Languages in Contact
Results of
Bilingualism &
Language Choice
Asymmetric principle of multilingualism
Some languages are more valued than another
The larger the number of desired roles a language
enables its speakers to play in a given society, the
higher its place on the hierarchy & vice versa.
It is said to exist where there are two varieties
with distinct functions- a prestige (or H) form
used in formal settings and in writing, and a L
form used in everyday informal
communication. There are very clear
differences in the functional load of the two
(Ferguson, 1959)
Arab World
H Form
L Form
Swiss German
Haitian Creole
1. Specialized Functions
H Form
L Form
Sermon in church
Personal letter
University lecture
News broadcast
Instructions to servants
Family conversation
Tutorial discussion
Soap opera
Editorial, news story
Poetry and literature
Speech in parliament
Political cartoon caption
Folk literature
Differences in H and L forms
3.Literary Tradition
–Words borrowed from one language
to another
A lot of change in the vocabulary, grammar,
pronunciation and meaning of words in the
Sprachbunds or linguistic areas
• Geographical proximity between
different language communities with
slow spread of features across languages.
Lingua Franca
A helping language, partially developed,
that is employed over an extensive area
by people speaking different languages in
order to communicate.
Other Outcomes
• In colonial settings, long-term contact
between European and indigenous
language led to the creation of ‘New
Englishes’ such as ‘Singlish’ and
• No limit to what speakers of different
languages will borrow or transfer from
each other.
Code Switching
• When two or more languages exist in a
community, speakers frequently switch from
one language to another. This is known as
code switching.
1. It is functionally motivated
2. It is governed by a ‘grammar of
Code Switching
Hey there how are you?
Am fine, long time no see, aur bolo kya haal
Sab theek hai yaar, bas am a little busy these
Okay, how’s your worklife?
Cool yaar, sab theek hai, acha hai.
Types of code switching
Situational Code Switch
• The switch is in response to a change in
Eg. When a participant enters the scene.
Situational Code Switching
( Change in Participant)
• Girl: Mom, Where is Rasheeda?
• Mom: I don’t know.
(Rasheeda, the maid, enters the room)
• Girl: Haan Rasheeda, Jaa kar mera kamra saaf
Types of code switching
Situational Code Switch
• The switch is in response to a change in
Eg. When a participant enters the scene.
To a change in the topic of conversation or the
Situational Code Switching
(Change in Topic)
(Ali goes to take help of a professor through a
• Ali: Asalamalikum.
• Professor: Walikumasalam. Kia haal hai Ali?
Ghar mein sab kaise hain?
• Ali: Sab theek hain, Allah ka Shukar. Sir, I was
wondering if you can help me with this
research project.
• Professor: Oh sure, what is it about?
Types of code switching
Metaphorical Code Switch
The switch has a stylistic or textual function
Eg. To signal a quotation, to mark emphasis, to
indicate the punch line of a joke, or to signal a
change in the tone from the serious to the
Metaphorical Code Switching
( to emphasize)
• Mother to her children:
Well, Come here! Put these away, both of you
(children don’t respond)
Idhar Aao tum duno!
Metaphorical Code Switching
(To signal a quote)
• For the way he has fought for his rights
consistently, Us ko to sher ka bacha ya mard
ka bacha kehna chahiye.
Code Mixing
• A common mode of code switching is
switching of languages within sentences,
referred to as code mixing.
Code Mixing
Yeh train ka time change ho gaya
hai kia?
Code Mixing and Borrowing
1. Borrowing is usually restricted to single set
words; Code Mixing is done with phrases as
2. Borrowing can be done by monolinguals as
well; for code mixing the speaker has to be a
3. Mostly nouns are borrowed; Code mixing can
be done with any part of speech
Reasons for code switching- code
• Both serve the same function
• Identity marking
• Neutrality
What type of Code
switching/Code mixing?
No one at the CCB was willing to
say anything except that ‘is ka
order ooper se aya hai’.
Both of them are unhurt Khuda
key fazal sey, but Shazia has
become paralyzed.
Hassan go and open the door.
Tum Sajida ja kar chaey banao.
My unbending procrastination is
one thing that repels the beauty of
the world but they say ‘sabar ka
phal meetha’
As they turned to me, I shrugged
my shoulder with a ‘Bhai dekh
lo, I am not carrying your purse’
I was badly stuck in work; anyhow,
tum sunao tumhara trip kaisa tha?
The whole thing is key bhaiya
sab se bada rupaiya.
Their response, ‘ I think you are
right madam,’ said a young man,
city life and modern education
makes men very beghairat.
Bus we reached there in time,
but no body was there to receive
What is the reason for Code
Switching/Code Mixing?
Very soon, I will be a big star in
Bollywood. Main naumeed
nahin houngi.
I got looks from them all and
then a couple said aap aagay aa
Atif Amin feels that to some
extend visiting therapists is an
ameeron ka nakhra.
He is set to release some very
interesting films, which he describes
as happy-go-lucky movies. Aap ko
pata hai aaj kal happy films ka
zamana hai.
My colleagues kept worrying
that piracy ho rahi hay we
should stop it; I kept saying,
"hooney do".
I cannot make new friends. Main
buri, mairi dausti buri. That’s all.
I have to go wahn abhi, at any
And an old friend of hers, a female
writer, was so infuriated on being
referred to as a ‘Cycle wali larki’
that she broke relations with her for
Publications have just become
catalogues and designers have
become shadi ka jora mills, not
aiming to produce delicate pieces
any more.
Talk about ‘lakkar hazam, pathar
hazam’, they deserve a better deal,
if only for their patience in eating
such swill day after day.
"Logon ki samajh" is all he has to
say about the society's attitude
towards dance.
Code Switching/Mixing
used by Pakistani media.
Amjad considered her as ustad se ziyada dost
(friend rather than teacher).
(January 22, 2006, Dawn)
What was sworn upon yesterday as guiding
principle will be chucked at the alter of
expediency tomorrow as mere siyasi bayan
(political statement).
(January 22, 2006 Dawn)
According to one of them, they were not
shunned by the public as lula, langra and
apahaj (lame and paralyzed).
(December 04, 2005 Dawn)
A poor hari (the farmer) can be sent to the
gallows even on the mild accusation of a
crime leveled against him by a noble.
(March 27, 2007, Dawn)
An honorable sardar or wadera (the landlord
or chief) can walk free even after proven
record of the most heinous kinds of crimes
against him.
(March 27, 2007, Dawn)
They alleged that the naib nazim (the vice
municipal officer) was receiving threats to
force him to part ways with the PPP-backed
Awam Dost panel.
(March 04, 2007, Dawn)