-XII)
Higher
Seconda
ry
(XI-XII)
Government
42.96
37.17
37.70
Government-aided
28.52
31.04
3.02
Private unaided
28.52
31.79
59.28
100.00
100.00
100.00
Total
Participation
Gross Enrollment Ratio (Cross Country
Comparison)
100
93
Cuba
89
86
90
85
81
80
Sout Africa
79
79
80
Sri Lanka
70
70
Egypt
70
61
61
Thailand
60
Hongkong
50
Mexico
40
Vietnam
30
China
20
Malaysia
10
Indonesia
Asia
0
CU
SA
SL
EG
TH
HG MX VT
CH
ML IND Asia
SOURCE: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, October, 2005
Participation
Gross Enrollment Ratio
 States having GER less than all India average
60
50
40
52
49 49
46 44 44
43 41
30
27 26
20
22
10
0
ALL AS UP MP
CH
All India
Assam
U.P.
M.P.
Chhattisgarh
Rajasthan
J&K
W.B.
Nagaland
Jharkhand
Bihar
RJ JK WB NL JH BH
Source : Selected Educational Statistics 2004-05
Participation
Gross Enrolment Ratio (Classes IX-X)
 States having GER more than all India average
100
93
80
60
69
57
52 53 53 53 54 55
76 77
80
59
40
20
All India
A.P.
Arunachal
Harynana
Orissa
Gujarat
Tripura
Karnataka
Maharashtra
Goa
Uttrakhand
T.N.
Kerala
0
ALL AP AR HR OR GJ TR KN MH GA UT TN KL
Source : Selected Educational Statistics 2004-05
Participation
Disparity in Gross Enrolment Ratio
(Classes IX-X)
60
50
40
57
52
52
45
43
37
45
38
30
30
20
All
SC
ST
10
0
Overall
Boys
Girls
Source: Selected Educational Statistics – 2004-05
Source : Selected Education Statistics – 2004-05
32
32
25
26
38
38
38
35 40 44
34 39 43
33 38 41
37
37
36
28 33 38
31
24
24
31
31
30
38
45
2004-05
2003-04
2002-03
2001-02
98-99
97-98
96-97
95-96
24
24
30
94-95
93-94
22
31
29
35
92-93
20
16
22
34
40
91-92
15
10
19
25
90-91
Trend of Gross Enrolment Ratio
50
10
5
0
Total
Boys
Girls
Inclusion : Issues
• Number of people with disabilities- growing
• The number of people with disabilities in India is
substantial and likely to grow - disability does not “go
away” as countries get richer
• People with disabilities in India are subject to deprivation
in many dimensions of their lives.
• Social attitudes and stigma play an important role in
limiting the opportunities of disabled people for full
participation in social and economic life, often even
within their own families.
• India has one of the more progressive disability policy
frameworks in the developing world. However, there
remain huge challenges in operationalizing the policy
framework
Inclusion : Issues
• Increasing the status and social and economic participation of
people with disabilities would have positive effects on everyone, not
just disabled people.
• India has a vibrant and growing disability rights movement and
NGO/DPO and civil society involvement in service delivery for
people with disabilities.
• While there is a long way to go, focusing on “getting the basics
right” on disability policy would allow for significant progress in the
foreseeable future.
.02
0
0
.005
.005
.01
.015
Density
.01
Density
.015
.025
.02
Disabled People are A Heterogenous Group
0
20
40
60
Age at onset
80
100
0
40
60
Age at onset
80
100
Speech
.015
0
0
.005
.01
Density
.02
.01
20
40
60
Age at onset
80
0
100
20
Locomotor
40
60
Age at onset
.02
.03
Mental
.01
0
0
Density
Density
.03
.02
.04
.025
Hearing
20
0
20
40
60
Age at onset
Visual
80
100
80
100
People with Disabilities are Subject to Multiple
Deprivations
They are much more likely to be illiterate and out of
school
Figure *.*: Share of 6-13 year olds out of school by social category, 2005
Multiple
Locomotor
Speech
Hearing
Visual
Mental
All disabled
Muslim
OBC
ST
SC
Females
Males
All children
0
10
20
30
40
% of category out of school
50
60
70
High Priority to Education
% of Government
Expenditure
India
China
10%
13%
Brazil
US
Switzerland
Denmark
11%
15%
13%
15%
Malaysia
25%
Given our large population below 15, we must spend
more on quality primary & secondary education
An Interdependent Relationship…
Collaborative Model
•Sustainable Schools
•Every child matters
Universalization
Public
Social
•Lack of resources
•Inclusion
•Global Ambitions
Private
•Resources
•Innovation
•Corporate social responsibility
Curriculum
Product
Quality
Product
Mix
•School
•Information
•Community Group Meetings
•Programmes
Product
Line
•School
•Day boarding
•Child Care Centre
Beyond
Product
Features
Education
as
Service
•Curriculum
•number of hours of schooling
•assessment methods
Product Style
& Design
•Aesthetics of schools
•Location
Education as service: CBSE
Product Features
• provide flexible education in terms of
pace
time
place
Product Quality
• provide education through self-learning materials:Print
Audio
Video
Internet
• provide freedom in selection of courses of study.
CBSE
NO. OF CANDIDATES
INCREASE IN TOTAL NO. OF CANDIDATES
CLASS X [2003-2008]
800000
750000
700000
650000
600000
550000
500000
450000
400000
350000
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
748007
688729
549321
2003
591341
632014
2005
2006
561367
2004
YEARS
No. of Candidates(Appeared)
2007
2008
CBSE
INCREASE IN TOTAL NO. OF CANDIDATES
CLASS XII [2003-2008]
600000
530199
550000
484308
NO. OF CANDIDATES(APPEARED)
500000
450000
435648
404856
387774
400000
352105
350000
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
YEARS
No. of Candidates(Appeared)
2007
2008
Power
of
Consumers
Threat of
substitutes
Porter’s
5 Factors
Barrier
of
Entry
Power
of
suppliers
Rivalry
Quality
As Aspect of Universalisation
Learning Framework : Strategies
Learning System
CONTEXT
LEARNER
PERFORMANCE/OUTCOME
ACTION
Institutions
Schools
Community
Teachers/Parents
Learning Communities
Strategies :Context
Global Challenges
Modest IT Penetration
Telephone Users
Cell phone Users
Internet users
India
45
82
55
Brazil
230
462
195
Sri Lanka
63
171
14
US
646
680
630
Iceland
653
1024
869
(Users per 1000 population)
India has Progressed
Edu. exp as
% of GDP
Govt. expenditure
on education
($ mn)
Illiteracy rate (%)
4.11
18,000
4.5
3.84
16,000
4
14,000
3.5
2.98
12,000
3
10,000
2.11
8,000
16,923
2
1.48
6,000
4,000
81
80
71
70
65
56
60
47
50
40
34
1.5
4,264
0.64
844
2,000
0
2.5
90
52
194
14
30
1
0.5
0
1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
20
10
0
1951
Source: Statistical Yearbook of Department of Education, Govt of India
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE
Asia top ten Internet Countries
T
E
C
H
S
A
V
V
Y
Changing Learner Profile
C
H
A
N
G
I
N
G
P
R
O
F
I
L
E
L
E
A
R
N
E
R
C
H
A
N
G
I
N
G
P
R
O
F
I
L
E
L
E
A
R
N
E
R
21st Century Workforce
Changing Employability Skills
Changing Employability Skills
▪
▪
Jobs in this new millennium
require a student to be an effective
Adapted from Tom Friedman’s book: The
World Is Flat (2006)
Strategies : Action
WHO ? –
ACTOR
S
WHEN ? – WOMB – TO TOMB !
Lifelong Learning
WHERE ? – Changing School
 Buildings
 Virtual Classrooms
 Blogging
WHAT ? – Curriculum
 National ?!!!
HOW ? -
Transaction Strategies
Experiential Learning
Reflective Model
Effective Technology Enhanced
Learning Environment
WHO???
WHO
SCHOOLS
Policy / Vision
•Include all stakeholders (Sts.Trs/Parents
PE + LS
•Curriculum + Beyond
• CCE • Comp. School Health
WHO???
Who ? Leaders
Parents
Peers
+
Learners Principal
Friends
Teachers
as
Information Leadership
•A whole school information /
philosophy approach / vision
•Understand the core issues of
student learning
•Interpret educational &
administration needs into
technological solutions
•Multiple intelligences
integrated
•Life-Skills
•Values Enhanced Framework
WHEN
AND
WOMB TO TOMB
Life long
Learning
WHERE???
Elders
Nuclear
Schools
formal
Parental time
dissolving
boundaries
Both formal and nonformal institutions
Monitoring
WHAT..???
•Curriculum
•Beyond The Curriculum
CBSE AS A PACE SETTER
Languages – Communicative Language
Teaching
○ English ○ Japanese – VIII – 2008-09
○ Sanskrit ○ German – VI – 2008-09
○ French ○ Bahasa Maleyu – X – 2008-09
Mathematics
Science
Social Science
I.T.
Enrichment activities
Examination Reforms
Disaster Management
Class - VIII
Class - IX
Class - X
Information Technology based
Subjects
• Upper Primary Level (VI-VIII)
- Computer basics as
part of work
experience.
• Secondary Level ( IX & X)
- I I T - Additional
Subject
• Senior Secondary Level (XI & XII) - 3 Electives
1. Computer Science
2. Informatics Practices
3. Multimedia & Web Technology
New Electives at Senior
Secondary Level
Academics
• Creative Writing and
Translation Studies:
2007– 08.
Reader – Class XI
Reader – Class XII
FIRST BOARD EXAM
- 2009
Contd…
New Electives at Senior
Secondary Level
• Heritage Crafts
– XI - 2008-09 Readers NCERT
– XII - 2009-10
• Graphic Design
– XI - 2008-09 Readers NCERT
– XII - 2009-10
New Electives at Senior
Secondary Level
(Contd…)
VOCATIONAL
• FINANCIAL
MARKET
MANAGEMENT
(FMM) – 2007-08
Contd…
New Electives at Senior
(Contd…)
Secondary Level
• 03 Vocational +
01 Language +
01 Elective
(+ 01 Additional
Elective) .
• Joint Certification
by CBSE and NSE
Health Care Sciences
• Class XI 2009 – 2010
• First Board
Examination 2011
Joint certification with FICCI
What ??
Promoting Innovation and
Creativity in School System
• Strengthening school cluster system through
‘Sahodayas’.
• Student
support
activities
through
participation
in
Olympiads,
Science
exhibition, quizzes, etc.
• Nurturing creativity in indigenous and modern
knowledge in collaboration with National
Innovation Foundation.

Policy – (School Management)

Health & Wellness Clubs
Health Education
Classes 1 – 12
Vol I
Vol II
Vol IIII
Vol IV
AEP
Life Skills
Curriculum Plus
Classes VI – VIII
Revised Teachers’ Manual
for Class VI (2008-09)
Class IX & XI
Revised
Manuals
(in process)
Integrated Components
(Eco – Clubs – Peace & Value Education)

Teachers’ Manual
Teachers’ Manual -
I – VIII
IX
COMPREHENSIVE
SCHOOL
HEALTH
PROGRAMME
IN
CBSE SCHOOLS
Themes
Knowing
your body
Behaviour
And Life Skills
Being Safe And
Responsible
Food and
Nutrition
Personal And
Environmental
Hygiene
Health Manuals- An Overview
Comprehensive School
Health Manuals
(C.S.H.M):
Holistic health ( physical,
mental, emotional and
psychological health).
Formal and informal approaches
in curriculum pedagogy for
health promotion.
Emphasis on providing a safe
school environment.
Detailing Manuals….
Four Manuals:
Volume 1 – all
stakeholders
Volume 2 Primary Level
(Classes I-V)
Detailing Manuals….
Volume 3 - Upper
Primary Level
(Classes VI-VIII)
Volume 4 Secondary and
Senior Secondary
Level (Classes IXXII).
Themes Covered…
• Six different
themes :
Knowing your
Body
Food and
Nutrition
Personal and
Environmenta
l Hygiene
Themes Covered…
Physical
Fitness
Being
Responsible
Safe
Behaviour
and Life
Skills.
What ? Beyond
WHY Life Skills?
• Work with others
• Learn from others
• Ask questions
• Be open to other points of view
• Learn to defend your point of view
• Don’t automatically accept fact
unless you know it to be true
• Challenge assumptions
What ?
CBSE - AEP
Students Feedback AEP 2007
•
Information on Adolescent
Education is very useful to
understand the adolescent issues.
Mr. Nupur Jha ( DAV Public School,
Sikkam)
•
Adolescent Education is very
useful and we don’t have previous
knowledge on these issues, and we
would like to attend this type of
programme in future.
Mr. Pankaj Kr Giri ( DAV Public School,
Sikkam)
What ?
Teachers Feedback On AEP
•
Adolescence Education Programme is important as it
helps students in understanding in a better way
Mrs. Alpana Sharma Ms. Ruchi Bhargava (Nodel
Teachers)
Jaipuria Vidyalaya, Jawahar Lal Marg,
Jaipur-302018
•
•
During psychological and physical changes, the
child’s energy should be properly channelised.
Mrs. Meenakshi Sharma
•
Effective communication and working towards
one’s goal help to cope up with stress and
emotions.
•
Mr. Suresh Chand
What ?
Principals Feedback On AEP
•
•
We are satisfied with this seminar and it is
better to give knowledge on AEP Issues.
Ms. Suchita (Principal)
•
Such type of programme are really useful. These
may help in overall development and help to cope up problemsof
life. Such type of programme should be conductedregularly.
What ?
Parents Feedback On AEP
This programme should not be implemented
through schools rather teacher should
trained the parent and parents will trained
their adolescence.
Mrs. Jaya Srivastava (Varanasi)
•
In my opinion information parents should be
given full information from schools, so, that
parents can guide at home properly.
Mr. Ram Chand Narayan Pandey(Varanasi)
•
Sex education is not necessary in our
culture and tradition, parent should teach
adolescence.
Dr. O. P. Chaudhary (Varanasi )
•
This programme is beneficial for parents if
parents gets proper knowledge, they can
guide their children at home.
Dr. D. N. Ojha (Varanasi)
Status of AEP - 2008
Programmes held under AEP in Sep-Nov
2008
NTT
15
Programme
Advocacy
Programme
15
Science Exhibition
– Innovativeness
– Creativity
– Last 5 years
– Regional Level
– National Springdales
School, Delhi
– Best 20 exhibits
-Jawahar Lal Nehru
Children Science
Exhibition
Enrichment Activities
 Heritage India Quiz
 National Informatics
Olympiad
 Group Mathematics
Olympiad
 National Innovation
Programme
(with IIM, Ahmedabad)
Sahodaya - Concept
• School Clusters
• Spirit of ‘Caring and
Sharing’
– Information and resources
• Encourages Community
of Practices
• 250 Sahodayas
networking 4500 schools
Losing an edge, Japanese envy
Indian Schools
• JAPAN – Growing Craze for Indian
Education
– think of India as world’s ascendant
education superpower
• Bookstores are filled with titles like
“Extreme Indian Arithmetic Drills” and
“The Unknown Secrets of the Indians.”
Newspapers carry reports of Indian
children memorizing multiplication tables
far beyond nine times nine, the standard
for young elementary students in Japan.
The New York Times….
• Japanese praise Indian Education.
Envy Indian Learners:
– learning more at an earlier age.
– an emphasis on memorization.
– focus on the basics, particularly in math
and science.
How ?
Training And Empowerment
• In-service Teacher
through Sahodayas.
Training
programme
• Empowerment of Heads of Institutions in
collaboration with top business schools and
also with NUEPA.
• Theme based regional and national level
Sahodaya conferences.
How ?
Dimensions of effective technology
enhanced learning environments:

Task-Oriented

Challenging

Collaborative

Constructionist

Conversational

Responsive

Reflective

Formative
How?
Task-Oriented
Academic
The tasks faculty set
for students define
the essence of the
learning environment.
If appropriate, tasks
should be authentic
rather than academic.
Authentic
How?
Collaborative
Unsupported
Web-based tools for group work and
collaboration can prepare students
for team work in
21st Century
work environments.
Art, dance, and music students are
collaborating to produce online shows
with digital versions of their works
and performances for critique by
international experts.
Integral
How?
Constructivist
Replication
Faculty should engage
students in creating original
knowledge representations
that can be shared, critiqued,
and revised.
Students in fields ranging
from Creative Writing to Heritage
Craft are producing
portfolios.
Origination
How?
Conversational
One-way
Students
must
have
ample time and secure
spaces
for
in-depth
discussions,
debates,
arguments, and other
forms of conversation.
New
knowledge
and
insight
are
being
constructed
in
conversation
spaces
such as GDs and
e-
learning forums.
Multi-faceted
How?
Reflective
Shallow
Both faculty and learners must
engage in deep reflection and
metacognition. These are not
instinctive activities, but they can
be learned.
Teacher preparation : Teachers
are keeping electronic journals to
reflect upon the children they
teach, and their roles as
advocates for children.
Deep
How ?
Learning To Learn
? How can you calculate the return on your
education investment in schooling
? What will you be doing five years after you
leave school
 RECOMMENDATIONS:
– Learn to learn and learn to like it.
– Study whatever subject you like, but
recognize that you can broaden your skill
base considerable by choosing elective
courses wisely.
– Develop life skills that will enable you to
provide value to a variety of organizations.
How ?
1. Personal awareness
Self-concept, identity,
realistic self-esteem,
self-direction, autonomy
Experience
3. Task awareness
Understanding,
using, constructing,
communication
skills in context
Apply
2. Process
awareness:
learning
Experiential Reflect
learning
Monitoring, reflection,
Conceptualize
cooperation, critical
self-assessment
Teacher’s professional
awareness
Professional autonomy, communicative action,
commitment to learning
Culture of learning institution
and society
Quality of learning environment, culture of learning
community, collaboration between
participants
The Action Learning Formula:
Learning (L) occurs through Programmed Knowledge (P) or
traditional instruction, and Insightful Questioning (Q)
Lyrics of a Popular Film Song
•paani geela geela kyon?
gol kyon hai zameen?
•silk mein hai narmi kyon?
aag mein garmi kyon?
do aur do paanch kyun nahin?
•ped ho gaye kam kyon?
teen hai ye mausam kyon?
chaand do kyon nahin?
•duniya mein hai jung kyon?
behta laal rang kyon?
sarhadein hai kyon har kahin?
•socha hai… ye tumne kya kabhi?
socha hai… ki hai ye kya sabhi?
socha hai… socha nahin toh socho
abhi
•behti kyon hai har nadee?
hoti kya hai roshni?
barf girti hai kyon?
•dost kyon hai rooth te?
taare kyon hai toot te?
badalon mein bijli hai kyon ?
•sanaata sunaee nahin deta
aur hawaein dikhayee nahin
deteen
socha hai… kya kabhi… hota
hai ye kyon?
•Aasman hai neela kyon?
paani geela geela kyon?
gol kyon hai zameen?
•silk mein hai narmi kyon?
aag mein garmi kyon?
do aur do paanch kyun nahin?
•ped ho gaye kam kyon?
teen hai ye mausam kyon?
chaand do kyon nahin?
•duniya mein hai jung kyon?
behta laal rang kyon?
sarhadein hai kyon har kahin?
At the Upper Primary Level
Paradigm shift in Science Teaching
• Focus on Inquiry Skills
• Power of Demonstration
• ‘Learning by Doing’
- Class VI
• ‘Science is Doing’
- Class VII
(available on CBSE website :
[email protected])
Classes I & II
Techniques
Observation
Oral
Classes XI & XII
Tools
Tools
Observatio
n schedule
Oral
questions
Diagnostic
test
FEATURES
Classes III,IV & V
Techniques Tools
Oral questions
Oral
Question paper
Written
•Covers all aspects
Question paper
•Continuous
– Continual
Assignment
•Comprehensive
Personal
Project
Scholastic Curricular + Co-scholastic
Social Classes I - V
Practical (activity / experiment)
LS 5-point grading
Oral questions
CCE
Portfolio
A* Outstanding 90-100
Classes VI – XII
Techniques
Written
Practical
Viva voce
7-point grading
A* 90 and above
A 80 to 89
NPE – 1986, POA – 1992
NCF - 2005
Violences
PURPOSE
•Improve teaching learning
A Excellent
75-89
B Very Good
C Good
56-74
35-55
D Scope for
improvement
Below 35
•Develop learning abilities through
activities rather then exams
B* 70 to 79
B 60 to 69
Classes IX & X C 45 to 59
D 33 to 44
Techniques Tools
E Below 33 percent
Written
Question paper
Assignment
Practical
Techniques
Project
Viva voce
Practical
(activity /
experiment)
Oral questions
Assignment
project
Diagnostic test
Oral
Written
Practical
Classes VI to VIII
Tools
Oral questions
Question paper
Assignment
Project
Diagnostic test
Activity/experiment
Proposed Grading System for
Classes IX and X
Rational & Efficacy of Proposed system
Absolute Grade System and applicable for all Subjects
Easy to Understand as the broad cut-off marks are pre-determined
Based on historic concept of Class and Division
Comparability between Schools and Boards
Comparability among different kinds of Schools
Easily Implementable in large as well as small population
Graphical Representation in major Subjects is nearer to Bell Shape
(Normal Curve)
In line with the Grading System adopted by the Board in Classes upto V and VI-VIII
12/4/2008
95
Proposed Grading System For Classes IX and X
• Candidates are divided into 4 major Groups
Group
% Marks
Class
Distribution of
Candidates
Grade A 75and Above Distinction 3 Grades in the ratio
3:2:1
Grade B 60 – 74
I Division
1 Grade for all candidates
Grade C 33-59
II/III
Division
3 Grades in the ratio
1:2:3
Grade F
12/4/2008
32 and Below Failure
2 Grades in 0-19 and 2032 range of marks
96
Based on 5 Years average (2004-2008) –
Grades and % of Marks
Grad Grad Qualitative
e
e
Value
Value
Languages
Other than
Languages
% Marks % of Cand % Marks % of Cand
A1
9
Outstanding
90 – 100 4.70
94 – 100 5.04
A2
8
Excellent
82 – 89
9.39
86 – 93
10.08
A3
7
Exceptional
75 – 81
14.09
75 – 85
15.12
B4
6
Very Good
60 – 74
26.54
60 – 74
21.27
C5
5
Good
47 – 59
19.39
46 – 59
19.79
C6
4
Marginal
36 – 46
12.93
36 – 45
13.19
C7
3
Average
33 – 35
6.46
33 – 35
6.60
F1
2
Poor
20 – 32
3.95
20 – 32
4.85
F2
1
Unsatisfactory
00 – 19
2.54
00 – 19
4.08
97
Social Science X
History 22
Geography 22
Eco P.Sc
4 – Maps
2 – Maps
18 18
T h e o r y - 80
Science X
Internal
Evaluation
School Based
20
Formative &
Summative 10
Assignment
CW & HW 04
Project work 06
Theory 60
VSA
SA-I
SA-II
LA
1x9
2x9
3x6
5x3
09
18
18
15
XII
VSA 1 x 10 10
SAQ 4 x 12 48
LAQ 6 x 7 42
Mathematics
LA
SA-II
SA-I
VSA
6x5
3 x 10
2x5
1 x 10
30
30
10
10
X
02 - VIVA
03 - Record Work
15 - Skills
20
MCQ 1 x 10
MCQ ½ x 10
20
Formative and
summative
Practical - 40
Class – IX
DM Project
Q
Final scores reduce 10%
MAP Assignments
Class – X
6 Items Circulars Nos
Average UTs any 2-10% 2-History 15-2008
4-Geography 20-2008
Total 29 Qs. 31-2008
Assignments
X-4 diff. assignments
1 assignment – D.M.
Mode - 5 points Rating
A-5
Avg. out of 4
B-4
C-3
IX not carried
D-2
over
E-1
Project W-6
1 project – DM
9-15 pages
Hand written
CIR – 18/2006
20/2008
Assessment of PW
▪Content – 2
▪Presentation – 1
▪Process – 1
▪Viva - 2
CHANGED HOTS SLIDES
Support Services
Tele-counseling
Support material
•SQP’s (Print
website)
•Marking Schemes
•Performance
Analysis
Concessions – Visually
Challenged
•Seating Arrangement
•Amanuensis
•Enlarged print in Math &
Sc. & Tech
•Can offer Music, Home
Sc. even if not available in
school
Examination Reforms
De-stressing
•Based on NCF 2005
•Restructured Qs Papers
•Moving Content – Application
•Higher Order Thinking Questions
•Integrated School based Internal Assessment
X - •Math •Science •Social Science
•No school bag
•No Home Work (upto class II)
•Focus on Soft Skills
- Art, Music, Dance & Craft
•Alternative of
HW
•( I-V)
Amendment after GB, June
•15 min. Reading time
•9 point scale
Concessions – ‘Differently Abled’ •Spot Evaluation
•0.1% merit
• Studying 3rd lang. upto
•CCE
•Addition time
class–VIII–exemption
-3hrs-60mins
•Can use an amanuensis -2 ½ hrs -50mins
- 2hrs -40mins
•Ground floor seating
-1 ½ -30mins
•Alternative as visuals
•Persons with Disabilities – New nomenclature
•Use of computer/typewriter (outside Delhi also )
•Fee to amanuensis
•PD – visit to centre allow a week in advance
•Helper/scribe from host school for practical
Sports attendance for CBSE/SGFI – 60% instead
of 75%
Students Enrolled with CBSE
• Gets five chances to take in public
examination.
• Has the choice to appear in one subject or
a combination of upto seven subjects.
• To be successful must qualify at least five
subjects
• No upper age limit has been prescribed.
Empowerment Programmes
Training Programme for Principals will be conducted by
IIM, Bangalore at its campus.
–
–
–
–
Programme 1
Programme 2
Programme 3
Programme 4
:
:
:
:
Dec. 15 - Dec. 19. 2008
Jan. 12 - Jan. 16 - 2009
Jan. 27 - Jan. 31 – 2009
Feb. 16 - Feb. 20 - 2009
On-line Registration Form – www.cbse.nic.in
– NUEPA
:
Jan. 05 - Jan. 09 - 2009
Explore CBSE Website
Explore CBSE Website
• Interaction with CM
• SQP
• Support Material
– Olympiads
• Subject Pages
• Higher Order Thinking
Skills
Status of ‘Interact with Chairman’
Total questions received so far (last two weeks)
No. of Questions received
1600
1372
1400
1200
1000
800
600
583
329
400
175
200
48
0
Acad.
Admin.
Aff.
Category
Exam
RO
Future Projection
• Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) related to:
Social Studies(DM,Projects)
Academic
Secondary
Maths
Sr. Secondary
Economics(text book)
Biology
Bio-technology
Secondary
Examination
Sr. Secondary
Status
Affiliation
Online Mode
Vision
• Strengthening Position of CBSE in
Overseas.
• Developing Curricula Internationally
Competitive.
• Bring Global Dynamics in School
Education.
• Provide leadership in School Education
for other Countries.
• Offer affordable Cost effective
International Curriculum worldwide.
Academics
• Pilot Project with Australian Counsel for Educational
Research (ACER) for Data analysis alongwith Training
Workshops for Evaluators.
– Class XII , English & Economics
• Pilot Project on School Mapping
– locating CBSE Affiliated School on Public Mapping System
– development of an in-house GSM Gateway Solution to
provide alert based on-line facility to all stakeholders.
• In-house Training Centre at Academic Unit for
Capacity Building and dissemination of knowledge.
Launch of National Urban Eco-Sanitation
and Green School Initiatives
• 100% sanitation during 11th Five Year
Plan
• Awareness – Behavioural change
• Green School – Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
– Rain water harvesting
• Pilot Project – 100 Schools
(25 KVs + 25 Govt. sch + 50 PVT Sch)
Forging Ahead
• Need
to
embrace
sustainable
development across the education system
so that best practice and become the
norm as common practice.
• CBSE schools provide examples of ‘good
practices’ which can be replicated.
We have exactly enough time
starting now.
Dana Meadows (Environmentalist)
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