Information Services and
Access Mechanism of Mobile
Web for the Under-privileged
Asoke K Talukder
W3C Workshop on the Mobile Web in
Developing Countries,
December 5/6, 2006: Bangalore, India
5th December 2006
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The Author
• Asoke K Talukder
– Vice President Software Engineering,
Tyfone CDI Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore
– DaimlerChrysler Chair and
Associate Professor, IIIT – Bangalore
• Interests
– Information System for the Under-privileged
– Next Generation Networks
– Artificial Hygiene
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The Scenario
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World Internet Usage Numbers
Usage
% of World
Usage
Growth
2000-2006
3.6 %
3.0 %
625.8 %
394,872,213
10.8 %
36.4 %
245.5 %
12.4 %
308,712,903
38.2 %
28.4 %
193.7 %
190,084,161
2.9 %
19,028,400
10.0 %
1.8 %
479.3 %
North America
331,473,276
5.1 %
229,138,706
69.1 %
21.1 %
112.0 %
Latin
America/Caribbean
553,908,632
8.5 %
83,368,209
15.1 %
7.7 %
361.4 %
Oceania / Australia
33,956,977
0.5 %
18,364,772
54.1 %
1.7 %
141.0 %
6,499,697,060
100.0 %
1,086,250,903
16.7 %
100.0 %
200.9 %
World Regions
Population
(2006 Est.)
Africa
915,210,928
14.1 %
32,765,700
3,667,774,066
56.4 %
Europe
807,289,020
Middle East
Asia
WORLD TOTAL
Population
% of World
Internet Usage,
Latest Data
% Population
(Penetration)
Source: http://www.internetworldstat.com as on 24st November 2006
5th December 2006
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Some Facts
• 18% of World population – people in North
America, Western Europe, Australia & Countries
in developed economies contribute to 60% of
Internet users
• About 10% of the population in Asia use Internet
• In China, mobile phone users are 430 million
against 123 million of Internet users
• In India, there are 125 million mobile phones
against 60 million Internet users
Source: http://www.internetstatistics.com and
http://www.gsmworld.com (October 2006)
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Mobile Phone Population
•
•
•
•
•
2.5 billion mobile phones
2 billion GSM phones
1 million subscribers are added everyday
It took 12.5 years for GSM to reach first billion
Next 1 billion was achieved in 2.5 years – out of
this 1 billion, 82% is in China, India, Africa, and
South America
• Mobile phone population is expected to be 4
billions by end of 2010 – every 2 persons in 3
people will have a mobile phone
Source: http://www.gsmworld.com and
http://psdblog.worldbank.org/psdblog/2006/06/more_cell_phone.html
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Mobile Web Access
• Asymmetric traffic – small amount of data sent
with large amount of data received
• Requires high bandwidth GPRS or UMTS/3G
networks
• Requires high-end phones
• One hand or Two hand Operation Phones are not
suitable (user friendly) for Mobile Web access
• Best user experience is possible with UMTS and
Mobile Phones with Pen
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Mobile Web (Static Content)
• Needs an Browser at the client device
• Budget phones do not support Internet
browser
• TCP/IP perform badly over wireless cellular
networks
• Handover (at vehicular state) with TCP/IP is
still a challenge
• Roaming with TCP/IP is not universal
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Charging in Mobile IP Environment
• Telecommunication operators always charged
their customers (using voice service) based on
volume (time and distance) – service provided by
the network
• In data service – charging will be on volume
(time, mega bytes), QoS, Contents, and Events;
service provided by third party
• IP billing (postpaid and prepaid) is a major
challenge for mobile operators. Many of them do
not have it yet (other than volume)
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Prepaid Phones
• 30% of the subscribers in US are prepaid
• 60% of subscribers in West Europe &
Australia are prepaid
• 70% of subscribers in East Europe, Russia,
New Zealand are prepaid
• In Asia, Africa, South America 75%-95% of
subscribers are prepaid
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Prepaid Connections
• Prepaid Subscribers
–
–
–
–
Under-privileged
Students
Teenagers
Individual subscribers (non corporate)
• Prepaid Services
– Voice
– SMS
– MMS
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The Problem
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Prepaid Subscribers and Data
• Majority of under-privileged subscribers along
with students, teenagers, and non-corporate
mobile subscribers use prepaid connections
• Due to challenges in Realtime billing
infrastructure, TCP/IP based data service is not
available to prepaid customers (in general)
• Conclusion: Majority of mobile subscribers in
Developing countries today use budget phones
or prepaid connections, these users do not have
access to generic TCP/IP data service
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Data Service for Under-privileged
• Mobile Web access through SMS as data bearer
(SMS-data)
• It will be short input to application and short
response
• Lifestyle based transactions and Information
services do not need large input or output – they
are symmetric and small in size
• SMS gateway can convert the Web content into
small messages even in local languages (through
transcoding)
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Short Message Service (SMS)
• Perceived as an entertainment tool for teenagers
• SMS was originally designed for messaging between
mobile phones
• Driven by ETSI Standard 03.40
• Is increasingly being used as data
• On September 11, 2001 following the twin tower
attack at New York City, telephone lines became
inaccessible; SMS was used for communication
between emergency service personnel [Reference: The
President’s National Security Telecommunications Advisory
Committee – “Wireless Task Force Report, Wireless Priority Service”,
August 2002]
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SMS Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
True Ubiquitous media
Universal availability of SMS
Pay as you use (no license fee or entry barrier)
Stateless & Peer-to-peer
Asynchronous (store and forward)
Self-Configurable
Always ON (always connected) – best for alerts
Universal Roaming
Works at vehicular conditions (across Network boundaries)
Resistant to many conditions that break TCP/IP data
connection (low signal strength, channel unavailability,
weak & intermittent signal)
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Need of SMS-data for Under-privileged
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The Proposal
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Standardize SMS-data so that it
Interoperates, to facilitate SMS as
Data Bearer for Mobile Web over
existing Infrastructure for
Budget phones, Prepaid, and
Under-privileged users
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SMS Usage – Healthcare
• Compliance monitoring and enforcement
• Patient self-monitoring (chronic disease
management)
• Appointment reminders
• Health promotion, e.g., diabetic healthcare,
smoking cessation messaging
• Targeted service notification, e.g., flu vaccination
season
• Appointment confirmation/ cancellation/
modification
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SMS Usage – Mobile Finance
•
HDFC Bank: Mobile Banking with SMS,
Reference:
http://www.hdfcbank.com/RI/RI-EAGEMobileBanking-withSMS.htm.
•
•
5th December 2006
Mobey Forum carried through an extensive
evaluation on the future development of the
mobile financial services business ecosystem.
[Reference: http://www.mobeyforum.org/]
San Francisco 15-Nov-2006 -- Visa USA today advanced its mobile
strategy through the launch of a new pilot at its California
headquarters. Following the successful completion of the industry's
first large-scale U.S. mobile payment trial at Philips Arena in Atlanta
earlier this year, Visa is now testing the delivery of mobile payment
coupons and rewards via text message, graphic and bar code images
direct to consumers' mobile devices. [Reference:
http://www.mobiletechnews.com/info/2006/11/15/173005.html]
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SMS-data Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Telemedicine
Reality TV shows
Reality Radio shows
Healthcare
Agriculture Exchange
Value Added Service (VAS)
Emergency & Weather alerts
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Other SMS based Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sensor Networks
Telematics
Remote control for vehicle
Fleet Management
Industrial Automation
Notifications and Reminders
Tickets, Boarding Pass etc
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2D Barcoded Mobile Ticket over SMS
Reference:
http://www.convergelabs.com
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SMS as Multifactor Security Enabler
• SMS uses SS#7 signaling channel that is
Physically Secured
• SS#7 & SMS media is not accessible to general
public
• SMS can be used for Mutual Authentication
• SMS can be used to distribute Security keys
• SMS and Web can be used for Multifactor, Multicommunication security protocol
• SMS can be used for Presence, Spatial, and
Contextual security
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All these Services are Network
Proprietary and DO NOT
Interoperate
Network Operators are offering Mobile Web
Services over SMS (only to its subscribers)
An Independent Service Provider or an Enterprise
cannot offer Mobile Web Services over SMS –
Unless this happens, Mobile Web usage will be
limited
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SMS Point-to-Point Architecture
Receiver’s Home
Network
Serving Network
PLMNB
VLRB
9
SMS-GMSCH
6
7
10
11
MSCB
8
HLRB
SM MT
MSB
SMSCH
5
MSA
MSCA
4
1
SMS-IWMSCH
3
Sender’s Home
Network
2
SM MO
VLRA
PLMNA
HLR – Home Location Register
MS – Mobile Station
MSC – Mobile Switching Center
PLMN – Public Land Mobile Network
SMSC – SMS Center
SMS-GMSC – SMS Gateway MSC
SMS-IWMSC – SMS Interworking MSC
SM MO – Short Message Mobile Originated
SM MO – Short Message Mobile Terminated
VLR – Visitor Location Register
Reference: GSM Standard 03.40
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SMS Point-to-Point
• Both endpoints are mobile phones
• Interoperable
• Any mobile phone from any network
roaming in any network can send SMS to
any phone from any other network roaming
in some other network
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The Challenge
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SMS-data Routing Challenges
• When a subscriber is roaming, outgoing voice calls
are routed by the visiting MSC – The call can be
routed from any mobile phone to any other mobile
phone or fixedline phone
• When a subscriber is roaming, outgoing SMS is
routed by the home SMSC – The SMS can be routed
from any mobile phone to any mobile phone
• As an SMS-data service is connected to the home
network, SMS-data can never be routed to non-home
services – This is against the fundamental philosophy
of telecommunication or data communication
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SMS-data
• Does not Interoperate
• One endpoint is service (running in computers or
Web), other endpoint is mobile phone
• Shortcode as SMS Data Service Identifier (SDSI),
the port address where SMS gateway is connected
• A mobile subscriber can access only these services
offered by the home operator
• A subscriber from network “A” cannot access
services offered by “B” or any service in Web
• A subscriber roaming in a foreign network still
accesses the service at home network
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SMS-data Architecture
Data
Network
Home
Network
SME1 1234
App1
Serving
Network
SMPP
HTTP
Origin/
Content/
Application
Servers
App2
.
.
.
..
:
SME2
Intranet
AppN
.
.
.
..
:
SMEN
SDSI
SMSC
SMS-IWMSC/
SMS-GMSC
MSC
MS
10816
Not in scope of GSM
Specification
Within scope of GSM
Specification
Reference: GSM Standard 03.40
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SMS-data Interoperability
• SM MO (Short Message Mobile Originated) is not
interoperable – an SMS-data from any mobile
phone from any network roaming in some other
network can be routed to only these applications
connected to the home SMSC and offered by the
home network
• SM MT (Short Message Mobile Terminated) is
interoperable – an SMS-data from any application
can be routed to any mobile phone from any
network roaming in any other network
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Cashier’s Cheque using SMS Security
Reference:
http://www.standardchartered.com.sg/cb/ibnk/faq/svc_ibnk_echq.html
Interoperable SMS MT Message is used to send the security code to
payee who can have mobile phone from any network operator
34/53
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Short Code as SDSI
• Short Codes are used as SDSI (SMS Data Service Identifier)
• Shortcodes do not follow E.164 standard for numbering
• Shortcodes are Proprietary and does not have any meaning
outside of home network
• In the US, shortcodes are reserved through
,a
centralized body [http://www.usshortcodes.com] to have unique
shortcode across USA; though, there is no guarantee that this
short code will be available in all networks. It is also possible
to find out who owns a mobile short code in the United States
[http://www.usshortcodeswhois.com]
• This is not possible in other countries
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Indian Railways services through SMS
Operator
Circle
Short Access Passenger
Code
Status
Seat
Availability
HUTCH
Mumbai
12324
IRPNR <PNR #>
IRAVB
<Train #> <Date>
OASIS
Rajasthan
333
PNR
<PNR #>
RSK
<Train #> <Date>
AIRTEL
Kolkata
500
PNR
<PNR #>
RSK
<Train #> <Date>
IDEA
Andhra Pradesh
99111
PNR
<PNR #>
RSK
<Train #> <Date>
SPICE
Punjab
555
PNR
<PNR #>
RAIL
<Train #> <Date>
HUTCH
Delhi
1234
IRPNR <PNR #>
IRAVB
<Train #> <Date>
IDEA
Gujarat
3339
TRAIN PNR <PNR
#>
RPG
Chennai
456
PNR <PNR #>
RSK
<Train #> <Date>
Source: http://www.indianrail.gov.in/railcode.html
5th December 2006
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Park and pay with SMS in downtown
Wellington (New Zealand)
Service not available to
non-Vodafone
customers or Roaming
subscribers
• The motorist sends an SMS with the machine’s unique code to 7275 (PARK).
• The machine vends a ‘pay and display’ ticket and the motorist displays the
ticket in the car as normal.
• The motorist receives an SMS confirming receipt of funds from their Vodafone
account or Prepay credit
Source: http://www.geekzone.co.nz/content.asp?contentid=2187
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Pay Your Rail Parking by SMS in the UK
Service not
available to visitors
Source: http://www.smstextnews.com/2006/08/pay_your_rail_p.html
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Telephone Number is the Identity
In Developing Countries Mobile number is the Storefronts
Source: Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones, The Vodafone Policy
Paper Series, Number 2, March 2005
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Mobile Number Portability (MNP)
•
•
•
•
Helps the economy
Increases competition
Helps the consumer
In developing countries mobile number plays the
role of a Storefront
• In MNP, Subscriber carries the old number to new
operator
• SMS-data accessed through shortcode will cease
to operate in MNP (same service may not be
available, or use a different shortcode)
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The Solution
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SMS-data Routing for Mobile Web
• For Mobile Web access, we need
Interoperable SMS-data that can be routed
from any home SMSC to any Web service
independent of the network with or
without Mobile Number Portability
• Interoperable & Portable SMS-data needs
to be compatible with existing protocols
and infrastructure
5th December 2006
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Existing SMS-data Technologies
• SMS Gateway (SMPP – Short Message Peer-topeer Protocol): This uses shortcodes (SDSI
addresses) as port address of SMSC connection.
This technology does not interoperate but scales
(100s of messages/second)
• GSM Modem: This uses SMS Point-to-Point with
one endpoint Mobile phone (with MSISDN as
SDSI) working as a data modem and connected to
an application. This technology is interoperable
but does not scale (Alternate Half Duplex with
Over The Air data-rate is < 300 bits/sec) with ~7
messages/minute (roundtrip)
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Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service
• Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service (USRS)
routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone
of any network roaming in any network to
any application in the Web
• It routes an SMS from any home SMSC to
any Web application [Reference: Ubiquitous SMS
Routing and Independent Service Creation, submitted
for publication in IEEE Transaction on Vehicular
Technology]
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USRS Tunneling
• Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service Tunneling
routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone
of any network roaming in any network to
an application that is running in the private
network of another mobile operator
• It tunnels the SMS-data from any home
SMSC to any foreign SMSC which is then
routed to the application connected to the
foreign network
5th December 2006
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Universal SMS Routing Service
• Universal SMS Routing Service (USRS)
routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone
of any network ported to any other network
roaming in any network to an application
independent of Donor or Recipient network
[Reference: Mobile Number Portability: Making SMS
Data Services Portable, Journal of Indian Institute of
Science, pp 81-96, Mar-Apr, 2006]
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USRS
• USRS Technology offers SMS-data routing
algorithm that is Interoperable and Scalable
• USRS offers SMS-data routing algorithm
–
–
–
–
That is network independent
That is MNP neutral
That is independent of the end-user device
Protects the investment (uses existing infrastructure)
• USRS Routing Algorithm has been tested in an
Indian GSM network in Meerut near Delhi with
mobile phones across India
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USRS Compatibility
• USRS Technology is backward & forward
compatible
• USRS coexists with all other network elements
• USRS uses MAP (GSM 09.02) protocols
– Only the USRS node need to be added in SS#7 network
• Client interface on phone does not change
• Client continues to work with Shortcode through
existing interfaces
• Client will work with Global-title through USRS
interface
• Server application continues without any change
5th December 2006
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USRS Routing Architecture
Data
Networks
Host Network
with USRS
Foster
Network
Home Network of
Sender (Port-to
Network)
Serving Network
(Visiting
network)
HLRB
Location Update
(VMSC=USRS
Application
Server in Public
Data Network
VLRV
USRS
MSC/VLR
USRS Algorithm
USRS Tunneling
Algorithm
E.164 SDSI
Routing Info
(VMSC=USRS)
SME
Send
Routing
Info
SMSIWMSCA
SMSGMSCA
SMSCA
HLRA
MSCV
MSA
SMSC
Network
Proprietary
Services
SMSC
SME
Short SDSI
Other
Networks
Just add the USRS server in SS#7 network within the existing GSM/GPRS network.
It uses the existing MAP (GSM 09.02) standards to communicate with other network elements
5th December 2006
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The Proposal
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Requirement for SMS-data
• SMS-data should be interoperable
• SMS-data from any network should be
possible to route to any application/service
in the Web or private Intranet of any
operator
• SMS-data routing should be Number
Portability neutral
• For under-privileged, capability of Toll-Free
SMS with standard numbering scheme
5th December 2006
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Recommendation for SMS-data
• USRS routing algorithm be made international
standard for SMS-data routing because it is,
–
–
–
–
Network independent
MNP Neutral
Independent of end-user device
Use existing infrastructure and protocols
• Using USRS technology it is possible to
implement toll-free and LoCall SMS
• Toll-free and LoCall numbering scheme for SMSdata like 888.xxxxxxxxx, where xxxxxxxxx is the
service identity
5th December 2006
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Questions?
Thank you
Email:
5th December 2006
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Information Services and Access Mechanism of Mobile …