Essential Computer Concepts
Microsoft Office 2010
®
Objectives
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XP
Compare the types of computers
Describe the components of a computer system
Examine data representation and the ASCII code
Learn about processing hardware
Define memory and storage
Describe input and output peripheral devices
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Objectives
XP
• Identify the hardware and software that are used for
data communications and to establish a network
connection
• Explain how Internet access, email, and the World
Wide Web affect the use of computers
• Describe potential security threats to computers and
protection methods
• Discuss the types of system software and their
functions
• Identify popular application software
• Learn about cloud computing
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Computer Advertisement
Essential Computer Concepts
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What Is a Computer?
XP
• A computer is an electronic device that accepts
information and instructions from a user,
manipulates the information according to the
instructions, displays the information in some way,
and stores the information for retrieval later
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Types of Computers
XP
• PC:
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Desktop computers
Notebook (laptop) computers
Tablet PCs
Subnotebook computers
Netbooks
• Slate computers
• Handheld computers
– Smartphones
– MP3 players
• Mainframe computers
• Supercomputers
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Types of Computers
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Computer Systems
XP
• Includes computer hardware and software
– Hardware refers to the physical components of a
computer
– Software refers to the intangible components of a
computer system, particularly the programs, or lists of
instructions, the computer needs to perform a specific
task
• The design and construction of the hardware of a
particular computer is referred to as its architecture or
configuration
• The technical details about each component are called
specifications
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Data Representation
XP
• Data refers to the words, numbers, figures, sounds, and
graphics that describe people, events, things, and ideas
• Binary digits (bits)
• A series of eight bits is called a byte
– Kilobyte (KB or K)
– Megabyte (MB)
– Gigabyte (GB)
– Terabyte (TB)
• ASCII
– American Standard Code for Information Interchange
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Data Representation
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Processing Hardware
XP
• The motherboard is the
main electronic component
of the computer
– Circuit board
• The microprocessor is one
of the most important
pieces of processing
hardware on the
motherboard.
It contains: ALU,CU, its
speed measured by
megahertz
• Cards are removable circuit
boards
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Memory
XP
• Random access memory (RAM)
– Volatile memory
– SDRAM: synchronized with the CPU
• Cache memory (RAM cache or CPU cache):faster
access to the CPU.
• Virtual memory:
use the permanent
storage device.
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Memory
XP
• Read-only memory (ROM)
– BIOS: set of instructions that tells the computer how
to start.
– Boot process: set of events between you turn on the
PC and be able to use it.
– Nonvolatile memory: it remains even if the computer
turned off.
• Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS):
have a rechargeable battery and store the date and time.
it changes every time you add or remove a hardware
Semipermanent memory.
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Storage Media
XP
• A computer file is a named collection of stored data
• An executable file contains the instructions that tell a
computer how to perform a specific task
• A data file is created by a user
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Storage Media
XP
• Magnetic storage
media
– A hard disk
contains several
magnetic oxidecovered metal
platters that are
usually sealed in a
case inside the
computer
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Storage Media
XP
• Optical storage device
– CD
– DVD
– CD-R
– CD-RW
– CD-ROM
– DVD-R
– DVD+R
– DVD-RW
– DVD+RW
– BD-RE
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Storage Media
XP
• Flash memory
– Solid state storage: expensive used as hard drive.
– Flash memory cards
– USB flash storage device
• USB flash drive
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Input and Output
XP
• The data or instructions you type into the computer
are called input
• The result of the computer processing your input is
referred to as output
• Peripheral devices accomplish input and output
functions
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Input Devices
XP
• You use an input device, such as a keyboard or a mouse,
to input data and issue commands
– Keyboard
• Ergonomic
– Pointing device
• Controls the pointer
– Mouse
– Scroll wheel
– Trackball
– Touchpad
– Pointing stick
– Touchscreen
• consider an input/output device
– Scanner
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Output Devices
XP
• Output devices show
you the results of
processing data
– Monitor
• Flat panel
• LCD
• LED
– Printer
• Laser
• Inkjet
• Dot matrix
– Speakers
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Data Communications
XP
• The transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video
data from one computer to another or to a
peripheral device is called data communications
– Sender and receiver
– Channel
– Protocol
Device driver (driver)
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Data Bus
XP
• This path between the microprocessor, RAM, and
peripherals is called the data bus
• Controller card/Expansion card connected to each
port and provide an electrical connection to
peripheral devices and they plug into electronic
connector on the motherboard called Expansion slot.
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Networks
XP
• A network connects one computer to other computers
and peripheral devices, enabling you to share data and
resources with others
• Network interface card (NIC) – PAN personal area network.
– LAN local area network
– WiMax standard that allow
users to connect over many
– WAN wide area network
– WLAN wireless local area network miles to a LAN
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Telecommunications
XP
• Telecommunications means communicating over a
comparatively long distance using a phone line or
some other data conduit
– Modem
• Digital and analog signals
– DSL (digital subscriber line)
Broadband connections: high speed connections.
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The Internet
XP
• The Internet is the largest network in the
world, connecting millions of people
– Email
– World Wide Web: huge database of
information stored in network servers and
allow public access.
• Web page
• Web site:
collection of webpages.
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Security Threats on Your
Computer
XP
• Security refers to the steps a computer owner
takes to prevent unauthorized use of or damage to
the computer
– Malware
• Viruses: harmful programs
– Antivirus software
• Spyware track the user and send the
information back to the program creator.
• Adware display advertisements.
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Security Threats on Your
Computer
XP
• Firewall prevent other computers in the
network from accessing your computer.
• Spoofed site that look like other site.
• Phishing sending emails asking the users to
click a link.
• Pharming redirect users from the actual site to
the spoofed site.
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System Software
XP
• Helps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks
– Operating system
• System resource: any part of the computer
system. Operating systems allocate resources.
• Multitasking the ability of starting and running
more than one program.
– Utilities: antivirus, screen saver
– Programming Languages
used to write a program
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Application Software
XP
• Application software enables you to perform specific
computer tasks, such as document production,
spreadsheet calculations, and database management
– Document production software
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Application Software
XP
– Web site creation and management software
– Spreadsheet software
– Database management software
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Application Software
XP
• Presentation software
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Application Software
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XP
Photo editing software
Video editing software
Multimedia authoring software
Accounting software
Information management software
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Computing in the Cloud
XP
• Cloud computing means that data, applications, and
even resources are stored on servers accessed over
the Internet rather than on users’ computers, and
you access only what you need when you need it
– Windows Live SkyDrive
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Essential Computer Concepts - MCST-CS