July 24 & 25, 2001
Cambridge, USA
Universal Knowledge Project
Four Most Crucial Components
In Solving IT-age
Knowledge Divide
A Digital Nations Project
Dr. Kazuhiko Nishi
[email protected]
Media Laboratory
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Humankind has become the master of this planet
through
languages and characters
Languages and characters
have guided humankind's development and growth
Languages and characters are
a bridge linking
all nations and peoples
We need to solve language problems on the Internet
so that we can make the best use of it
1
2
Population Forecasts for Major Cities in 2010 (unit: millions)
(1) Tokyo (Japan)
(2) San Paolo(Brazil)
(3) Bombay (India)
(4) Shanghai (China)
(5) Lagos (Nigeria)
(6) Mexico City(Mexico)
(7) Beijing (China)
(8) Dhaka (Bangladesh)
(9) New York (USA)
(10) Jakarta (Indonesia)
(11) Karachi (Pakistan)
(12) Manila (Philippines)
(13) Tenshin (China)
28.93 m
24.97 m
24.37 m
21.67 m
21.09 m
18.02 m
17.97 m
17.55 m
17.23 m
17.20 m
17.02 m
16.06 m
15.70 m
(14) Calcutta (India)
(15) New Delhi (India)
(16) Los Angeles (USA)
(17) Seoul(South Korea)
(18) Buenos Aries (Argentina)
(19) Cairo (Egypt)
(20) Rio de Janeiro(Brazil)
(21) Bangkok (Thailand)
(22) Tehran (Iran)
(23) Istanbul (Turkey)
(24) Osaka (Japan)
(25) Moscow (Russia)
(26) Lima (Peru)
15.70 m
15.58 m
13.91 m
13.91 m
13.68 m
13.42 m
13.32 m
12.74 m
11.88 m
11.80 m
10.60 m
10.37 m
10.07 m
25
23
19 22
7 17
13
1115 8
24 1
4
3 14 21
12
9
16
6
5
10
26
20
2
18
3
Source: World Bank Data
The spread of the Internet will expand the unfairness of knowledge
Defacto standard language on the Internet == English
Knowledge ends up being created and stored in English
The knowledge of those
who speak English
increases further
>
>
>
Those who cannot speak
English are unable to access
knowledge over the Internet
The gap grows larger and larger
4
In order for humankind to be able to share knowledge,
the following must happen:
1. There must be universal access to the Internet.
2. The problem of currency barriers must be resolved.
3. Inexpensive computers must become available everywhere.
4. The problem of language barriers must be resolved.
5
Project 1
URI (Universal Radio Internet) Project
Satellite
Ku band transponder on
PanAmSat
Metropolitan Phased Array
Antenna
“The Sun Flower”
Distributed small antennas to and
from
Ku band Satellite
Frequency
Developing
a global wireless
connection
to the Internet
without government
license
Groupware and Remote Disk
Server
Integrated messaging and
interactive learning
6
Ku band and 2.4/1.2 GHz
worldwide coverage
IEEE 802.11b + new 402.11x link
Terrestrial network connections for
inter-wireless packet routers &
clients
802 for PC
401 for long distance slow speed
Ku band
satellite
Ku band
satellite
GPS
Ku band
satellite
GPS
GPS
802.11b
401.11x
USAT
$500-$1000
USAT
$500 - $1000
USAT
$500 - $1000
7
802.11b
401.11x
802.11b
401.11x
Project 2
UEC (Universal Electronic Coin) Project
Minimum unit is
1 microgram of gold
0.001 cent
3 options
[US dollar and gold] in America
[Euro and gold] in Europe
[Gold only] in the rest of the world
Develop gold-based
electronic prepaid
money system for micro
payment
for browsing complying
Web pages
Collaboration with
major credit card companies and
major international banks
Includes localization flexibility
Web-based link operation
technology
Repaying for quotes
Combination of
Online and Offline transactions
8
Internet
Universal PC
Access RFID card
support
RDID sensor
Pay by touching
9
Swatch Access RFID
support
Project 3
UPC (Universal Paper Computer) Project
Manufacturing several kinds of
VLSI chips base on Strong Arm
Developing $100 network
PC
Technology for printing circuits on
paper (application of
Joe Jacobson’s research at MIT)
Cardboard PC based on
one VLSI chip and circuits
printed on paper
Developing an improved OS,
JAVA, and CPU-independent
P-code as the OS and
programming language
Recyclable cardboard and
plastic body
Power supply by
air and solar batteries
10
Single-Chip PC on a Paper
antenna
802
11.b
USB 2.0 port
Paper printed circuit
1 chip
Display option
Video out for
TV monitor Optional
memory
640x480, 1024x768
2000x1000
Rechargeable
batteries
1 shot 1 piece KB
11
Universal PC chip design
Video Out
SDRAM
Video
DAC
ARM9+
Core
MUX
Video
VIDEO
Video
SDRAMC
MEMC
Config
FPGA
(PCM)
Bridge
(OPLL)
SDRAM 16MB
(PSG)
buffer
Wireless
LAN
Bridge
FLASH
(I/O)
12
(RTC)
(TIMER)
USB2.0
UP
Stream
7 ports
JTAG
RAM
16 MB
ARM920T
400 MHz
4ch
DMAC
USB2.0
DOWN
Stream
1 port
Video
encoder
FLASH
8 MB
MEMORY
controller
Video
selector
Interrupt
controller
USB-Host
controller
USB
Target
controller
Video RAM
8 MB
Video
controller
AHB
AHB-APB
Bridge
PLD
PLD
Downloader
1 million gates
APB
MEDIA
controller
Security
Wireless LAN
or
Bluetooth
PLD RAM
8 MB
TIMER
RTC
PIO
I/O selector
SD-memory
2 slots
Keyboard
port
RF-IC
Universal PC Chip Block Design Ver. 4
13
General I/O
port
AUDIO
DAC
©2001 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Media Lab / Kazuhiko Nishi
Project 4
UNL (Universal Networking Language) Project
Automated translation
technology
Develop
a browser-based
translation system
between 189
languages
Universal Word and Syntax
as intermediate language
Online multi-language dictionary
maintenance system
HTML language extension
Web-based operation
technology
14
UNL is The Way to Solve the Language Problem
Store knowledge in both its mother tongue and UNL
Those who speak another
language can use a
deconverter
to translate UNL into their
own
language
Those who speak that
mother tongue can access
knowledge as is
Users install the deconverter
as a plug-in for their browser
15
Established Achievements in Key Languages
by
Governments, Universities, Laboratories, and Companies
for
Arabic, Chinese, English, French,
German, Hindi, Indonesian, Italian,
Japanese, Latvian, Mongolian,
Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swahili, and Thai
with support from
United Nations University,
Institute for Advanced Study,
UNL Center
16
Our Goals
By 2000,
16 languages online with UNL. (Almost done)
By the end of 2003,
31 languages (16 + all 15 EU) online with UNL.
(Soon…)
By 2009,
support all 189 UN member states.
(This is the real challenge!)
17
Field Tests (Proposal)
As we develop this project, we will plan to start a field test
in 2005 for the tools that will enable everyone, everywhere
to participate in the digital community and share knowledge
in their mother tongue for less than $100.
URI
UEC
UPC
UNL
Accessible anywhere in the
world
Ku band and 1.2/2.4GHz
Useable in cyberspace
in any country
Available to everyone at a low price
Strong Arm +
Accessible in any of the
189 languages
Online festival by
participating communities
Electronic payment
experiment with wireless
prepaid card system
Distributing 1000 sets of $100 PCs
connection routers to
1,000 communities
Digital Foster Families
Digital applications to
community problems such as
medical care, education, and
the environment
Feedback for technology
evaluation
Field test both in real
world and cyberspace
Workshops and contests for
designing a $100 PC
Communication test using
pictographs and symbols
United
Nations
United
Nations
University
Tokyo
UNL
Foundation
Geneva
ITU
UNESCO
Unicef
18
Harvard
Camp
MLE
IOC
Junior
Summit
The organization that accomplishes this
will gain astronomical profit and fame.
However,
we should not purse this project for profit and fame.
Should we not instead make this come true for the world
as a legacy for our future generations?
If we do not do this,
it is likely that other groups will try the same thing.
Not for competition,
but for open cooperation and open collaboration
with other organizations and groups as well.
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Universal Knowledge - MIT Media Lab: Digital Nations