Universal Networking Language
(UNL)
by
Pantha Kanti Nath
(05IT6021)
Under the Guidance of
Prof. Debasis Samanta
School of Information Technology
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.
Technical Terms






UNL – Universal Networking Language
IAS - Institute of Advanced Studies
UW – Universal Words
UNLKB – UNL Knowledge Base
UNLKCIC – UNL Key Concept in Context
LS – Language Servers
Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Introduction
Overview Of UNL System
Mechanism of Conversion of UNL
System Workings
UNL Expression
UNL Words
Relations
Attribute Labels
Applications (Some Application of UNL)
Conclusion
What is UNL?






Universal Networking Language (UNL) is a computer language that
enables computers to process information and knowledge across the
language barriers.
It is an artificial language that replicates the functions of natural
languages in human communication.
It expresses information or knowledge in the form of semantic
networks.
Unlike natural languages, UNL expressions are unambiguous.
Although the UNL is a language for computers, it has all the
components of a natural language.
It is composed of UNL Expressions, Universal Words (UWs),
Relations, Attributes.
4
Overview Of UNL System
It Consists Of
Language Resources:

UNLKB (Knowledge Base) – Linguistic Knowledge on concepts that are
common to every language.

Universal Word Dictionary, analysis and generation rules.
Language Servers:

DeConverter - automatically deconverts UNL into native languages.

EnConverters - automatically or interactively enconverts natural languages
text into UNL.
Software tools:

UNL Editors - used to make UNL documents.

UNL Explorers - used to view/manage UNL document by accessing UNL
language servers, UNLKB & UNL Documents.
5




UNL Verifiers – verifies UNL expression for correctness.
UNL Proxy servers – Provides communication with language servers.
Concept Definitions – Defines concepts in connection with other
concepts.
UNL Documents - the documents in which UNL expression is
described for each sentence of natural language.
UNL SYSTEM
6
Mechanism of Conversion of UNL Expressions
( Language Servers )
Data Flow
Control Flow
7
System Workings
People with access to the Internet can "enconvert" text written in
their own language into UNL expressions using UNL editor. And
likewise, any UNL expressions can be "deconverted" into a variety of
native languages using the UNL viewer (Explorer).
8
System Workings Cont..
When developing home page in Arabic, the UNL Editor recognizes
the contents as Arabic and sends a request to the Arabic Language
Server to “EnConvert” the text. . Once the Arabic text is
“EnConverted” to UNL, the Arabic Language Server sends the result
back to the UNL Editor.
9
System Workings Cont..
Home page designer can now embed UNL into their pages.
10
System Workings Cont..
When Spanish read this page, the UNL Viewer recognizes the
contents as UNL and sends a request to the Spanish Language
Server to “DeConvert” the UNL.
11
System Workings Cont..
Once UNL is “DeConverted” to Spanish, the Spanish Language
Server sends the result back to the UNL Viewer.
12
System Workings Cont..
If UNL is embedded in a home page, it can be read in variety of
languages.
13
UNL Expression


John is reading a novel.
UNL Hypergraph
read(icl>do)
agt
John(iof>person)

@entry.@present.@progress
obj
novel(icl>book)
UNL Expression
[UNL]
agt(read(icl>do) @entry.@present.@progress, John(iof>person))
obj(read(icl>do) @entry.@present.@progress, novel(icl>book))
[/UNL]
14
Universal Words (UWs)


A UW represents simple or compound concepts. There are two
classes of UWs:
 Labels defined to express unit concepts, called UWs (Universal
Words)
 compound structures of a set of binary relations grouped
together ( indicated with Compound UW-Ids)
A UW is made up of a character string (an English-language word)
followed by a list of constraints.
 <UW>::=<Head Word>[<Constraint List>]
15
Types of UW

Basic UWs



They are bare Head Words with no Constraint List.
They are character strings that correspond to an English word.
A basic UW denotes all the concepts that may correspond to
those in English.


for example:
 go
 take
 house
Restricted UWs


They are Head Words with a Constraint List.
Each Restricted UW represents a more specific concept, or
subset of concepts.
16
Types of UW


continued..
The Constraint List restricts the range of the concept that a
Basic UW represents.
 for example:
 state(icl>express)
 state(icl>country)
 state(icl>abstract thing)
 state(icl>government)
Extra UWs



They are a special type of Restricted UW.
Extra UWs denote concepts that are not found in English.
Foreign-language words are used as Head Words using English
(Alphabetical) characters.
 for example:


ikebana (icl>flower arrangement)
kathak (icl>dance)
17
Constraints



Some examples
UW ‘drink(agt>thing,obj>thing)’
denotes the subset of these concepts that include “putting liquid
in the mouth”, which in turn corresponds to verbs (drink, gulp and
slurp)
UW ‘provide(icl>give(agt>thing,gol>thing,obj>thing))’
Is defined as a subset concept of
‘give(agt>thing,gol>thing,obj>thing)’
18
Relations


A relation label is represented as strings of 3 characters or less.
The relations between UWs are binary.




rel (UW1, UW2)
They have different labels according to the different roles they
play.
At present, there are 41 relations in UNL
For example, agt (agent), ins (instrument), pur (purpose), etc.
19
Attribute Labels

Attribute labels express additional information about the Universal
Words that appear in a sentence.


They show what is said from the speaker’s point of view; how the
speaker views what is said. (time, reference, emphasis, attitude, etc)
@entry (main UW of a sentence or a scope) , @present, @progressive,
@topic, etc.
20
The boy who works here went to school
@ entry @ past
go(icl>move)
agt
plt
@ entry
boy(icl>person)
school(icl>institution)
agt
here
plc
work(icl>do
)
:01
21
The boy who works here went to school
UNL expression:
{UNL}
agt(go(icl>move).@entry.@past, :01)
plt(go(icl>occur).@entry.@past, school(icl>institution))
agt:01(work(icl>do), boy(icl>person.@entry))
plc:01(work(icl>do),here)
{/UNL}
22
Some UNL Application



Multilingual Search Engines
Agro Explorer – a project undertaken in Media Labs Asia Group, IIT
Bombay. Its goal is to create a meaning based search engine that will allow
farmers to query and receive information on agriculture in there mother
tongue.
The UNL may become a powerful instrument to promote networking around
the world (thus alleviating the isolation of scholars in developing countries).
For the UN in general, for UNESCO and other multilateral organizations, it
has enormous potential as a tool to foster dialogue among nations and for
the promotion of peace, culture, cooperation and development.
23
References













http://www.unu.edu/
United Nations University
http://www.ias.unu.edu/
United Nations University, Institute of Advanced Studies
http://www.unl.ias.unu.edu/
Universal Networking Language Programme
http://www.unl.ias.unu.edu/publications/gm/index.htm
Book of Universal Networking Language
http://www.iai.uni-sb.de/UNL/unl-specs.html
Official UNL Specification (unicode version)
http://www.iai.uni-sb.de/UNL/unl-iai.html
German UNL Homepage
http://unl.ilc.pi.cnr.it/
Italian UNL Homepage
http://www.vai.dia.fi.upm.es/projects/unl_in.html
Spanish UNL Homepage
http://www.links.nectec.or.th/unl/UnuWeb/UNLP_Homepage.htm
Thai UNL Homepage
http://www.unl.rss.gov.jo/
Arabic UNL Homepage
http://www.ailab.lv/unl.htm
Latvian UNL Homepage
http://www.it.iitb.ac/ it632, 2005.
Pushpak Bhattacharyya. Language Technology for the Web.
http://www.iitb.ac.in Anupama Dutta. Multilingual and meaning based search engines. Indian Institute of
Technology, Bombay, India, November 2003.
24
agt (agent)


agt defines a thing that initiates an action.
An agent is defined as the relation between:
UW1 - do, and
UW2 - a thing

where:



UW2 initiates UW1, or
UW2 is thought of as having a direct role in making UW1 happen.
agt (do, thing)
25
Plc (place)







Plc defines a place where an event occurs, or a state
that is true, or a thing that exists.
A place is defined as the relation between:
 UW1 – an event, state, or thing, and
 UW2 – a place or thing understood as a place.
plc
plc
plc
plc
plc
(occur, thing)
(do, thing)
(be, thing)
(uw(aoj>thing), thing)
(thing, thing)
26
Plt(final place)


Plt defines a place where an event ends or a state that
becomes false.
A final place is defined as the relation between:


UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a place or thing defining a place, where:





UW2 is the specific place where UW1 ended, or
UW2 is the specific place where UW2 becomes false.
plt (occur, thing)
plt (do, thing)
plt (uw(aoj>thing), thing)
27
Gol(final state)


Gol defines a final state of object or a thing finally
associated with the object of an event.
A final state is defined as the relation between:


UW1 – an event, and
UW2 – a state or thing, where:




UW2 is the specific state describing the obj (of UW1) at the end of
UW1, or
UW2 is a thing that is associated with the obj (of UW1) and the
end of UW1.
gol (occur(gol>thing), thing)
gol (do(gol>thing), thing)
28
THE END
29
Some Examples

He liked the sweetness of the cream
{unl}
obj(like:03.@entry.@past, sweetness(icl>taste):0D.@def)
agt(like:03.@entry.@past, he:00)
mod(sweetness(icl>taste):0D.@def,
cream(icl>class):0U.@def)
{/unl}
30
He needs a lot of encouragement
{unl}
obj(need(icl>necessitate):03.@entry.@past.@present,
encouragement(icl>aid):0I)
agt(need(icl>necessitate):03.@entry.@past.@present,
he:00)
qua(encouragement(icl>aid):0I,
lot(icl>quantity):0B.@indef)
{/unl}

31

He is a kind of missionary
{unl}
aoj(missionary(icl>teacher):0G.@entry.@present,
he:00)
mod(missionary(icl>teacher):0G.@entry.@present,
kind(icl>-):08.@indef)
{/unl}
32

He rejected the claims of mismanagement
{unl}
obj(reject(icl>judge{>be}(aoj>thing{,obj>thing})):03.@en
try.@past, claim(icl>title):0G.@def.@pl)
agt(reject(icl>judge{>be}(aoj>thing{,obj>thing})):03.@en
try.@past, he:00)
mod(claim(icl>title):0G.@def.@pl,
mismanagement(icl>act):0Q)
{/unl}
33

He took a sip of wine.
{unl}
obj(take(icl>act{>do}(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place)):03.
@entry.@past, wine(icl>drink):0H)
agt(take(icl>act{>do}(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place)):03.
@entry.@past, he:00)
qua(wine(icl>drink):0H, sip(icl>quantity):0A.@indef)
{/unl}
34

He was director of the Academy
{unl}
aoj(director(icl>administrator):07.@entry.@past,
he:00)
mod(director(icl>administrator):07.@entry.@past,
academy(icl>school):0N.@def)
{/unl}
35
Descargar

An Introduction to Universal Networking Language (UNL)