Formal Declaration of
Communication Emergency
During natural disasters and other
emergencies, certain amateur frequencies may be
needed by hams supporting relief efforts. During
such times, the FCC may issue a formal declaration
of communication emergency. An FCC declaration of
a temporary state of communication emergency may
include any special conditions and rules to be
observed during the emergency, including
frequencies to be used only by hams participating
in the emergency. (See §97.401(b))
After the FCC has declared a communications
emergency you must avoid those frequencies
dedicated to supporting the emergency unless you
are participating in the relief effort.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
1
Frequency Use
The effect of a declaration
by the FCC is to legally
restrict a frequency to
emergency-only communication.
(See §97.401(b)) If the FCC
has not made a formal
declaration of a communication
emergency, no one has the
exclusive use of a frequency.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
2
Responding to Emergency
Calls
If you are in contact with another station and
an emergency call is heard, you must stop your
contact immediately and take the emergency call.
If you hear someone reporting an emergency,
you should assume the emergency is real and act
accordingly.
Emergency traffic (messages) has priority over
all other amateur communications. Priority must be
given to stations providing emergency
communications at all times and on all
frequencies! (See §97.101(c))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
3
Making an Emergency Call
You may come upon an emergency
such as a car accident. When you
need to initiate an emergency call
on amateur radio, you should say
"Mayday, Mayday, Mayday" followed by
"any station come in please" and
identify your station. “Mayday” is
recognized as the universal
emergency voice distress signal.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
4
Making a False Emergency
Call
Making a false emergency call
is serious business with severe
penalties possible. You could
have your license revoked, be
fined a large sum of money, or
even be sent to prison. (It
may also be a serious violation
of state law as well.) Making
a false call is just not worth
it!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
5
Communicating with other
Radio Services
Many amateur radios may be easily
modified for extended frequency
coverage. Amateurs may communicate
with stations operating in other
radio services outside of the ham
bands under two conditions. First,
when specially authorized by the FCC
such as in the declaration of a
temporary communications emergency,
or second, when there is an actual
emergency. (See §97.111(a))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
6
Tactical Call Signs
When you help the authorities during an
emergency, they may not understand amateur
call signs. They may prefer that you use
“tactical call signs” such as "command
post" or "weather center" during an
emergency. One reason for using tactical
call signs is because they are more
efficient and help coordinate publicservice communications. The FCC permits
the use of these call signs, but you still
need to comply with regular station ID
requirements.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
7
Check-Up Time!
Now let’s try the questions from
this group.
You should make a note of any that
you miss for later review.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
8
T8A01
What information is included in an FCC
declaration of a temporary state of
communication emergency?
A. A list of organizations authorized to use
radio communications in the affected area
B. A list of amateur frequency bands to be
used in the affected area
C. Any special conditions and rules to be
observed during the emergency
D. An operating schedule for authorized
amateur emergency stations
Release 1.0 – September 2006
9
T8A01 Answer - C
§97.401(b)
(b) When a disaster disrupts normal
communication systems in a
particular area, the FCC may declare
a temporary state of communication
emergency. The declaration will set
forth any special conditions and
special rules to be observed by
stations during the communication
emergency...
Release 1.0 – September 2006
10
T8A02
Under what conditions are amateur stations
allowed to communicate with stations
operating in other radio services?
A. When communicating with the space shuttle
B. When specially authorized by the FCC, or
in an actual emergency
C. When communicating with stations in the
Citizens Radio Service
D. When a commercial broadcast station is
reporting news during a natural disaster
Release 1.0 – September 2006
11
T8A02 Answer - B
§97.111(a)
(1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with other stations in
the amateur service, except those in any country whose administration
has notified the ITU that it objects to such communications. The FCC
will issue public notices of current arrangements for international
communications;
(2) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a station in
another FCC-regulated service while providing emergency communications;
(3) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a United States
government station, necessary to providing communications in RACES; and
(4) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a station in a
service not regulated by the FCC, but authorized by the FCC to
communicate with amateur stations. An amateur station may exchange
messages with a participating United States military station during an
Armed Forces Day Communications Test.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
12
T8A03
What should you do if you are in contact
with another station and an emergency call
is heard?
A. Tell the calling station that the
frequency is in use
B. Direct the calling station to the nearest
emergency net
frequency
C. Disregard the call and continue with your
contact
D. Stop your contact immediately and take
the emergency call
Release 1.0 – September 2006
13
T8A03 Answer - D
Emergency traffic ALWAYS has
priority over routine
communications.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
14
T8A04
What are the restrictions on amateur radio
communications after the FCC has declared a
communications emergency?
A. The emergency declaration prohibits all
communications
B. There are no restrictions if you have a special
emergency certification
C. You must avoid those frequencies dedicated to
supporting the emergency unless you are
participating in the relief effort
D. Only military stations are allowed to use the
amateur radio frequencies during an emergency
Release 1.0 – September 2006
15
T8A04 Answer - C
When the FCC declares a
communications emergency, part
of that declaration includes
frequencies available to
stations assisting in that
emergency situation. If you
are not a helping out in the
emergency, you should not
transmit on the designated
frequencies!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
16
T8A05
What is one reason for using tactical call
signs such as "command post" or "weather
center" during an emergency?
A. They help to keep the general public
informed
B. They are more efficient and help
coordinate public-service communications
C. They are required by the FCC
D. They increase goodwill and sound
professional
Release 1.0 – September 2006
17
T8A05 Answer - B
Tactical callsigns are not a
substitute for amateur
callsigns, but they can be used
to help coordinate
communications when you are
providing communications
support for non-hams.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
18
T8A06
What is legally required to restrict a
frequency to emergency-only communication?
A. An FCC declaration of a communications
emergency
B. Determination by the designated net
manager for an emergency net
C. Authorization by an ARES/RACES emergency
coordinator
D. A Congressional declaration of intent
Release 1.0 – September 2006
19
T8A06 Answer - A
§97.401(b)
(b) When a disaster disrupts normal
communication systems in a particular
area, the FCC may declare a temporary
state of communication emergency. The
declaration will set forth any special
conditions and special rules to be
observed by stations during the
communication emergency. A request for a
declaration of a temporary state of
emergency should be directed to the EIC in
the area concerned.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
20
T8A07
Who has the exclusive use of a
frequency if the FCC has not
declared a communication emergency?
A. Any net station that has traffic
B. The station first occupying the
frequency
C. Individuals passing health and
welfare communications
D. No station has exclusive use in
this circumstance
Release 1.0 – September 2006
21
T8A07 Answer - D
No station has exclusive use
of a frequency in the absence
of a declared communications
emergency. However, even
though this is not one of the
choices for this question, you
must yield the frequency to
emergency traffic - with or
without an FCC declared
emergency.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
22
T8A08
What should you do if you hear
someone reporting an emergency?
A. Report the station to the FCC
immediately
B. Assume the emergency is real and
act accordingly
C. Ask the other station to move to a
different frequency
D. Tell the station to call the
police on the telephone
Release 1.0 – September 2006
23
T8A08 Answer - B
You must always assume that a
person who says he or she has
an emergency does, in fact,
have an emergency. If that
turns out not to be the case,
it can be dealt with later by
the FCC, but you should never
refuse to yield the frequency
just because you are not sure.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
24
T8A09
What is an appropriate way to initiate an
emergency call on amateur radio?
A. Yell as loudly as you can into the
microphone
B. Ask if the frequency is in use and wait
for someone to give you permission to go
ahead before proceeding
C. Declare a communications emergency
D. Say "Mayday, Mayday, Mayday" followed by
"any station come in please" and identify
your station
Release 1.0 – September 2006
25
T8A09 Answer - D
The universal emergency
signal for phone is "Mayday!"
Release 1.0 – September 2006
26
T8A10
What are the penalties for making a
false emergency call?
A. You could have your license
revoked
B. You could be fined a large sum of
money
C. You could be sent to prison
D. All of these answers are correct
Release 1.0 – September 2006
27
T8A10 Answer - D
All of these answers are
correct. Falsely declaring an
emergency could buy you a whole
lot of trouble, and it just
isn't worth it!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
28
T8A11
What type of communications has
priority at all times in the
Amateur Radio Service?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Repeater communications
Emergency communications
Simplex communications
Third-party communication
Release 1.0 – September 2006
29
T8A11 Answer - B
§97.101(c)
(c) At all times and on all
frequencies, each control operator
must give priority to stations
providing emergency communications,
except to stations transmitting
communications for training drills
and tests in RACES.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
30
T8A12
When must priority be given to
stations providing emergency
communications?
A. Only when operating under RACES
B. Only when an emergency has been
declared
C. Any time a net control station is
on the air
D. At all times and on all
frequencies
Release 1.0 – September 2006
31
T8A12
Answer - D
§97.101(c)
(c) At all times and on all
frequencies, each control operator
must give priority to stations
providing emergency communications,
except to stations transmitting
communications for training drills
and tests in RACES.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
32
Group T8B
Group T8B covers preparation for
emergency operations, RACES/ARES, safety
of life and property, and using ham
radio at civic events. It also
emphasizes that compensation for such
activities is prohibited.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
33
Emergency Communications
Emergency communications is a major public
service of ham radio, and every ham can help,
regardless of license class. There several simple
things you can do to be prepared for an emergency
situation where your assistance might be needed.
They include:
Check at least twice a year to make sure you have
all of your emergency response equipment and know
where it is.
Make sure you have a way to run your equipment if
there is a power failure in your area.
Participate in drills that test your ability to
set up and operate in the field.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
34
Emergency Power
When you hear the term “emergency power” for
your equipment, you probably think of a big
generator. That is certainly one source of
emergency power, but any of the following could
also be used as an alternate source of power to
operate radio equipment during emergencies:
The battery in a car or truck
A bicycle generator
A portable solar panel
Release 1.0 – September 2006
35
Calling for Help
There is only one time when
may you use your amateur
station to transmit a "SOS" or
"MAYDAY" signal, and that is
when there is immediate threat
to human life or property.
(See §97.403)
Release 1.0 – September 2006
36
Using Other Radio Services
As a Technician licensee, you
will be licensed to operate only on
amateur frequencies. However, you
can use non-amateur frequencies or
equipment to call for help in a
situation involving immediate danger
to life or property because under
FCC rules, in a genuine emergency
you may use any means at your
disposal to call for help on any
frequency. (See §97.403,
97.405(a),(b))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
37
Using Modified Amateur
Equipment
Many amateur transceivers can be easily
modified to transmit outside of amateur
frequencies. However, unlicensed
operation outside of amateur frequencies
is generally illegal, and using modified
equipment on other radio services may also
be illegal. The one major exception is
that you can you use a modified amateur
radio transceiver to transmit on, say the
local fire department frequency, only in a
genuine emergency. If there is a true
emergency, you may use any means at your
disposal to call for help on any
frequency. (See §§97.403, 97.405(a),(b))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
38
RACES
RACES is an acronym for “Radio Amateur
Civil Emergency Service.” It is one of
two major emergency service organizations.
The primary function of RACES in relation
to emergency activities is to serve local,
state, and federal government emergency
management agencies. RACES does not
support non-governmental organizations.
In order to become a RACES member and
participate in RACES activities, you must
first register with the responsible civil
defense organization. (See §97.407(a))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
39
ARES
ARES is an acronym for “Amateur Radio
Emergency Service” and it is the other
major emergency communications
organization.
Unlike RACES which supports only
government agencies, the primary function
of ARES in relation to emergency
activities is to support both public and
private agencies such as the Red Cross,
Salvation Army, or the National Weather
Service.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
40
ARES Membership
The only thing required for you to join an
ARES group is that you must have an amateur radio
license. Once you join an ARES group, you will
probably have the opportunity to receive
additional training.
(NOTE: At the time this outline was being
prepared, many ARES-supported organizations are
also requiring completion of certain FEMA courses.
However, if you see a question on your test about
ARES participation, assume that the only
requirement is an amateur license.)
Release 1.0 – September 2006
41
Communicating During an
Emergency
During a public service event
casual conversation between stations
should be avoided since idle chatter
may interfere with important
traffic.
Hams love to talk so much that we
even have a special name for it –
rag-chewing! But when there’s work
to be done, hams should stick to
business.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
42
Business Use of Amateur
Radio
Always remember the rule that
says you cannot use amateur
radio for business. For
example, if a reporter asks to
use your amateur radio
transceiver to make a news
report, you should advise the
reporter that the FCC prohibits
such use. Don’t compromise
your license!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
43
Check-Up Time!
Now let’s try the questions from
this group.
You should make a note of any that
you miss for later review.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
44
T8B01
What can you do to be prepared for an
emergency situation where your assistance
might be needed?
A. Check at least twice a year to make sure
you have all of your emergency response
equipment and know where it is
B. Make sure you have a way to run your
equipment if there is a power failure in
your area
C. Participate in drills that test your
ability to set up and operate in the field
D. All of these answers are correct
Release 1.0 – September 2006
45
T8B01 Answer - D
All of the choices are
excellent ways to prepare for
an emergency.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
46
T8B02
When may you use your amateur station to
transmit a "SOS" or "MAYDAY" signal?
A. Only when you are transmitting from a
ship at sea
B. Only at 15 and 30 minutes after the hour
C. When there is immediate threat to human
life or property
D. When the National Weather Service has
announced a weather warning
Release 1.0 – September 2006
47
T8B02 Answer - C
§97.403
No provision of these rules prevents the
use by an amateur station of any means of
radiocommunication at its disposal to
provide essential communication needs in
connection with the immediate safety of
human life and immediate protection of
property when normal communication systems
are not available.
By the way, "Mayday!" is the universal
voice signal for an emergency, and "SOS"
is the universal Morse code signal.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
48
T8B03
What is the primary function of RACES in
relation to emergency activities?
A. RACES organizations are restricted to
serving local, state, and federal
government emergency management agencies
B. RACES supports agencies like the Red
Cross, Salvation Army, and National
Weather Service
C. RACES supports the National Traffic
System
D. RACES is a part of the National Emergency
Warning System
Release 1.0 – September 2006
49
T8B03 Answer - A
Races is an acronym for
"Radio Amateur Civil Emergency
Service." This service is
regulated by the FCC with input
from the Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA), to
provide amateur radio
communications for government
agencies during an emergency.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
50
T8B04
What is the primary function of ARES in
relation to emergency activities?
A. ARES organizations are restricted to
serving local, state, and federal
government emergency management agencies
B. ARES supports agencies like the Red
Cross, Salvation Army, and National
Weather Service
C. ARES groups work only with local school
districts
D. ARES supports local National Guard units
Release 1.0 – September 2006
51
T8B04 Answer - B
The Amateur Radio Emergency
Service (ARES) consists of licensed
amateurs who have voluntarily
registered their qualifications and
equipment for communications duty in
the public service during an
emergency. Unlike RACES, however,
ARES may support non-governmental
organizations such as the Red Cross
Salvation Army, in addition to
supporting government agencies.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
52
T8B05
What organization must you register
with before you can participate in
RACES activities?
A. A local amateur radio club
B. A local racing organization
C. The responsible civil defense
organization
D. The Federal Communications
Commission
Release 1.0 – September 2006
53
T8B05 Answer - C
§97.407(a)
(a) No station may transmit in RACES unless it is
an FCC-licensed primary, club, or military
recreation station and it is certified by a civil
defense organization as registered with that
organization, or it is an FCC-licensed RACES
station. No person may be the control operator of
a RACES station, or may be the control operator of
an amateur station transmitting in RACES unless
that person holds a FCC-issued amateur operator
license and is certified by a civil defense
organization as enrolled in that organization.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
54
T8B06
What is necessary before you can
join an ARES group?
A. You are required to join the ARRL
B. You must have an amateur radio
license
C. You must have an amateur radio
license and have Red Cross CPR
training
D. You must register with a civil
defense organization
Release 1.0 – September 2006
55
T8B06 Answer - B
Since ARES is organized to
provide amateur radio support,
you must have an amateur
license to join an ARES group.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
56
T8B07
What could be used as an alternate
source of power to operate radio
equipment during emergencies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The battery in a car or truck
A bicycle generator
A portable solar panel
All of these answers are correct
Release 1.0 – September 2006
57
T8B07 Answer - D
Most modern amateur radio
gear is capable of running on
DC power at 12 volts or less,
so depending on the power
requirements, you could
possibly use any of these as a
potential power source.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
58
T8B08 Answer
When can you use non-amateur frequencies or
equipment to call for help in a situation
involving immediate danger to life or property?
A. Never; your license only allows you to use the
frequencies authorized to your class of license
B. In a genuine emergency you may use any means at
your disposal to call for help on any frequency
C. When you have permission from the owner of the
set
D. When you have permission from a police officer on
the scene
Release 1.0 – September 2006
59
T8B08 Answer - B
§97.403
No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur
station of any means of radiocommunication at its disposal to
provide essential communication needs in connection with the
immediate safety of human life and immediate protection of
property when normal communication systems are not available
§97.405(a),(b)
(a) No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur
station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract
attention, make known its condition and location, and obtain
assistance.
(b) No provision of these rules prevents the use by a station,
in the exceptional circumstances described in paragraph (a), of
any means of radiocommunications at its disposal to assist a
station in distress.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
60
T8B09
Why should casual conversation between
stations during a public service event be
avoided?
A. Such chatter is often interesting to
bystanders
B. Other listeners might overhear personal
information
C. Idle chatter may interfere with important
traffic
D. You might have to change batteries more
often
Release 1.0 – September 2006
61
T8B09 Answer - C
During a public service
event, the amateur is there to
serve the public by assisting
with the event. If an operator
spends time with idle chatter,
important information that
needs to be passed may be
missed.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
62
T8B10
What should you do if a reporter asks to
use your amateur radio transceiver to make
a news report?
A. Allow the use but give your call sign
every 10 minutes
B. Advise them that the FCC prohibits such
use
C. Tell them it is OK as long as you do not
receive compensation
D. Tell the reporter that you must approve
the material beforehand
Release 1.0 – September 2006
63
T8B10 Answer - B
Amateur radio may not be used for
business purposes. Allowing a
reporter to call in a report via
amateur radio would be using amateur
radio for business purposes. (Note,
however, that if you are passing
third party traffic during an
emergency to get information out to
the public via the media, that might
not be considered a business use.)
Release 1.0 – September 2006
64
T8B11 Answer
When can you use a modified amateur radio
transceiver to transmit on the local fire
department frequency?
A. When you are helping the Fire Department
raise money
B. Only when the Fire Department is short of
regular equipment
C. In a genuine emergency you may use any
means at your disposal to call for help on
any frequency
D. When the local Fire Chief has given
written permission
Release 1.0 – September 2006
65
T8B11 Answer - C
§97.403
No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur
station of any means of radiocommunication at its disposal to
provide essential communication needs in connection with the
immediate safety of human life and immediate protection of
property when normal communication systems are not available
§97.405(a),(b)
(a) No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur
station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract
attention, make known its condition and location, and obtain
assistance.
(b) No provision of these rules prevents the use by a station,
in the exceptional circumstances described in paragraph (a), of
any means of radiocommunications at its disposal to assist a
station in distress.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
66
Group T8C
Group T8C covers net operations,
responsibilities of the net control
station, and message handling. It also
covers interfacing with public safety
officials.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
67
Nets
Many hams enjoy participating in
nets. Nets may be very informal or
very formal, depending on the
purpose. Some are rag-chewing or
special interest nets, others may
focus on emergency preparedness, and
still others may be organized to
pass messages of all sorts
(traffic). It should come as no
surprise that the type of traffic
with the highest priority is
emergency traffic.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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Be Careful What You
Transmit
In an emergency, you may pass all
kinds of traffic such as requests
for supplies, a schedule for relief
operators, or estimates of how long
the emergency might last. However,
for a number of reasons you should
never transmit personal information
concerning victims over amateur
radio frequencies during
emergencies!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
69
Net Check-In
When you are part of an
emergency net, the net control
station is the boss.
Therefore, to minimize
disruptions to an emergency
traffic net once you have
checked in, you should not
transmit on the net frequency
until asked to do so by the net
control station.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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Passing Emergency Messages
One of the major functions of
participating in an emergency
net is to pass emergency
messages between organizations.
However, when passing emergency
messages, you should be sure to
include the name of the person
originating the message. This
information is very important
to emergency personnel.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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Sensitive Emergency
Traffic
Sometimes sensitive emergency
traffic has to be passed over the
air, and very often many people
besides hams are listening. There
are lots of scanners out there.
Because of this, one way to reduce
the chances of casual listeners
overhearing sensitive emergency
traffic is to pass messages using a
non-voice mode such as packet radio
or Morse code.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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The Net Control Station
(NCS)
The net control station runs
the emergency net, and all
participants look to the NCS to
be on top of everything.
Therefore, it is most important
for the net control station to
have a strong and clear signal.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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NCS and Emergency Traffic
If you have been paying
attention so far, it should not
surprise you that if someone
breaks in with emergency
traffic, the net control
station should stop all net
activity until the emergency
has been handled.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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Running an Emergency Net
Every ham should get some experience
running a net. It may be a little scary
at first, but running a net is not hard
once you get the hang of it. And you
never can tell when your skills as a NCS
might be needed, so prepare yourself to
step in when the need arises.
If a large scale emergency has just
occurred and no net control station is
available, you should open the emergency
net immediately and ask for check-ins.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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Traffic Nets
One of the earliest activities of
amateur radio was passing messages
for others by means of Morse code.
The the American Radio Relay League
(ARRL), the most well-know amateur
radio organization today, was
originally formed to better organize
traffic handling. Even in today’s
age of email and instant messaging,
hams still pass traffic using formal
code and voice nets.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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Formal Messages
Over the years, a formal message
form has been developed to insure
that messages passed by amateur
radio are accurately passed from one
station to another. For example,
every formal message begins with a
“preamble.” The preamble of a
message is the information needed to
track the message as it passes
through the amateur radio traffic
handling system.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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Message Check – Word Count
The preamble (or header) of a
formal message contains a
“check” or word count. In
reference to a message passed
by amateur radio, the check is
a count of the number of words
in the message. This check is
one way for a receiving
operator to insure that the
message was copied correctly.
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Amateur Messages – 25
Words or Less
Unless there is a very good reason to
exceed it, the recommended guideline for
the maximum number of words to be included
in the text of an emergency message is 25
words. That might not seem like a lot,
but there are special “numbered messages”
that you will learn about if you decide to
become involved in a traffic net. These
numbered messages, if used correctly, will
convey a lot of information with very few
words.
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Check-Up Time!
Now let’s try the questions from
this group.
You should make a note of any that
you miss for later review.
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T8C01
Which type of traffic has the
highest priority?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Emergency traffic
Priority traffic
Health and welfare traffic
Routine traffic
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T8C01 Answer - A
Emergency traffic ALWAYS
takes priority over everything
else.
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T8C02
What type of messages should not be
transmitted over amateur radio
frequencies during emergencies?
A. Requests for supplies
B. Personal information concerning
victims
C. A schedule of relief operators
D. Estimates of how much longer the
emergency will last
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T8C02 Answer - B
Bear in mind that there are lots
of people listening to amateur
operators using scanners or
shortwave radios. For obvious
reasons, you do not want personal
information to go out over the air
where it can be heard, and possibly
be misused. No one wants to find
out over the scanner that Uncle Joe
has passed away!
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T8C03
What should you do to minimize disruptions to an
emergency traffic net once you have checked in?
A. Whenever the net frequency is quiet, announce
your call sign and location
B. Move 5 kHz away from the net's frequency and use
high power to ask other hams to keep clear of the
net frequency
C. Do not transmit on the net frequency until asked
to do so by the net control station
D. Wait until the net frequency is quiet, then ask
for any emergency traffic for your area
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T8C03 Answer - C
Regardless of the type of
net, the net control station
(NCS) controls the net. Once
you have checked in, you should
always wait to be recognized
by NCS.
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T8C04
What is one thing that must be
included when passing emergency
messages?
A. The call signs of all the stations
passing the message
B. The name of the person originating
the message
C. A status report
D. The message title
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T8C04 Answer - B
By including the name of the
person who initiated the
emergency traffic, the message
can be traced back to its
source.
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T8C05
What is one way to reduce the chances of
casual listeners overhearing sensitive
emergency traffic?
A. Pass messages using a non-voice mode such
as packet radio or Morse code
B. Speak as rapidly as possible to reduce
your on-air time
C. Spell out every word using phonetics
D. Restrict transmission of messages to the
hours between midnight and 4:00 AM
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T8C05 Answer - A
Of course, packet and Morse
code can be received and
decoded using software, and
Morse can be copied by those
who have learned the code.
However, by using these, or
other digital modes, you will
be much more likely to avoid
casual listeners than if you
use voice.
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T8C06
What is of primary importance
for a net control station?
A. A dual-band transceiver
B. A network card
C. A strong and clear signal
D. The ability to speak several
languages
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T8C06 Answer - C
Of the choices given, the
most important thing the NCS
needs is the ability to be
heard by all who wish to check
into the net.
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T8C07
What should the net control station do if
someone breaks in with emergency traffic?
A. Ask them to wait until the roll has been
called
B. Stop all net activity until the emergency
has been handled
C. Ask the station to call the local police
and then resume normal net activities
D. Ask them to move off your net frequency
immediately
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T8C07 Answer - B
Remember, emergency traffic
ALWAYS has priority over all
other communications!
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T8C08
What should you do if a large scale emergency has
just occurred and no net control station is
available?
A. Wait until the assigned net control station comes
on the air and pass your traffic when called
B. Transmit a call for help and hope someone will
hear you
C. Open the emergency net immediately and ask for
check-ins
D. Listen to the local NOAA weather broadcast to
find out how long the emergency will last
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T8C08 Answer - C
New hams are often
intimidated by the thought of
being a net control station,
but as soon as you get your
Technician license, you should
learn how to do it. It isn't
all that hard, and you'll be
ready to step up to the plate
whenever the need arises.
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T8C09
What is the preamble of a message?
A. The first paragraph of the message
text
B. The message number
C. The priority handling indicator
for the message
D. The information needed to track
the message as it passes through the
amateur radio traffic handling
system
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T8C09 Answer - D
Traffic nets handle formal
messages via radio. Each
message has a specific format,
beginning with the preamble.
The preamble contains important
information needed by each
operator to accurately track
and pass the message.
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T8C10
What is meant by the term "check" in
reference to a message?
A. The check is a count of the number of
words in the message
B. The check is the value of a money order
attached to the message
C. The check is a list of stations that have
relayed the message
D. The check is a box on the message form
that tells you the message was received
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T8C10 Answer - A
The "check" is a count of the
number of words in a message.
This allows a receiving
operator to quickly verify that
there are no missing words that
could change the meaning of the
message.
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T8C11
What is the recommended guideline
for the maximum number of words to
be included in the text of an
emergency message?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10
25
50
75
words
words
words
words
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T8C11 Answer - B
Just like the old writing
contests, you should say it in
25 words or less. However,
there are a number of
"shortcut" messages that will
allow you to convey a lot of
information in 25 words or
less!
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Eight Down, Two to Go!
You’re Almost Done!
This concludes Study Guide # 3.
Once you are satisfied that you can answer
80% of the questions in this Sub-element, you
are ready to move on to Study Guide # 4.
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Descargar

Slide 1