MAIN CHALLENGES AND TRENDS IN
QUALITY ASSURANCE IN CENTRAL
ASIA: THE EXAMPLE OF
KAZAKHSTAN
(Implementing Quality Assurance
within Higher Education Institutions)
Bissembay Iskakov, Professor of
Kazakh National Technical University
named after K.Satbayev, Almaty
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CONTENT
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Brief information about Kazakhstan
State of QA
Trends
Still challenges
Implementation in other CA countries
Conclusion
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3
Brief information about Kazakhstan
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Capital – Astana (since December 10, 1997)
Population – 17 + million
Territory – 2 724,9 km2 - the second largest country in the NIS and the world's 9th largest
Length of borders – 12 187 km (over 3,000 km (and two time zones) W-E & 2,000 km N-S
Highest mountain – Khan Tengri (6995 m)
Biggest lakes – Caspian sea, Aral sea, Lake Balkhash
Longest rivers – Yertis (4248 km), Yesil (2450 km), Zhaiyik (2428 km), Syr Dariya (2219 km)
Kazakhstan has 14 administrative regions, 2 cities of republican subordination, Baikonyr
city with special status, over 80 other cities, 159 districts, 241 towns and 2,042 auls (rural
villages)
Kazakhstan has 1,8% of world oil reserves (12th position ), 21st position for gas reserves &
8th position for coal reserves
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HEIs
QA
Ministries
Independent
Agencies
5
Ministry of Education and Science
of Kazakhstan:
• Licensing (HEIs and programmes)
• Attestation of HEIs
• External peer review of the HEI graduate
students‘ LO
• Monitoring the HEIs in implementing state
standards and regulations
• Actualization of the register of IAs, accredited
HEIs and educational programmes by
National Accreditation Council
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Ministry of Health
of Kazakhstan:
• Licensing (medical HEIs and medical
programmes)
• Attestation of medical HEIs
• External peer review of medical HEIs
graduate students‘ LO
• Monitoring medical HEIs in implementing
state standards and regulations
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Number and dynamics of HEIs in Kazakhstan (1991-2014)
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
2014
55
63
101
153
166
182
175
176
140
145
149
131
182
166
175
176
153
140
145
2007
2009
149
131
101
55
1991
63
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2011
2014
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Source: Ministry of education and science of RK, 2014
Number and dynamics of students’ population in Kazakhstan
(2008-2013)
BA
2008/
2009
633814
2009/
2010
610264
2010/
2011
620442
2011/
2012
629507
2012/
2013
571691
MSc
11395
14216
16586
21159
25299
PhD
439
666
960
1337
1517
439
11395
633814
666
14216
610264
960
16586
620442
1337
21159
629507
1517
25299
571691
2008/
2009/
2010/
2011/
2012/
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
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HEIs:
● Internal peer review of educational
programmes and processes
● Assessing the quality of the student
experience
● Quality assurance of teaching staff
● Learning resources and student support
● Information system
● Public information
● Quality management (ISO 9000:2001)10
Independent Agencies:
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●
●
●
●
●
ABET (USA)
www.abet.org
AQA (Austria)
www.aqa.ac.at
ACQUIN (Germany) www.acquin.org
ASIIN (Germany)
www.asiin.de
IAAR (Kazakhstan) www.iaar.kz
IQAA (Kazakhstan) www.nkaoko.kz
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Independent Agencies:
•● Development of external
assurance processes
•● Criteria for decisions
•● Goal-oriented processes
•● Reporting
•● Follow-up procedures
● System-wide analyses
quality
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The important trends were outlined in QA at
the national and institutional levels, accruing
after signing the Bologna Declaration by
Kazakhstan
•First, it is the system approach to QA,
that consists of:
•● Development of a legislative basis
for QA.
•● Formation of the QA modern system
through delegating the state body’s
authority to the independent bodies
responsible for QA.
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● Promoting Kazakhstan HEIs to a world-
class universities’ level based on experience
of Nazarbayev University.
● Significant increase in academic mobility
of students and staff on the basis of target
state financing of HEIs.
● International dimension of QA.
● Establishing QA units in HEIs.
● Alumni units and endowment funds.
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● Motivation of internal evaluation within
external assessment.
●
Increasing
of
human
resources
management.
● Increasing of the impact of researches.
● Increasing role of the International
programme “Bolashak”.
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Secondly, state financing of scientific
researches gradually increased from
0,26 % of GNP in 2011 to 2 % in 2016.
Thirdly, by 2020 all the HEIs will have
gained
an
autonomy,
including
independence in drawing up academic
programmes.
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Main challenges in Quality Assurance
on the HEIs level:
•● Convergence of the state and none
state system of QA.
•● Insufficient coverage of all the HEIs
by an internal and external peer
review.
•● Iinsufficient participation of students
in QA management.
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•● A low competition between HEIs in
the regions and HEIs suspension from
a competition at the global labour
markets.
•● A weak integration of CA HEIs.
•● Absence of HEIs autonomy
•in designing academic programmes.
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Implementation in other CA
countries:
National Accreditation Council will be
formed at the state level in Kyrgyzstan.
Bishkek
Academy
of
Finance
and
Economics uses the ESG and the other
best
practices
acquired
within
the
framework of Tempus projects
Source: www.bafe.edu.kg).
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The important trends in the other
CA countries:
• Uzbekistan: University of World Economy
and Diplomacy, Bukhara State University,
Karshi State University, Samarkand Institute
of Economics and Service, Samarkand State
Foreign Languages Institute set up QA
centres within the framework of Tempus
project “QAPD: Enhancement of Quality
Assurance System through Professional
• Development of Academic Leaders”.
• Source: www.tempus.uz
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• Tajikistan:
Delegating
Ministry’s
authority
to
ESG
in
licensing,
attestation and accreditation of all
HEIs.
• Source:
www.soros.tj/ru/publikatsii/biblioteka?dow
nload=39:obespechenie
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THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION!
[email protected]
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