Period 1
Native Peoples of America
The First Americans
Peopling New worlds
• Pueblos and Navajos- Journey from other
• Iroquois- Pregnant woman fell from the
sky world
• Paleo- Indians- Nomadic, HunterGatherers, followed principal of
reciprocity, stone age type tools
Results of Global Warming
• Extinction of Mammals
• End of Ice Age
• 2500 BC Societies- permanent settlements,
agricultural revolution changing diets and
medicine, mainly Mesoamerica, Maize
• 1500AD- food surpluses, trade networks,
religious and political systems, confederations
• Nomadic groups still persisted in areas where
food was scarce
Mesoamerica and South America
• Maize, Beans and Squash
• Olmecs- Mesoamerica and Chavin de
Huantar- Andes
– Urban Centers
– Wealthy Elites
– Hereditary Rulers
– Theocracies
– Temples, Palaces and Pyramids
– Chiefdoms- Some Matrilineal
Chavin de Huantar
• Monte Alban and Teotihuacan
– Wars of conquest
– Bureaucracies
– Tax Collection
– Public Works Projects
– Religious Ceremonies and Hierarchies
– Sun Pyramid of Teotihuacan
Monte Alban
• Influenced by Teotihuacan
• 600AD- 1400AD
• Calendar, numerical system, hieroglyphic
writing, paper
Human sacrifice
Temple of Tenochtitlan
Calendar based upon the Mayan calendar
Drained swamp lands for farming,
collected taxes from surrounding tribes
• Pochteca- armed traders for the Aztecssalt, jewelry, feathers, pelts, cotton,
precious stones, gold, turquoise
• 1480’s
• Cuzco
• Conquered territories throughout the
• Maize, beans potatoes, meats
• Terraced Irrigation, roads, bridges,
storehouses, freeze-dried foodstuffs
• Maize by 2500BC
• 400BC full time farming begins
• Hohokam Culture in Arizona
– Irrigation canals, permanent towns,
coordinated workforce
– Confederations for trade, religion, politics
– Ball courts, mounds, rubber balls
– Clay, stone, turquoise and shell artwork
Southwest cont’
• Anasazi- 700AD
Harvesting crops
Permanent settlements
Complex apartments
Kivas- underground areas for religious ceremonies
Chaco Canyon- 15,000 people, road network, dams
and terraces controlled rain water
– Culture came to a close because of drought
Eastern Woodlands
• Poverty Point
– Two large mounds- solar observations contribute
religious beliefs and calendar
– Quartz, copper, crystal and minerals
– Olmec influence
• Adena
Mound builders
Mainly hunter-gatherers, women grew small amounts
of Maize and Squash
Eastern Woodlands cont’
• Mississippians- 700AD
– Farmers
– Sun worship, wives and servants
accompanied the chief into the afterlife
– Trade
– Chahokia- declines after 1200AD because of
warfare and scarce resources
– Maize, beans, tools, controlled burn
Non Farmers
• California tribes- fish and acorns
• Plains Indians- deer, elk, bear, buffalo,
sheep for food clothing, shelter, tools
• Blackfeet and Pawnee built permanent
lodges, farmed and hunted
On the Eve of European
75 million people by 1500AD
7-10 Million North of Mesoamerica
Nomadic in the Plains and Arctic regions
Fishing and gathering in Pacific region
Agricultural based civilizations in East and along
river valleys
• Many languages and dialects
• Bound by trade, reciprocity, resources,
technology, ideas, art, religion
On the Eve of European
Contact cont’
Nuclear families- Man, wife, children
Extended families- nuclear family plus relatives
Some Matrilineal, some Patrilineal
Family feuds and justice, warfare
Women were the farmers
Spirit in Nature- Manitou- source of unexplained
– Dreams, Visions, Ordeals, Dances and Rituals

Period 1 - Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools