GLOBALIZATION
Yoruba drummers in ErinOsun, Nigeria, 1997
WHAT IS THE GLOBE?
• CULTURALLY
SPECIFIC SET OF
COMMITMENTS
• RELATIONSHIPS
• SET OF
PRACTICES
WHAT IS GLOBALIZTION?
• ACTIVATING YOUR COMMITMENTS
• CONNECTING ACROSS DIFFERENCE
• FORGING NEW RELATIONSHIPS
• SPREAD AND CONNECTEDNESS OF
PRODUCTION, COMMUNICATION, AND
TECHNOLOGIES ACROSS THE WORLD
DEBATES
1. Is globalization new or old?
2. Is globalization good or bad?
3. Is globalization really “global” or
inclusive of all people?
4. What is the relationship between
globalization “from above” and
globalization “from below”?
6 ASPECTS OF GLOBALIZATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
ECONOMIC
TECHNOLOGICAL
CULTURAL
POLITICAL
MILITARY
ENVIRONMENTAL
THESE ASPECTS ARE INTERCONNECTED!
1. ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION
EARLY CAPITALIST IDEAS:
1. “Free Market Economy” (Adam
Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1776)
Market is “free” from State control
2. Division of labor
3. Competition
ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION
 Economies Are Increasingly Linked
Together
EXS: NAFTA (MX, CA, US), The EU
 EX: World Trade Organization (1995)
– Only global international organization
dealing with the rules of trade between
nations
– help producers of goods & services conduct
their business
ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION
EX: MULTI-NATIONAL
CORPORATIONS
 OLD: Dutch East India
Company (1602)
 company of Dutch
merchants &
independent trading
companies
 Spice trade monopoly in
East Asia
 Power to colonize
territories & enslave
indigenous people
 Indonesia & South Africa
ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION
 NEW: Nike, Wal-Mart, Royal/Dutch Shell
 Top 100 multinationals are all US-owned
companies!
 Royal/Dutch Shell: global group of energy
and petrochemical companies, operating in
more than 140 countries and territories,
employing more than 112,000 people
 Global Exchange: www.globalexchange.org
Economic Globalization in AFRICA
 Little Industry and Technology
 Can economic globalization can help reduce
poverty?
 “Brain Drain”
 Debt (IMF loans) AF countries can’t even pay
back interest
 300 million pple live on less than $1/day
 48% pple in sub-Saharan AF in extreme
poverty (less than 750 calories/day)
 2001 Index for Foreign Investment in Africa
was “0”
 Gap between rich and poor increasing
 2006: China & AF next economic partners?
2. TECHNOLOGICAL GLOBALIZATION
• “World Wide Web” has
exploded in last 10 years
• Computers can move money
around world = “finance
capital”
• 2005: IBM was 16th largest
corporation in world
Africa
 Number of telephones is
decreasing
 More computers in Manhattan
than all of Africa!
 Post-colonial infrastructures
don’t support technology
3. CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION
2005: Hong Kong Disneyland
5th Disneyland in the world!
McArabia Kofta
CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION




Cultural Imperialism = Dominance of one
culture over others
Hollywood movies, MacDonald’s, Disneyland,
Starbucks
Dominance of the English language and
invasion of other languages
Do people all over the world have the same
taste?
Africa

“Culture Industry” = opportunities for
Africans to sell their culture on a “global
market” that values “authentic” culture
4. POLITICAL GLOBALIZATION
EX: The United Nations (1945): global
association of governments facilitating
cooperation in international law, security,
economic development, and social equity
• Whose interests does the UN represent?
•
The US and the UK were the only nations
in support of going to war in Iraq
•
Can a global politics with social values
exist?
•
Alternative political gatherings: Annual
World Social Forums since 2001, The
Piece Process @ Gavilan College in 2005!
POLITICAL GLOBALIZATION
South Africa Ex.
• 2001: US pharmaceutical corporations sued
South African companies for infringing on
AIDS medication patent laws
• 2003: President Bush announced the
Emergency Plan in 2003 - the largest
international health initiative in history by
one nation to address a single disease
• HIV/AIDS Situation in 2004
HIV Infected: 5.3 million
AIDS Deaths: 370,000
AIDS Orphans: 1.1 million
5. MILITARY GLOBALIZATION
Nuclear Bombs
F/A-22 Raptor
MILITARY GLOBALIZATION
Smart Bombs
Sidewinder Missiles
MILITARY GLOBALIZATION
 Global alliances become clear during war
time
 Ex: Today’s US alliance with Britain in wars
against Afghanistan and Iraq
 What will happen with North Korea, Iran, &
nuclear warfare?
Africa
 “Trade in Arms” = US sold $227 million in
arms to AF in 1990s
 US train and provide weapons for African
armies on both sides of their civil wars
 US = #1 exporter of weapons globally
 US = last to export non-military aid to
developing world
6. ENVIRONMENTAL GLOBALIZATION
 Human impact on environment =
unsustainable
 Carbon dioxide & other greenhouse gasses =
measurable effect on global climate
 Chlorofluorocarbons & other man-made
gases = attacked & depleted ozone layer
 Pesticides & other pollutants = global threat
to human & nonhuman immune systems
 Resource crisis = depletion of tropical
forests, collapse of ocean fisheries, global
impoverishment of biological diversity
6. ENVIRONMENTAL GLOBALIZATION
 Epidemic vulnerability = helped by global
spread of antibiotic resistance
 Global movements of invasive introduced
species = major biological & economic
impacts on Mediterranean, Black Sea, Great
Lakes, grazing lands, forests, & other
resources
 How to escape environmental limits? No
escape! Planet Earth is a closed system!

ENVIRONMENTAL GLOBALIZATION in
AFRICA
OGONILAND, NIGERIA EX.
– Niger-Delta region = 90% of Nigeria’s
oil; 500,000 people; densely populated
riverine land; fisher people and farmers
– 1950s = Royal Dutch Shell Oil set up
agreement with British govt. to mine
area for crude oil
– SPDC = Shell Petroleum Development
Corporation (NI subsidiary)
Ogoniland Ex. Cont.
– poorly maintained network of above
ground pipes, running directly
through villages or farmland
– routine spills of crude oil, Shell has
repeatedly denied responsibility
– Gas flares = spilled gas is burned for
control; major air pollution & soot;
CO2 & Methane severely impact
global warming
Ogoni people Organized & Protested

1990 = MOSOP, Movement for Survival of
Ogoni People led by Ken Saro-Wiwa

International support: UN AF Human
Rights Commission; Intl. environ. & human
rights organization; NGO’s

1993 = 300,000 pple demonstrated for UN
Year of Indigenous People

1995 = S-W & 8 Ogoni activists hanged by
Nigerian govt. to their deaths!
The Ogoni Struggle continues…
You can kill the messenger but not the message!
NIGER DELTA WOMEN PROTEST
Resisting Injustice,
Demanding Change…
San Francisco, 2002
The Karnataka State Farmers' Movement (KRRS) burn genetically
modified crops as part of the "Cremate Monsanto" campaign.
Karnataka, India, 1998.
Zapatista women are vigilant in defending their
community. Chiapas, Mexico
Palestinian women protest against the Israeli occupation and
escalation of military aggression against civilians in the West
Bank and Gaza. San Francisco, California, 2002.
UCSC Lecturers
Protest Unfair Labor Practices, 2002
"You must be the change
you wish to see in the
world."
- Mahatma Gandhi
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