Instrumentation and
Control Systems
2006 Greg Heitkamp
This material is based upon work supported by the
National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0402616.)
Any opinions, findings and conclusions or
recommendations expressed in this material are those of
the author's) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the
National Science Foundation (NSF).
• Storing information often in a series of 1’s and
0’s or binary numbers. The process can be
used to do calculations or sending pulses to
regulate instrumentation or other electronic
equipment turning it on/off or regulating the use
of materials such as the flow of liquid through a
valve. In instrumentation and process control
this accomplished by concerting an analogue
signal into a digital signal to control the process.
A non-electronic example would be smoke
signals or a beacon.
• An analog or analogue signal is any
continuously variable signal. It differs from a
digital signal in that small fluctuations in the
signal are meaningful within a given scale
range from a small to large signal. Analog is
usually thought of in an electrical context,
however mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and
other systems may also use analog signals. A great
example of an analogue device is a Wrist
Watch with hands that move.
• Having the base of 2 for number system with
two digits 0 and 1. Basis of electronic signal
signals used in computers. Creates two states
for the binary signal on or off, 0 being off and 1
being on. There is no state in between the
device is either on or off. Often referred to as
Boolean Logic
• A silicon based processing chip or logic chip
designed as the heart of the computer, contains
all the necessary information to run a computer
speed measured in megahertz (MHz) or
gigahertz (GHz). These chips have areas for
comparing numbers or doing calculations called
• Good example: Digital Clocks and Wrist
Fuzzy Logic
• The ability of a machine to answer questions
that are not yes or no questions. Fuzzy logic
use 0 and 1 as the extremes of yes and no but
answers the degrees of maybe. Fuzzy logic
works much closers to that of the human brain.
It is subset of Boolean logic use to fill the
concepts of a partial truth. An example of such
is a half full glass of water is .50 of full.,,sid9_gci212172,00.html,,sid9_gci212172,00.html
Neural System
• In information technology, a neural network is a
system of programs and data structures that
approximates the operation of the human brain.
A neural network usually involves a large
number of processors operating in parallel,
each with its own small sphere of knowledge
and access to data in its local memory.,294236,sid7_gci212648,00.html
• Good example: Joystick for a computer game
• Devices such as a photocell that respond to a signal
or stimulus. A device that measures or detects a realworld condition, such as motion, heat or light and
converts the condition into an analog or digital
representation. These devices are use in
manufacturing plants to tell how many items are in a
package such as the example CD’s to fill a container
for packaging or to the number of containers fill case
for shipment.
• Good examples: motion detectors and burglar alarms
• One that activates, especially a device responsible for
actuating a mechanical device, such as one
connected to a computer by a sensor link.
• An actuator is the mechanism by which an agent acts
upon an environment. The agent can be either an
artificial intelligent agent or any other autonomous
being (human, other animal, etc).
• Examples: human hand, leg, arm, Part Picking Robot,
Stepper Motors
• A mechanism that causes a device to be turned
on or off, adjusted or moved. The motor and
mechanism that moves the head assembly on a
disk drive or an arm of a robot is called an
A good example printer motor moves the
laser head cartridge across the paper. for the picture
Synchro Motor
• A type of rotary transformer fixed to rotor which
attached to a motor and can be adjusted. The current
is adjusted to keep the rotor and motor operating at a
synchronized speed. The result of this action causes
the parts to work in unison.,
• Good Examples: the gun turret on a naval destroyer
and the film and sound of older movies before
Open-loop Control
• A control loop operated by human intervention
or does not have a feedback loop to self adjust.
Example A fan that plugs into the wall with no
switch to turn on or off.
Plug fan
into outlet
power on
at the
speed of
the motor
Fan operates to
fast to much air
movement blows
papers of desk
Unplug fan
to shut off
Closed-loop Control
• A control-loop operated by a feedback loop
allowing self adjusting of the loop.” A
mechanical, optical, or electronic system that is
used to maintain a desired output.”
• Good example: Fan with a switch to allow
the speed to be changed
Fan is
to fast
down to
lower fan
Fan works
fine papers
do not blow
can be
or turned
• Instrumentation is defined as "the art and
science of measurement and control".
Instrumentation is used to refer to the field in
which Instrument technicians and engineers
work. Instrumentation also can refer to the
available methods of measurement and control
• Good example: the gauges that control
the boilers for the school heating system
Standards Addressed in this Unit
• Standard 2: Students will
develop an understanding of
the core concepts of
• Y: The stability of a
technological system is
influenced by all the
components in the system
especially the feedback loop.
• DD: Quality control is planned
to ensure that the product
,service, or system meets
established criteria.
• FF: Complex systems have
many layers of controls to
provide information
• Standard 3: Students will
develop an understanding of
the relationships among
technologies and
connections between
technology and other fields
of study
• H: Technology innovation often
results when ideas, knowledge,
or skills are shared within a
technology, among
technologies or across other
• J: Technological progress
promotes the advancement of
science and mathematics.
Standards Addressed in this Unit
• Standard 17: Students
will develop an
understanding of and be
able to select and use
information and
• M: Information and
communication systems
allow information to be
transferred from human
to human, human to
machine, and machine to
• P: There are many ways
to communicate
information, such as
graphics and electronic
• Q: Technological
knowledge and processes
are communicated using
symbols, conventions,
icons, graphic images,
and languages that
incorporate a variety of
visual, auditory, and
tactile stimuli

Instrumentation and Control Systems - ETP