Department of Education
Safe Use of Machinery
in Technology Teaching
Program Purpose
• To be able to test and demonstrate knowledge in the
safe use of static powered machinery
• To have an understanding of safety requirements
according to current Victorian legislation
Learning Outcomes
VBQU618 Apply OHS principles to technology teaching
•
Describe technology area roles and responsibilities of
employers, employees, and contractors as set out in
occupational health and safety legislation eg. technology
head, health and safety representative, technology teachers,
management nominee
•
Maintain awareness of all relevant OHS Risk Management
requirements for managing risks in technology
•
Develop understanding of hazards in technology and the
application to machinery safety
•
Learn about the management of hazardous substances in the
technology teaching environment
Learning Outcomes
VBQU619 Safely operate and maintain woodworking
machines
• Learn about preparing, operating and maintaining woodwork
machinery, including basic machinery safety
• Develop understanding of managing safety in a woodwork
teaching workshop
• Implement housekeeping procedures in a technology
teaching environment and safe operation of all common
woodwork machinery
Learning Outcomes
VBQU619 Safely operate and maintain metalworking
machines
• Understand metal shop safety in the technology teaching
environment and safe operation of all common metalwork
machinery
• Learn about preparing metal working machines for use
• Learn about operating, maintaining metal working machines
• Implement housekeeping procedures in a teaching metal
shop
Session 1
VBQU618
Apply OHS Principles to
Technology Teaching
Legislation
• Acts
• Regulations
• Compliance Codes
• Standards
• Guidance
• Agreements and contracts
WorkSafe Victoria
•
WorkSafe Victoria is the Victorian
WorkCover Authority’s occupational
health and safety arm
•
Responsibilities include:
- prevent workplace injuries
- enforce Victoria’s OHS Laws
S2
Objects of the OHS Act 2004
a) to secure the health, safety and welfare of employees
and other persons at work
b) to eliminate, at the source, risks to health safety or
welfare of employees and other persons at work
c) to ensure that the health and safety of members of the
public is not placed at risk by the conduct of
undertakings by employers and self-employed persons
d) to provide for involvement of employees, employers and
organisations representing those persons in the
formulation and implementation of health, safety and
welfare standards
Principles of Health and Safety
Protection
1
All people must be
given the highest
level of protection
against risks
4
Employers and
employees should
exchange
Information and
ideas about risks
2
Those who control or
manage the workplace
are responsible for
eliminating or reducing
risks as far as is
reasonably practicable.
S4
3
Employers and
self-employed
persons must be
proactive
5
Employees are
entitled, should be
encouraged to be
represented
Concept of Ensuring
Health and Safety
S20
• Eliminate risks to health and safety so far as is
reasonably practicable
If not reasonably practicable to eliminate risks
• Reduce risks so far as is reasonably practicable
Note: health includes psychological health
S20
When determining what is Reasonably
Practicable regard must be had to …
a) likelihood of the hazard or risk eventuating
b) the degree of harm that would result if the hazard or
risk eventuated
c) what the person concerned knows, or ought to
reasonably know about the hazard or risk and ways
of eliminating or reducing it
d) the availability and suitability of ways to eliminate or
reduce the hazard or risk
e) $ the cost of eliminating or reducing the hazard or
risk $
S21(1)
Duties of Employers
An employer must, so far as is
reasonably practicable,
provide and maintain for
employees of the employer a
working environment that is safe
and without risks to health*.
* Definition of health includes psychological health
S21 (a-e)
Duties of Employers
Employers must so far as is reasonably practicable:
• provide or maintain plant or systems of work
• manage risk when using, handling, storing and
transporting plant or substances
• maintain workplaces under their control and management
in a safe and healthy condition
• provide adequate facilities for the welfare of employees
• provide information, instruction, training or supervision to
employees to perform their work that is safe and without
risks to health
S21(3)(a)
Contractors
“Employee” includes an independent contractor
engaged by an employer and any employees of
the independent contractor
S21(3)(b)
Contractors
• the duties of an employer under those sub-sections
extend to such an independent contractor and the
independent contractor’s employees, in relation to
matters over which the employer –
has control; or
would have had control but for any agreement
between the employer and the independent
contractor to limit or remove that control.
S22
Duties of Employers
An employer must so far as is reasonably practicable
• monitor the health of the employees
• monitor the conditions at the workplace
• provide information to employees (in appropriate
languages) concerning health and safety at the workplace,
including the names to whom an employee may make an
enquiry or complaint about health and safety
• keep information and records relating to health and safety
of employees
• employ or engage qualified people to provide advice on
occupational health and safety
S25
Duties of Employees
• Take reasonable care of themselves
• Take reasonable care of others who may be affected
by their acts or omissions
• Co-operate with their employer on safety matters
• Not to intentionally or recklessly interfere with or
misuse anything provided at the workplace in the
interests of health, safety or welfare
• In determining failure to take reasonable care regard
must be had to what the employee knew about the
relevant circumstances
Employers and
Self Employed Persons
S23&24
Responsibility to ensure that persons (other than
employees) are not exposed to risks arising from conduct
of their undertaking
S27
Duties of Designers of Plant
• Must ensure that the plant is designed to be without
risks to health and safety when used for the purpose it
was designed.
• Must carry out tests and examinations to
ensure that the plant is safe when used for
its intended purpose.
• Must provide information about the
intended purpose of the plant, test results
and any conditions necessary to ensure
that it is safe when used for the intended
purpose.
Duties of Manufacturers
of Plant or Substances
S29
• Must ensure that plant and substances are safe when
used for the purpose they were manufactured
• Must carry out or arrange tests and examinations to
ensure that the plant/substance is safe when used for
intended purpose
• Must give suppliers and users of plant or substances
information about:
 the intended purpose(s) of the plant or substances,
 the results of tests for plant or substances; and
 any condition necessary to ensure that when used for
intended purpose they are safe.
S40,41&42
Licences, Registration and
Permits
• Employers must not allow work to be carried out
unless the workplace activity, plant or substance is
licensed or registered as required under the relevant
regulations.
• An employer must not allow the person to work unless
the person has the required training, qualification,
permits or supervision.
Penalties
Companies
Individuals
•
• maximum $991,080
5 years jail
• maximum $198,216
The value of a penalty unit is $110.12
July 2007
Workplace Consultation and
Workplace Representation
(Duties to consult commenced January 2006)
Consultation
S35&36
Employer must
Consult employees on OHS matters that directly
affect them especially for:
• Health monitoring
• Workplace environmental monitoring
• Providing information and training
• Membership of any health and safety committee
• Proposed changes – workplace, plant, substances,
other things, conduct of work performed
Consultation
S35&36
Employer must
Consult employees on OHS matters that directly
affect them especially when:
• Identifying or assessing hazards and risks
• Making decisions about control measures
• Making decisions about the adequacy of facilities
• Issue resolution procedures
• Consultation procedures
Issue Resolution and Roles
of Inspectors
Workplace Issue Resolution
Duties of Employers
• employer’s representative
 is not a health and safety representative
 has an appropriate level of seniority
 is sufficiently competent
 resolve health and safety issues
S73(2)
Workplace Issue Resolution
Employer and employees affected by the issue must
attempt to resolve the issue
Step 1
• Employee raises an issue with supervisor and/or
health and safety representative and/or management
representative
(note that an employee from another DWG can raise
an issue with another DWG health and safety
representative)
Workplace Issue Resolution
Step 2
• Issue is reviewed and is resolved – acceptable
solution is implemented
Step 3
• Issue is not resolved – health and safety
representative can issue a PIN
Step 4
• Inspector can be called in to resolve the issue
Issue
Resolution
Flow Chart
Roles and Responsibilities of
WorkSafe Inspectors
• Monitor and enforce compliance with
OHS legislation
• Provide information and advice to
workplace parties
• Assist in resolving OHS issues and
disputes
• Investigate incidents and complaints
• Initiate prosecutions, as required
Technology Area
eg. Inspectors may be looking for
• Unsafe machinery
• Storage of hazardous substances
• Storage of materials
• Safe work practices
Inspectors
General Powers of Entry
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
inspect, examine and make enquiries
inspect and examine any thing
bring any equipment or materials
seize any thing (including documents)
seize any thing for further testing or examination
take photographs and measurements, make
sketches and recordings
exercise any other power
any other thing that is reasonably necessary
S99
Directions and Notices
issued by Inspectors
• Directions

Verbal or written Directions if there is an immediate threat
to health and safety
• Non-Disturbance Notice

Stop use, movement of, interference with any plant,
substance or thing (no more than 7 days)
• Improvement Notice

Situation must be remedied by a given date, can include
directions and interim directions and conditions
• Prohibition Notice

Prohibits the carrying on of an activity, or the carrying on of
the activity in a specified way
Session 2
Plant Safety
Controlling OHS Hazards & Risks
Hazard
the potential to cause injury, illness or property damage
Hazards
Examples of hazards:
• air borne contaminants
• noise
• dangerous chemicals or harmful
substances
• moving vehicles
• manual handling
• oil spills
• naked flames
• operating machinery
Hazard Groups
• Physical
noise, vibration,
lighting, electrical,
temperature, radiation,
machinery, fire and
explosion
• Chemical
gases, dusts, fumes,
vapours, liquids
• Ergonomic
manual handling, workplace
layout, equipment design,
workstation design
• Biological
Infections, bacteria, viruses
• Psychological
stress, personal threat
Physical Hazard - Noise
Effect on Hearing
Very Dangerous
Sound Level in dB(A)
Typical Sound Source
140
130
Jet Engine
Rivet Hammer
120
Aircraft Propeller
110
100
90
Rock Drill
Chain Saw (2-stroke)
Sheet Metalwork
Heavy Truck
Risky
85
80
Noise exposure standard
Heavy Traffic
Irritating
70
Family Car
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Normal Conversation
Quiet Conversation
Background Radio
Whispering
Quiet Room
Rustling Leaves
Silence
PAIN LEVEL
Dangerous
Physical Hazard - Vibration
• Whole body
• Segmental
• White finger
Technology Hazards
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Poor design
Cutting
Crushing
Striking
Protrusions stabbing
Impact
Abrasion friction
Entanglement
Physical Hazard - Electric
Cause
Death and Serious Burns
Prevention
• Check power tools and leads
• Test and tag
• Use qualified electricians
• Use Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers (ELCBs)
• Use rubber insulation
• Establish safe work practices
Physical Hazard - Light
• Australian Standard 1680 –
Interior and Workplace Lighting
• Amount of light
• Number and position of lights
• Interior lighting
• Tasks and activities performed
Temperature
Cold
21°C
Hot
26°C
16°C
30°C
Comfort Range
Physical Hazard
Slips, Trips and Falls
•
•
•
•
Spills
Cleaning agents
Poor housekeeping
rushing
•
•
•
•
Heights
Ladders
Lighting
Floor coverings
Chemical Hazards
• Gases- oxygen, acetylene, nitrogen
• Solids - metals,minerals
• Liquids - acids, alkalis
• Dust - asbestos, wood dust
• Mist - paint spray
• Vapour - petrol
Ergonomic Hazards
Fit the workplace to the worker
NOT the worker to the workplace
Ergonomic Hazards
• Use mechanical handling devices rather than
physical (manual) handling
Hazard Identification
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
workplace inspections
product information
reports
 incident - illness - injury
legislative requirements
employees
 personal knowledge
 experience and observation
industry/trade associations, unions
consultant reports
health & safety committee minutes
Risk
• Means the likelihood of injury or illness arising from
exposure to any hazard
Risk Assessment
The following needs to be considered:
•
•
•
•
•
Who is exposed to the hazard?
How often are people near the hazard?
Has this hazard already caused any problems?
How easily could someone be hurt?
How common is it for this hazard to cause problems in
other workplaces?
• Which factors relating to that hazard need to be taken
into account, according to health and safety law?
• Which factors or specific aspects of the work are
increasing the likelihood of injury or illness?
Step One - Likelihood
A. Very likely -
expected to occur
B. Likely
-
will probably occur
C. Moderate
-
might occur
D. Unlikely
-
could occur
E. Rare
-
may occur
Step Two - Consequence
1.
Insignificant
-
no injuries
2.
Minor
-
first aid
3.
Moderate
-
medical treatment
4.
Major
-
extensive injuries
5.
Catastrophic
-
death
Step Three – Risk Table
Consequence
Likelihood
Very likely
Likely
Moderate
Unlikely
Rare
A
B
C
D
E
Extreme risk
High risk
Moderate risk
Low risk
Insignificant
1
H
M
L
L
L
Minor
2
H
H
M
L
L
Moderate
3
E
H
H
M
M
Major
4
E
E
E
H
H
Catastrophic
5
E
E
E
E
H
consider stopping work
should be reduced as soon as possible
management responsibility and action dates must be specified
manage by routine procedures
Hierarchy of Control
•
•
•
•
•
Elimination
Substitution
Engineering
Administrative
Personal Protective Clothing
and Equipment
What are the key features of the
Plant Regulations?
• No mandatory government approval or inspection of
plant
• No mandatory requirement for compliance with the
relevant Australian Standards
• Specified duties for designers, manufacturers,
importers and suppliers of plant, employers, and the
self-employed
“Performance based” legislation
• Does not specify minute detail
• Sets the standard
• Flexibility in developing solutions
• Code of Practice for Plant 1995
• Australian Standards or equivalent
• Alternative methods
What is plant?
As defined under the OHS Act 2004
• includes any machinery, equipment, appliance,
implement and tool
• any component of any of those things; and
• anything fitted, connected or related to any of
those things
OHS Regulations 2007
Part 3.5 - Plant
What is plant?
Plant that processes material, by way of a mechanical
action, which –
(1) cuts, drills, punches or grinds the material; or
(2) presses, forms, hammers, joins or moulds the
material; or
(3) combines, mixes, sorts, packages, assembles,
knits or weaves the material
OHS Regulations 2007
Part 3.5 - Plant
Do not apply to:
• Plant which relies exclusively on manual power for its
operation
• Plant which is designed to be primarily supported by the
hand
• Ships, boats or aircraft
• Vehicles designed to be used primarily as a means of
transport on public roads or rail
Employer Duties
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Plant under their management or control
Hazard identification and control of risk
Information, instruction and training
Consultation with health and safety representatives
Review of risk control measures
Specific risk control duties in relation to:












guarding
operator controls and emergency stop
warning devices
installation, erection and commissioning of plant
use of plant and plant not in use
records of inspection and maintenance
powered mobile plant
rollover protection on tractors
electrical hazards
lift trucks
scaffolds
lifts
Hierarchy of Controls - Plant
• Elimination
• Substitution
• Engineering Controls
• design modification
• guarding
• enclosures
• ventilation
• automation
• Isolation
• Administrative Controls
• Personal Protective Equipment
Session 3
Manual Handling
Health and Safety Problems
with Manual Handling
physical
tiredness
muscular/joint
pain & injury
back injuries
abdominal
hernia
impact injury
Manual Handling
Legislative Framework
Occupational Health and
Safety Act 2004
Occupational Health and
Safety Regulations 2007
Compliance Code or
Code of Practice for
Manual Handling
Manual Handling
.... any activity requiring the use of force exerted by a
person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise
move, hold or restrain any object.
Musculoskeletal Disorder
…..means an injury, illness or disease that arises in
whole or in any part from manual handling in the
workplace, whether occurring suddenly or over a
prolonged period of time,
but does not include an injury, illness or disease that is
caused by crushing, entrapment or cut resulting primarily
from the mechanical operation of plant.
The Problem with Manual Handling
Traditional Approach – Safe Lifting Technique
• Assessment mainly for weight and worker capability
• No real long term controls and solutions
• Workers still have to lift objects
• Requires reinforcement and supervision
• Pressure of work affects performance
OHS Regulations 2007
3.1 Manual Handling
Require an employer to:
• identify hazardous manual handling activities
• implement controls – to eliminate or reduce the risk
associated with those manual handling activities
• Review the risk control measures
Hazardous Manual Handling
• repetitive or sustained application of force
• repetitive or sustained awkward posture
• repetitive or sustained movement
• application of high force
• exposure to sustained vibration
• manual handling of live person or animals
• manual handling of unstable or unbalanced loads or loads
which are difficult to grasp or hold
Risk controls must consider:
• postures
• movements
• forces
• duration and frequency
• environmental factors
Risk Control
Once a hazardous manual handling task has been
assessed, eliminate or reduce the risk by:
•
altering the workplace layout
•
altering the environmental conditions
•
altering the system of work
•
changing the objects
•
using mechanical aids
•
any mechanical aids
•
any combination of the above
•
aroviding information, training and instruction (if the
above are not practicable)
Session 4
Noise
Introduction
• High Noise Levels can lead to
 Industrial deafness
 Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
 Disturbance
 Immediate damage with very high levels
Noise induced hearing loss is preventable
Noise Exposure Standard
Sound Level
dB(A)
Duration per
Day
85
88
91
94
97
100
103
106
109
112
115
118
121
124
127
130
8 hours
4 hours
2 hours
1 hour
30 minutes
15 min
7.5 min
3.8 min
1.9 min
57 seconds
28.5 secs
14.3 secs
7.1 secs
3.6 secs
1.8 secs
0.9 secs
Noise Induced Hearing Loss
• Due to damaged nerve cells in the cochlea.
• Caused by prolonged exposure to loud noises.
• It can be temporary or permanent. Temporary
hearing loss will return after 4 to 20 hours rest.
• Noise induced hearing loss is usually slow, painless and
permanent.
It cannot be cured. It can be prevented.
Hierarchy of Control - Noise
• Elimination
• Substitution
• Engineering Controls
isolation by enclosures, barriers or vibration
isolation mountings
 any other physical control to reduce noise
generation or transmission
Administrative Controls
 increasing distance from the source
 limiting entry
 reducing duration to noise exposure
 other systems of work to reduce noise exposure
PPE

•
•
Hearing Protection
SLC80 System
Noise at the workers ear dB(A)
= Measured noise level - SLC80 of PPE
Class System
Class
SLC80dB
For use in noise
1
10-13
Less than 90dB(A)
2
14-17
90 to less than 95dB(A)
3
18-21
95 to less than 100dB(A)
4
22-25
100 to less than 105dB(A)
5
26 or greater
105 to less than 110dB(A)
Session 5
Hazardous
Substances
Hazardous Substances
Can be:
•
Chemicals
•
Dusts
•
Biological Hazards
•
Radiation
Hazardous Substances
Health Effects
•
Very Toxic
•
Toxic
•
Harmful
Hazardous Substances
Health Effects
Corrosive
capable of causing damage to living tissue
Irritant
may cause inflammation or irritation to skin, eye or other
tissue
Sensitising
may cause specific respiratory hypersensitivity or contact
dermatitis
Hazardous Substances
Health Effects
Carcinogenic
capable of causing cancer
Mutagenic
capable of causing a change in genetic material in cells
(mutation)
Teratogenic
capable of causing abnormalities in a developing foetus
(birth defects)
Chemical Labels
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chemical name
Active constituents
Directions for use
Limitations on use
Storage and disposal
Safety directions and first aid
Condition of sale, manufacturer’s name and address
Batch number and expiry date
United Nations number
Dangerous Goods diamonds
Material Safety Data Sheets
New Format
1. Identification of material and
supplier
2. Composition/information on
ingredients
3. Hazards identification
4. First-aid measures
5. Fire fighting measures
6. Accidental release measures
7. Handling and storage
8. Exposure controls and personal
protection
9. Physical and chemical
properties
10. Stability and reactivity
11. Toxicological
information
12. Ecological information
13. Disposal considerations
14. Transport information
15. Regulatory information
16. Other information
Hazardous Substances Information
Read the label
Read the Material Safety Data Sheet
Find out what the material is before you start working
Dangerous Goods Diamonds
Dangerous Goods Diamonds
Hazardous Substances and
Dangerous Goods Summary
Hazardous Substances Dangerous
Goods
Current MSDS at point of use
Current MSDS at point of use
All containers to be labelled (except if cleaned
immediately)
All containers to be labelled including Dangerous
Goods diamonds
Hazardous Substance Register
Dangerous Goods Manifest
Risk Assessments on use (health effects)
Risk assessment on physical and chemical
properties, use, handling, storage and disposal
Risk to be controlled
Physical and chemical risks to be controlled
Placarding – depending on the quantity (Schedule 2)
Action Planning
What things
can I do to
improve health
and safety?
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