Places of our Past and Present A presentation by Dolphin Senior Public School, Mississauga, Canada Credits The following is a presentation by the Learning Circle Team at Dolphin Senior Public School in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, as part of the Places and Perspectives iEarn Learning Circle (September-December, 2007). The team consisted of Mr. Steeves, Mudassir, Fan, Prabhdeep, Luke, and Shahrukh (“The Canadians”). Participating schools included: Kothari International School, Noida, India; Gymnasium #6, Langepas, Russia; School #7, Korolev, Russia; School #7, Miass, Russia; Mohamed Elsayed Experimental Languages School, Port Said, Egypt; University Prep, Seattle, WA, U.S.A.; Hillview College, Tunapuna, Santa Cruz, Trinidad and Tobago; Remo Secondary School, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria; Hadley Middle School, Wichita, KA, U.S.A. Table of Contents Introduction Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Korolov, Russia Trinidad and Tobago Wichita, Kansas, U.S.A. Miass, Russia Noida, India Port Said, Egypt Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Introduction As part of the Learning Circle, we decided to ask schools to conduct a survey and send information and pictures about the most important ‘sites’ in their area. By ‘site’ we meant any kind of place, such as a park or monument, a building, a wilderness reserve, or even a street or river. By ‘important’ we meant either historically significant or culturally relevant either in the past or the present. Following is a summary of what teens from around the world have sent us. Mississauga, Canada After 40 months of construction, the CN Tower was opened to the public on June 26, 1976. Iit is the centre of telecommunications for Toronto serving 16 Canadian television and FM radio stations, the workplace of up to 550 people throughout the year, and one of Toronto's premier entertainment destinations.Defining the Toronto skyline, the CN Tower is Canada's most recognizable and celebrated icon. At a height of 553.33m (1,815 ft., 5 inches), it was for a long time the World's Tallest Building and Free-Standing Structure. Each year, approximately 2 million people visit the World's Tallest Building to take in the breathtaking view and enjoy all of the attractions the CN Tower has to offer. In past years, the CN Tower has supported its vision of Toronto's premier entertainment destination by totally renovating and redesigning 360 Restaurant, building the World's Highest Wine Cellar, and adding two new elevators. Mississauga (cont.) Niagara Falls is a set of massive waterfalls located on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of New York. Niagara Falls were formed when glaciers receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation (the last ice age), and water from the newly-formed Great Lakes carved a path through the Niagara Escarpment en route to the Atlantic Ocean. More than six million cubic feet (168,000 m³) of water fall over the crest line every minute in high flow, and almost 4 million cubic feet (110,000 m³) on average. It is the most powerful waterfall in North America. Mississauga (cont.) The Mississauga Civic Center is the City Hall of the city Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. The Center was build in 1987 by Jones and Kirkland. It stands 302 feet. The Barn-like structure which includes a clock tower was chosen as the winner of a design competition that included 246 submissions. The building has a 9000 square metre court yard with a pool and ice rink. To the west of the building is the floral garden, often used for weddings. South of the building it has the Mississauga Central Library, one of the biggest libraries in the Greater Toronto Area, and Square One, a large shopping mall. Korolov, Russia The Moscow Kremlin is the heart of the country. It is a great monument of Russian and world architecture. There you can see the wonderful white-stone monuments of the 15th-16th centuries. There are three Cathedrals. The Assumption Cathedral (1475-1479), arch. Aristotle Fioravante from Italy. The Cathedral is oblong, with an arched roof supported by four columns and crowned by fine golden domes. You can see very old frescoes there. Korolov (cont.) The Arhangelsky Cathedral It is cubical in shape, with fine domes. There are tombs of the Moscow Princes and tsars. The Blagoveshchensky Church It was built in 1484. The cathedral's icons include works by the oldest Russian artists. The Majestic Campanile of Ivan Veliky was built in 1505-1508 and was completed in 1600 during the reign of Boris Godunov. It was, in ancient times, the Kremlin watchtower, it is 81 m high. Korolov (cont.) The whole St. Petersburg itself is a wonderful monument, a museum; it is "music fixed in stone". There are 539 bridges in the city and more than 80 museums. St. Petersburg has always been the site of many political events: the Decembrists' Uprising, the Russian Revolution in 1917. During the Second World War, Leningrad withstood a terrible 900-day siege. The city was founded by Peter the Great and used to be the capital of Russia in the 18th century. Korolov (cont.) Going beyond the atmosphere of our planet is one of the most outstanding events of our time, connected with the name of a remarkable scientist, the general constructor of rocketspace systems Sergey Korolev. It is hard to overestimate the significance of what was done by S. Korolev. Due to Korolev, the most outstanding events of the history of humankind were carried out: the first artificial Earth satellite, reaching the Moon and Venus and the first flight of Yuri Gagarin. This year we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik. In honor of this date the monument to Sputnik was opened in our city. The monument has the natural size of the sputnik Trinidad and Tobago The Chimney at Hillview College is a relict from before the college started. Prior to 1955 the campus was used as either a quarry or sugar estate. The chimney was used as part of a boiler. Today it still stands and is covered with ivy which blooms at certain points in the year. It is one of the local highlights. Trinidad and Tobago (cont.) The Pitch Lake: There are many stories about our pitch lake. Our favourite comes from the West Indian reading book. The legend goes that the native people angered the Gods by killing the sacred humming birds to get their brilliantly coloured feathers to decorate themselves. The Gods caused a massive earthquake to occur which sank the village into a black liquid lake which we call our pitch lake today. Trinidad and Tobago (cont.) Maracas Beach is the most popular beach in the North. It can be accessed by the Saddle Road through Maraval or by the Saddle Road from San Juan through Santa Cruz, and again onto the North Coast Road. It is about 45 minutes from Port of Spain. The beach is about 1850 m long and has off white sand. Waves are an average height of 1.0 m. and are ideal for surfing. Safety needs are met through the use of red flags indicating unsafe bathing areas and the presence of life guards daily from 10 am-6 pm. Facilities are well maintained and include a large car park, tables, benches, changing rooms with showers, toilets and lockers. Visitors can enjoy the tasty local food from nearby vendors or bake & shark on the pits provided. On the hill above the Bay there is a restaurant and bar from which the visitor can enjoy the scenery and tranquillity. For those who wish to stay a little longer, the Timberline Nature Resort, located just off the 'look out' provides accommodation and tours within the area. Wichita, Kansas, U.S.A. The Keeper of the Plains is a 44-foot Cor-Ten steel sculpture by Kiowa-Comanche artist Blackbear Bosin. It sits at the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas rivers in Wichita, Kansas. Exploration Place is a modern science museum, located in the "museums on the river" district in Wichita, Kansas, United States. Abilene became home to Dwight D. Eisenhower when his family moved to Abilene from Denison, Texas in 1892 where he attended elementary school through high school. The Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library is located in Abilene. It is now the final resting place for wife, Mamie, andbecause one son.it is a remembrance of ThePresident keeper ofEisenhower, the plains ishis culturally important all the tribes that were in Wichita. Exploration place is culturally important because it shows all the different things that were or are in Wichita. Abilene is a historically important because Dwight D. Eisenhower lived there and is where his burial site is. Exploration Place: http://www.exploration.org/ http://www.abileneks.com/pages/attactions/eisenhower.htm Miass, Russia The Turgoyak is very beautiful and unique. It takes the second place in the world after the Baikal for the cleanliness.Its waters are really mineral. The turgoyak is commonly called the Pearl of the Urals for its purest waters. Every year a lot of tourist come to Miass just to admire the beauty of the Turgoyak. Ilmen Reserve is very famous not only in Russia. Different flora and fauna is represented here. On its territory there’s Mineralogical Museum which contains all samples of minerals existing in the world.Ilmen Reserve is also called Mineralogical Paradise. Entrance to the museum is free. Miass (cont.) Miass is divided into three parts: the old part ( where you can see old wooden houses and buildings, Avtozavod ( the central part) and Mashgorodok where our students’ parents work and live. In Mashgorodok there are only high and modern buildings. Though Miass is rather an old town.( it was founded in 1773), Mashgorodok is very young – 45. The founder of Mashgorodok is V.P.Makeev who was the best pupil of Academician S. Korolev. Noida, India Centre Stage Mall in NOIDA: It’s a modern building representing Modern India at par with the developed countries! India (cont.) Humayun’s Tomb: This is a replica of Taj Mahal constructed 140 years before Taj Mahal . Another interesting point about this monument – It is constructed by Humayun’s Wife in memory of her Husband ! India (cont.) Akshardham Temple: India has been giving optimum importance to Spirituality and promoting World Peace .Akshardham Temple has entered the Guinness Book of World Record for being the largest temple constructed in the modern age! Egypt Saladin Citadel The location, part of the Mokattam hill near the center of Cairo, was once famous for its fresh breeze and grand views of the city, and was fortified by the Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din (Saladin) between 1176 and 1183 AD, to protect it from the Crusaders. It is sometimes referred to as Mohamed Ali Citadel because it contains the Mosque of Mohamed Ali (or Muhammad Ali Pasha), which was built between 1828 and 1848, perched on the summit of the citadel. This Ottoman mosque was built in memory of Tusun Pasha, Muhammad Ali's oldest son, who died in 1816. The citadel stopped being the seat of government when Egypt's ruler, Khedive Ismail, moved to his newly built Abdin Palace in the Ismailiya neighborhood in the 1860s. There are two other mosques at the Citadel, the 13th/14th c. hypostyle mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad from the early Bahri Mamluk period, and the 16th c. Mosque of Suleyman Pasha, first of the Citadel's Ottoman-style mosques. The citadel also contains Al-Gawhara palace, the National Military Museum and the Police Museum. Egypt (cont.) Vallley of the Kings; Tombs of the Pharoahs The Egyptian belief that "To speak the name of the dead is to make him live again" is certainly carried out in the building of the tombs. The king's formal names and titles are inscribed in his tomb along with his images and statues. Beginning with the 18th Dynasty and ending with the 20th, the kings abandoned the Memphis area and built their tombs in Thebes. Also abandoned were the pyramid style tombs. Most of the tombs were cut into the limestone following a similar pattern: three corridors, an antechamber and a sunken sarcophagus chamber. These catacombs were harder to rob and were more easily concealed. Construction usually lasted six years, beginning with the new reign. The text in the tombs are from the Book of the Dead, the Book of the Gates and the Book of the Underworld. Egypt (cont.) Ramesses IV Three white corridors descend to the sarcophagus chamber. The chambers ceilings depict the goddess Nut. The lid of the pink granite sarcophagus is decorated with Isis and Nephthys, which were meant to serve as guardians over the body. Their duties fell short, however, as the tomb was robbed in ancient times. Originally the priests placed the sarcophagus in Amenhotep II II's tomb in order to hide the body, which was a common practice. Ramesses IX Two sets of steps lead down to the tomb door that is decorated with the Pharaoh worshipping the solar disc. Isis and Nephthys stand behind him on either side. Three corridors lead into an antechamber that opens into a pillared hall. The passage beyond that leads to the sarcophagus chamber Egypt (cont.) Merneptah The steep descent into the tomb is typical of the designs of the XIX Dynasty. The entrance is decorated with Isis and Nephthys worshipping the solar disc. Text from the Book of the Gates line the corridors. The outer granite lid of the sarcophagus is located in the antechamber, while the lid of the inner sarcophagus is located down more steps in the pillared hall. Carved on the pink granite lid is the figure of Merneptah as Osiris. Ramesses VI Originally built for Ramesses V, three chambers and a 4th pillared chamber was added by Ramesses VI. Complete texts of the Book of the Gates, the Book of Caverns and the Book of Day and Night line the chambers. Portions of the Book of the Dead are located in the pillared chamber, along with scenes of the skygoddess, Nut Egypt (cont.) Seti I The longest tomb in the valley, 100m, contains very well preserved reliefs in all of its eleven chambers and side rooms. One of the back chambers is decorated with the Ritual of the Opening of the Mouth, which stated that the mummy's eating and drinking organs were properly functioning. Believing in the need for these functions in the afterlife, this was a very important ritual. The sarcophagus is now in the Sir John Soane Museum, London. Egypt (cont.) Tuthmosis III The approach to this unusual tomb is an ascent up wooden steps, crossing over a pit, and then a steep descent down into the tomb. The pit was probably dug as a deterrent to tomb robbers. Two small chambers, decorated with stars, and a larger vestibule are in front of the sarcophagus chamber, which is uniquely rounded and decorated with only red and black. Amenhotep II A steep flight of stairs and a long unadorned corridor lead to the sarcophagus chamber. Three mummies, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep II III and Seti II, were found in one side room and nine mummies were found in another . Horemheb This tomb's construction is identical to that of Seti I's with the exception of some of the inner decorations. Egypt (cont.) Tutankhamun Tutankhamun's Tomb is probably the most famous, due to its late discovery. Howard Carter's description upon opening the tomb in 1922 was, "At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flames to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues and gold - everywhere the glint of gold. For the moment - an eternity it must have seemed to the others standing by - I was dumb with amazement, and when Lord Carnarvon, unable to stand the suspense any longer, inquired anxiously, 'Can you see anything?' it was all I could do to get out the words, "Yes, wonderful things."' The royal seal on the door was found intact. The first three chambers were unadorned, with evidence of early entrance through one of the outside walls. The next chamber contained most of the funerary objects. The sarcophagus was four guilded wooden shrines, one inside the other, within which lay the stone sarcophagus, three mummiform coffins, the inner one being solid gold, and then the mummy. Haste can be seen in the reliefs and the sarcophagus, since Tutankhamun died at only 19 years of age. Egypt (cont.) Nefertari There are between 75 and 80 tombs in the Valley of the Queens, or Biban al-Harim. These belong to Queens of the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties. These include The Tomb of Khaemwese: Scenes in Khaemwese's tomb show him being presented to the guardians of the gates to the afterlife along with his father. He is making an offering in the scene, and is dressed in a robe, wearing a necklace and the sidelocks of youth. The Tomb of Queent Titi: She is probably the queen of a 20th Dynasty. She is depicted with the sidelocks common to the Egyptian young of the period and in the presence of the gods Thoth, Atum, Isis and Nephthys. In the next chamber the queen is shown making offerings to Hator the cow, and in the last chamber the gods Neith, Osiris, Selquit, Nephthys and Thoth. The Tomb of Amenhikhopeshef: Amenhikhopeshef was a son of Ramses III and scenses show him with his father and the gods Thoth, Ptah and others. He was probably about nine years old when he died. Scenes show him being presented to various gods, including Anubis, the Jackal-headed god of the dead, by his father, Ramses III. A premature baby was also found in to tomb. This belonged to this mother, who aborted upon learning of Amenhikhopeshef's death. Egypt (cont.) The Tomb of Nefertari: One of five wives of Ramses II, Nefertari was his favorite and the tomb here has been is said to be one of the most beautiful in Egypt. The tomb is completely painted with scenes though out. In most of these, Nefertari, known as 'the most beautiful of them', is accompanied by gods. She is usually wearing a golden crown with two feathers extended from the back of a vulture and clothed in a white, gossamer gown. Be sure not to miss the side room where one scene depicts the queen worshipping the mummified body of Osiris. Near the stairs to the burial chamber is another wonderful scene with Nefertarti offering milk to the goddess Hathor. Egypt Roman Theater (Kom Al-Dikka) Over 30 years of excavation have uncovered many Roman remains including this well-preserved theatre with galleries, sections of mosaicflooring, and marble seats for up to 800 spectators. In Ptolemaic times, this area was the Park of Pan and a pleasure garden. The theater at one point may had been roofed over to serve as an Odeon for musical performances. Inscriptions suggest that it was sometimes also used for wrestling contests. The theatre stood with thirteen semi-circular tiers of white marble that was imported from Europe. Its columns are of green marble imported from Asia Minor, and red granite imported from Aswan. The wings on either side of the stage are decorated with geometric mosaic paving. The dusty walls of the trenches, from digging in the northeast side of the Odeon, are layered with extraordinary amounts of potsherds. Going down out of the Kom, you can see the substantial arches and walls in stone, the brick of the Roman baths, and the remains of Roman houses. Source: http://www.summ ittoursegypt.com/historicalinfo3a.htm#34 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo_Citadel Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. We had an interesting response to our survey. Our students found it impossible to get it down to three places, so they picked three categories instead: City of Seattle, natural landmarks, and businesses associated with Seattle. We were happy to find ourselves proud of so much that Seattle has to offer that once we had three categories, we still had trouble deciding which to pick within the category! Seattle (cont.) For the City of Seattle, we picked two places: the Seattle Center and the Pike Place Market. The Seattle Center was built for the 1962 World’s Fair, and the most prominent landmark is our famous Space Needle. The Seattle Center also includes the Pacific Science Center, the Experience Music Project, and the Fun Forest. The Pacific Science Center is a place where there are many exhibitions and it’s a great place for field trips since they have many hands-on experiences for the students. The World’s Fair took place from April 21 to October 21, 1962. Almost 10,000,000 people attended, and the Fair did much to enhance the reputation of Seattle in the country and the world. The Space Needle is 605 feet/184 meters tall, but with the communications tower on top it reaches 730 feet/222 meters into the sky. One of our students describes it as tall, spiny, unique, and futuristic. It has a revolving restaurant on top and its needle points to the sky. It weighs 9,550 tons and its center of gravity is below ground! It is built to withstand winds of 200mph/322km per hour. Seattle celebrates the arrival of each New Year with fireworks launched from the sides and the top of the Space Needle. Seattle (cont.) The Pacific Science Center is a place where there are many exhibitions and it’s a great place for field trips since they have many hands-on experiences for the students. It is known for its beautiful, graceful arches. The EMP – the Experience Music Project – is a rock’n’roll museum built by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen and designed by the world famous architect Frank Gehry, who is best-known for the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain. The EMP is a tribute to Seattle music legend Jimmy Hendrix, and the museum building is meant to look like a smashed guitar from the sky. A Science Fiction Museum recently opened in the building as well. (The first time Mr. Cullen saw this building under construction he said to his students, “It must be the new roller coaster!”) It is a very controversial building, and people either like it or don’t. It’s hard to feel neutral about a building like this! Seattle (cont.) Seattle (cont.) Pike Place Market – is a farmers’ market in the heart of downtown Seattle that just celebrated its 100th anniversary. It is an energetic and exciting place to be – the heart and soul of the city, perhaps most famous now for the ‘fish toss’! When a customer orders a fish, the people at the market toss it from one person on one side of the counter to someone on the other side for processing. Seattle (cont.) Mt. St. Helens On May 18, 1980, Mt. St. Helens erupted. The eruption was triggered by a 5.1 earthquake that shook loose a bulge that had been developing on the northeast side of the mountain for some months. A devastating eruption and landslide followed, and one cubic meter of material for every human on earth was belched into the air! The countryside was scoured of all living matter, and a huge mudslide flowed down the mountain and into the surrounding valleys and river. Life was destroyed in 180 sq km (70 sq miles). 57 people are known to have died in the eruption. This is 100 miles/160km southwest of Seattle. Seattle (cont) Seattle (cont) For Businesses, we picked Microsoft, Starbucks, and Boeing. The Microsoft Corporation is the brainchild of two students from Lakeside High School in Seattle, Bill Gates and Paul Allen, who now are among the richest people in the world. They launched a computer revolution with the stated goal of placing a computer on every desk in the world. They have produced operating systems and software packages that are dominant in the computer industry. They have also been controversial for their business practices, and lost fair practices lawsuits in both the United States and Europe. Microsoft now employs 79,000 people in 102 countries. Graduates of University Prep have worked there and made significant contributions; one wrote the Excel program. Seattle (cont.) Starbucks Starbucks was founded in Seattle in 1971 by three men (including a teacher!) who sold only coffee beans and no beverages. Later it was bought by an early employee of the company, Howard Schultz, and he turned it into the huge corporation that it is today. It was his belief that the company should also sell coffee beverages, and he seems to have been correct! Starbucks is named after a character in Moby Dick. Starbucks recently opened its 15,000th store, and its goal is to have 40,000 stores worldwide. The first Starbucks store - in Pike Place Market – opened in 1971. Seattle (cont.) Boeing The Pacific Aero Products Company was founded in 1916 by William Boeing One year later the company’s name was changed to the Boeing Airplane Company. It is now one of the two dominant airplane companies in the world; the other is Airbus. We have chosen this photo of the 747 because in the 1970s the commercial success of this airplane saved the company when it was in deep financial trouble. Howard Hughes and the Boeing Army Pursuit Plane in California in the 1940s. Seattle (cont.) We will finish with a funny story about Starbucks. One of our teachers was speaking with Mr. Howard Schultz, thenCEO of Starbucks. She said, “Howard, we don’t have a Starbucks in my neighborhood!” “How is that possible?” he asked. “Where do you live?” She told him and said, “There’s a strip mall near my house with an empty store – it would be the perfect place for a Starbucks.” “Hang on,” he said as he whipped out his cell phone. He dialed quickly and asked for someone in his company and then said to her, “Now where did you say that strip mall is?” One year later a Starbucks store opened in that exact location. It’s good to be in charge!