Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Teoria de Piaget del Desarrollo Cognitivo
Théorie de Piaget du Cognitive Development
(Aportaciones fundamentales y críticas)
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Introducción
La presentación de un resumen de la teoría clásica de Piaget en
formato ppt es de indudable interés para profesores y alumnos de
psicología evolutiva en diferentes campos y muy especialmente en
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en formato ppt (power point) en lengua castellana, inglés y francés.
Por este motivo el lector encontrará fichas en los 3 idiomas. Todos
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exhaustividad de las presentaciones. Por esta razón, el lector
encontrará algún material redundante pero con presentación
diferente. Pensamos que el lector como miembro de la comunidad
intelectual puede sugerirnos nuevas fichas o detectar errores en las
existentes, debido a lo cual nos gustaría que nos enviase los
comentarios y sugerencias, compartiendo con nosotros la
ampliación de esta presentación.
Piaget’s Theory
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the 20th
centuries most influential researchers in the
area of developmental psychology.
He was a child prodigy who published his
first article in a refereed journal at the age
of 11.
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Piaget’s Theory
Piaget originally trained in the areas of
biology and philosophy and considered
himself a “genetic epistimologist.”
He was mainly interested in the biological
influences on “how we come to know.”
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Piaget’s Theory
Piaget's views are often compared with those
of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who looked
more to social interaction as the primary
source of cognition and behavior.
This is somewhat similar to the distinctions
made between Freud and Erikson in terms of
the development of personality.
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Piaget’s Theory
While working in Binet’s test lab in Paris,
Piaget became interested in how children think.
He noticed that young children's answers were
qualitatively different than older children.
This suggested to him that the younger children
were not less knowledgeable but, instead,
answered the questions differently than their
older peers because they thought differently.
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Piaget’s Theory
Piaget believed that what distinguishes
human beings from other animals is our
ability to do “abstract symbolic reasoning.”
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Piaget’s Theory
This implies that human development is
qualitative (changes in kind) rather than
quantitative (changes in amount).
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El Modelo Piagetiano y su
planteamiento epistemológico
• Factores que determinan el desarrollo según
Piaget (1966)
– 1. Biológicos. Ej: Maduración del sistema nervioso
– 2. Factores de equilibración y autorregulación.
Ej: Tendencia a la equilibración. Formas secuenciales en la coordinación
general de las acciones de los individuos que interactuan con su medio físico.
– 3. Factores sociales generales (experiencia física y
social). Ej: Interacciones entre individuos
– 4. Transmisión educativa y cultural
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Piaget’s Theory of
Cognitive Development
Describe intellectual development
according to Piaget, including a
discussion of both the process and the
stages of development.
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Piaget’s Theory of
Cognitive Development
Piaget believed that “children are active
thinkers, constantly trying to construct more
advanced understandings of the world”
Developed by W. Huitt, 1999
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Piaget’s Theory
There are two major aspects to his theory:
• the process of coming to know and
• the stages we move through as we gradually
acquire this ability.
Piaget’s training as a biologist influenced both
aspects of his theory.
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Process of Cognitive Development
Schemas: Assimilation and
Accommodation
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Process of Cognitive Development
Schemas
As a biologist, Piaget was interested in how
an organism adapts to its environment
(Piaget described this ability as intelligence.)
Behavior is controlled through mental
organizations called schemes that the
individual uses to represent the world and
designate action.
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Schema example:
Object permanence
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Schema example:
Volume permanence
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Where do schemas
come from?
• Maturationist hypothesis: they are preprogrammed
and simply develop
• Behaviorist hypothesis: no mental structures are
necessary, all learning is the forming of
associations
• Piaget rejected both, and devoted his career to
researching the developmental origins of each
schema
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Process of Cognitive Development
This adaptation is driven by a biological
drive to obtain balance between schemes and
the environment (equilibration).
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Process of Cognitive Development
Piaget hypothesized that infants are born with
schemes operating at birth that he called
"reflexes."
In other animals, these reflexes control behavior
throughout life.
However, in human beings as the infant uses
these reflexes to adapt to the environment, these
reflexes are quickly replaced with constructed
schemes.
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Process of Cognitive Development
Piaget described two processes used by the
individual in its attempt to adapt:
• assimilation and
• accomodation.
Both of these processes are used thoughout life
as the person increasingly adapts to the
environment in a more complex manner.
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Process of Cognitive Development
Assimilation
The process of using or
transforming the
environment so that it can
be placed in preexisting
cognitive structures.
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Process of Cognitive Development
Assimilation
Example: an infant uses a
sucking schema that was
developed by sucking on a
small bottle when attempting
to suck on a larger bottle.
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Process of Cognitive Development
Accomodation
The process of changing
cognitive structures in order
to accept something from
the environment.
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Process of Cognitive Development
Accomodation
Example: the infant modifies
a sucking schema developed
by sucking on a pacifier to
one that would be successful
for sucking on a bottle.
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Assimilation and
Accommodation
• Development is driven by a continuing
equilibrium between assimilation and
accommodation
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Schemas: Assimilation and
Accommodation
• A schema “always includes both
assimilation and accommodation”
• …but in different ratios, resulting in:
imitative, ludic, or adaptive schemas
• Intelligence is the equilibrium between
assimilation and accommodation
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Assimilation
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Accommodation
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Process of Cognitive Development
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Play as Assimilation
and Accommodation
• The child at pretend often
imposes a schema on the world
(assimilation)
• Children at play also imitate
something they’ve observed or
repeat a past activity
(accommodation)
• Play contributes to development
because of this tension between
assimilation and accommodation
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Process of Cognitive Development
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Process of Cognitive Development
As schemes become increasingly more
complex (i.e., responsible for more complex
behaviors) they are termed structures.
As one's structures become more complex,
they are organized in a hierarchical manner
(i.e., from general to specific).
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Process of Cognitive Development
Symbolic schemes – internal mental symbols that
one uses to represent aspects of experience.
Cognitive operation – an internal mental activity
that one performs on objects or thoughts.
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How We Gain Knowledge:
Piaget's Cognitive Processes
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(cont.)
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¿Cómo se aprende?: Perspectiva
genético-cognitiva del aprendizaje
• - Desarrollo
Aprendizaje
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• Proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje
Esquemas
Dinámicos y
cambiantes
¿Cómo conocemos y aprendemos?
Maduración
Dllo Cognitivo
Estadios o niveles
de competencia
cognitiva
2. Equilibración y
desequilibración
1. Factores
biológicos
Ej: El niño
simbólico da
vida propia a
los objetos
inanimados
Asimilación y
acomodación a
través de esquemas
Si el sujeto es consciente de que no
puede asimilar el objeto nuevo
entonces se produce desequilibrio
cognitivo y aparecen esquemas
nuevos
Sensoriomotriz,
Preop….
Asimilamos mediante
esquemas los objetos y
acomodamos los
esquemas a los objetos
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Acción
Construcción de
aprendizajes
Aprenziaje por
descubrimiento
Un conejo puede
asimilar una col pero
una col no puede
asimilar a un conejo
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La relevancia de la obra de
Piaget: el autor
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Piaget
• A radical claim: Piaget
didn’t really care about
children
• Piaget cared about basic
philosophical questions
• The study of developing
children allows an empirical
evaluation of philosophical
questions
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The Philosophical Context
• Where does knowledge come from?
• Behaviorists are empiricists—all knowledge
derives from experience
• The rationalists reject empiricism and argue
that some knowledge is innate or a priori: it
does not require experience
• Kant’s synthesis proposed a priori basic
categories
• Piaget proposed that these basic categories are
not innate but are learned, but not in the way
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believed
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Key Influences:
Biology
• Piaget’s degrees were in
biology
• The influence of Darwin:
development proceeds in
stages
• Piaget’s central question:
How did human cognition
evolve from lower animals?
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Cognitive development
Range of topics studied byPiaget
Infancy - adolescence
perception
memory
space
time
causality
moral judgment
play
dreams
geometry
number
reasoning
chance
scienc
e
consciousness
possibility and necessity
physics
imitation
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• Piaget (1896 - 1980) has had the greatest
influence on developmental psychology to
date
– this is partly to do with the enormity of output….
JEAN PIAGET (1896-1980)
Number of publications (excluding translations)
and span of writing career
200
Articles
150
Books
100
50
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COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT:
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
Development
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Stage 1: Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2yrs)
Stage 2: Preoperational Stage (2-7yrs)
Stage 3: Concrete Operations (7-11yrs)
Stage 4: Formal Operations (11-on)
Invariant developmental
sequence!
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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Development
Typical Age
Range
Description
of Stage
Developmental
Phenomena
Birth to nearly 2 years
Sensorimotor
Experiencing the world through
senses and actions (looking,
touching, mouthing)
•Object permanence
•Stranger anxiety
About 2 to 6 years
Preoperational
Representing things
with words and images
but lacking logical reasoning
•Pretend play
•Egocentrism
•Language development
About 7 to 11 years
Concrete operational
•Conservation
Thinking logically about concrete
•Mathematical
events; grasping concrete analogies
transformations
and performing arithmetical operations
About 12 through
adulthood
Formal operational
Abstract reasoning
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•Abstract logic
•Potential for
moral reasoning45
Stage 1:
Sensorimotor
Stage (Birth-2yrs)
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Nos
ubicamos
en el
sujeto.
Pautas
motrices
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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
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Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage (Infancy)
Sub
1
2
3
4
Age
(M)
0–1½
1½–4
4–8
8 – 12
5
6
12 – 18
18 – 24
Description
Reflex schemas exercised
Primary circular reactions
Secondary circular reactions
Coordination of secondary
circular reactions
Tertiary circular reactions
Beginning
of symbolic
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
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Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage (Infancy)
Sub Age (M)
Description
1 0 – 1 ½ Reflex schemas exercised:
Involuntary rooting, sucking,
grasping, looking
2 1 ½ – 4 Primary circular reactions:
Repetition of personal
actions that in themselves are
pleasurable (e.g., blowing
bubbles)
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Sensorimotor Substages
Sub
Age
Description
1
Birth – 1
month
Infants begin to modify the reflexes
with which they are born to make
them more adaptive.
2
1–4
months
Infants begin to organize separate
reflexes into larger behaviors, most
of which are centered on their own
bodies.
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Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage (Infancy)
Sub Age (M)
Description
3 4–8
Secondary circular reactions:
Dawning awareness of the effects of
one’s own accidental actions on
environment, and that extended
actions can produce interesting
change in the environment
4 8 – 12
Coordination of secondary circular
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53
tionality;
early
problem
solving)
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Sensorimotor Substages
Sub Age
Description
3
4–8
months
Infants becoming increasingly interested
in the world around them. By the end of
this substage, object permanence, the
knowledge that objects continue to exist
even when they are out of view, typically
emerges.
4
8 – 12
months
During this substage, children make the
A-Not-B error, the tendency to reach to
where objects have been found before,
rather than to where they were last hidden.
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Lack of
Representation
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Infant does
not track the
movement of
the train in the
tunnel, is
happy to see
the train
again, but is
not surprised
that it is now a
different color
or shape.
55
Sensorimotor Substages
Sub
Age
Description
5
12 – 18
months
Toddlers begin to actively and avidly
explore the potential uses to which
objects can be put.
6
18 – 24
months
Infants become able to form
enduring mental representations.
The first sign of this capacity is
deferred imitation, the repetition of
other people’s behavior a substantial
time after it occurred.
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The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years):
Coordinating Sensory Inputs and Motor Capabilities
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Algunas capacidades del niño
sensoriomotor
• La adquisición de la noción de objeto permanente, como
mecanismo de adaptación a la realidad, ha sido una de las
más estudiadas en la psicología del niño menor de dos
años.
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The key elements of active
construction : adaptation
• Adaptation is when these two
forces are in equilibrium
A well-known example of
schema elaboration is
searching for a hidden object
– This results in the emergence
of a new behavioural
schema….
This is known as the
development
of the Object Concept
This development
illustrates how the logic
of transformations is
first acquired through
the active construction
of space
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– A sensorimotor schema is a
behaviour built up from
progressive equilibration of
assimilation and
accommodation
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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Object Permanence
Knowledge that an object continues
to exist independent of our seeing,
hearing, touching, tasting or smelling
it!
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Estadios del Desarrollo de la noción de Objeto
Permanente (Piaget)
1. El bebé intenta seguir con dificultad el movimiento del objeto
y no busca los objetos que han sido ocultados a su vista. (0-2)
2. El bebé sigue la trayectoria del objeto y se orienta con
respecto al lugar donde desaparece de su vista pero no busca
los objetos que han sido ocultados a su vista . (2-4)
3. El bebé alcanzará el objeto cuando se oculte parcialmente de
su vista. (4-8)
4. El bebé alcanzará el objeto cuando se oculte totalmente a su
vista, pero cometerá un error característico: busca siempre el
objeto donde desapareció por primera vez, aunque se lo
escondamos varias veces a su vista. (8-12)
5. El bebé alcanzará el objeto en el último lugar donde
despareció de su vista pero no es capaz de representarse las
trayectorias ocultas. No busca el objeto si lo escondemos sin
que lo vea (12-18)
6. Finalmente el niño es capaz de representarse la trayectoria de
los objetos escondidos.
Por yloaportaciones
tanto, nuevas
los busca
aunque no haya
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visto desparecerlos. (18-24)
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Object Permanence – knowledge that an object
continues to exist independent of our seeing,
hearing, touching, tasting or smelling it!
Stage 1 and 2 – Tracks, then ignores
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The stages of the object concept
• Schema
development during
the stages of the
object concept
e.g. 4 - 8 months (3rd stage):
“out of sight out of mind”
– The key stages are
marked by a simple
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finding an object
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The stages of the object concept
contd.
8-12 months (4th stage): the ‘place’ error
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The stages of the object concept
contd.
• What the child
achieves in the first
year of lfe is a concept
of a space that is
independent of
him/her
• And that objects can
undergo reversible
operations in this
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space
66
The stages of the object concept
contd.
• The final stages of
the sensorimotor
period mark
difficulties with
mentalising actions
12-18 months (5th stage)
• At the 5th stage,
the infant has a
problem with
invisible
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displacements
67
The end of the 6th stage and the
beginning of symbolisation
• At the 6th and final stage of this
period, the child starts to
represent actions symbolically
– This not only allows him to
track invisible displacements
but also to start to have
‘knowledge’ independent of
actions…
18 -24 months (6th stage):
The transition to representational thought
“In general terms it can be said
that the child has become
capable of directing his
search by means of
representation”
– It is at this stage that
imitation and ‘pretend’
representations start
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The physics domain : object
permanence
– After Piaget a wave of new
evidence suggested that
infants DO represent an
occluded object even if they
do not reach for it
• recent evidence comes
from Baillargeon and
Spelke - see page 75)
The new experiments display
‘impossible’ events and measure
selective looking time
Infants well below ‘permanence’
age (i.e. 3.5 months) show
a sensitivity to an impossible
event based on the concept of an
occluded object
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From sensorimotor to preoperational thought
• The final stages of the object concept see in the
beginning of the symbol function in children
• This was thought by Piaget to allow the crucial
‘interiorisation of action’
• All subsequent stages are now seen to be
developments of a new symbol-based system that
replaces the old sensorimotor one
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Piaget: Structures and operations
• How is
knowledge
represented ?
• This is the
structuralist
aspect of Piaget’s
theory
Aspects of Piaget’s structruralism
•The interactions at the sensorimotor level
contain an inherent logic
•This logic is based on properties like identity (same
object/different place)and reversibility (A to B is
reversed by B to A)
•The logic inherent in action is recovered at an
explicit mental level through the subsequent
stages
•Stability at the operational level is achieved when
thought is governed by this logic and it becomes
explict
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Estudios posteriores que
modifican los planteamientos de
Piaget
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Baillargeon’s Object permanence task
Intermodel Perception (Spelke)
Infant Arithmetic?
Rational Behavior
Infant Categorizing
Infant Categorizing
Growth of Memory
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Behavioral Capacities of the
Newborn
• Newborns’ Learning and Memory
– It is not clear if Piaget’s inference is accurate. Infants
who are tested differently show signs of having a notion
of object permanence earlier than Piaget believed was
possible.
– Infants seem to have a grasp of physical laws and can
distinguish possible from impossible events (at least
their reactions seem to indicate that they do.)
– They may also have a grasp of simple numerical
concepts.
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Tarea de Baillargeon sobre el
Objeto permanente
La investigación de Baillargeon sugiere que los bebés
almacenan más conocimieinto sobre el objeto y sus
propiedades de lo que planteaba inicialmente la teoría
de Piaget. El bebé de 3,5 meses mostraba sorpresa
ante el evento imposible y no ante el posible.
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Precocious
Infants?
• Infants 3½ months old
dishabituated (i.e.,
surprised, looked longer)
when screen appeared to
pass through the place
where box had been
located
• Seemed to indicate
reasoning about an
impossible event
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Baillargeon et al., 1987
Reversing the Experiment
However, when
habituated to the
impossible event
first and then
tested on the
possible event,
the babies stared
more than twice
as long at this
possible event!
In essence, they
looked longer at
the novel events,
whether possible
or impossible.
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Cohen et al.,762000
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Figure 10.9
Mean looking times of 6- and 8-month-old infants after they had watched
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either possible or impossible
events.
(From Baillargeon, 1986)
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Intermodel Perception
• Infants held two rings, one in each hand,
under a cloth that prevented them from
seeing the rings or their own bodies.
• For some infants the rings were connected
by a rigid bar and therefore moved
together. For others the rings were
connected by a flexible cord and therefore
moved independently.
• All the infants were allowed to hold and
feel just one or the other type of rings until
they had largely lost interest (habituated).
• They were then shown both types of
rings.
• The babies looked longer
at ythe
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that were different from those
they
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79
Aritmética en bebés
Los bebés de 4 meses observan durnante más tiempo los eventos
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imposibles
que los posibles
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Cognitive Development
• Baby Mathematics
– Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare
longer (Wynn, 1992)
4. Possible outcome: Screen
drops, revealing one object.
1. Objects placed 2. Screen
in case.
comes up.
3. One object
is removed.
4. Possible outcome: Screen
drops,
revealingnuevas
two a:
object.
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Rational Behavior
In this experiment, infants were shown a small circle
repeatedly jumping over a barrier to get to another circle (a).
After they had habituated to this event, the obstacle was
removed. In subsequent tests, the infants looked longer if the
circle repeated its familiar jumping action (b) (which was not a
reasonable behavior since the barrier was no longer there)
than if it took a novel,Comentarios
but more
efficient, straight-line route (c).
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82
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Infant Categorizing
• Infants (3 months) shown a
sequence of pictures of cats
were surprised when they saw
a picture of a dog, suggesting
that they were sensitive to the
category of cats
• Similarly, 3- to 4-month-olds,
after having been shown a
series of pictures of mammals,
looked longer at pictures of
non-mammals and furniture
than at a picture Eimas
of a new
& Quinn, 1994
mammal
Behl-Chadha
et al., 1995
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Infant
Categorizing
• After three 15-minute
sessions, each with a
different-color A block, a 3month-old baby will kick the
mobile with yet a fourth color
added.
• But if a new shape is
inscribed on the blocks used
in the fourth session (e.g.,
B’s), the baby will not kick,
indicating that the baby has
a category
and
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aportaciones nuevas
a:
84
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remembered prior experience
Conceptual Categories
• Babies (7 months) treated plastic toy birds and
airplanes, which are perceptually similar, as if they
were members of the same category
• Babies (9 -11 months)
treated toy airplanes
and birds as members
of conceptually
different categories,
despite the fact that
they looked very much
alike
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Growth of Memory
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86
Growth of Memory
In one study (Rovee-Collier et al.), a group of
3-month-old babies were trained to activate a mobile
by kicking. They then let an entire month elapse
before putting the babies into the experimental
situation again. They knew that this was more than
enough time for the babies to forget their training.
However, 1 day before being retested, the 3-montholds were shown the mobile as a reminder (without
allowing them to kick). The next day, these infants
started kicking as soon as the ribbon was tied to
one of their legs. The mere sight of the mobile a
day earlier seemed to remind the babies of what
they had learned 1Comentarios
month
earlier.
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87
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Relationship with
the Social World
Imitation
Wariness
New Relationships
Deferred Imitation (Evidence of Recall)
• Infants move from relying
on implicit memory
(recognition) to explicit
memory (recall)
• For example, infants will
imitate live models, as well
as actions that they have
seen on television
– Infants who watch a televised
model on one day will
reproduce the model’s
behavior 24 hours later
(Meltzoff, 1988)
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89
Wariness (begins at 6-9 months)
• Infants who are
exposed to
something new –
even a spoonful
of cereal from a
stranger – display
characteristic
wariness
• Another evidence
of recall
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Indicators of
New Social Relationships
• Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky)
– Assistance provided by adults goes just slightly beyond the child’s
current competence; helps child learn new behaviors
• Attachment
– Seek to be near their primary caregivers and
show distress when they are separated,
happy when reunited
• Secondary Intersubjectivity
– Primary: face-to-face
communication (e.g.,
social smiling)
– Secondary: shared
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communication that
refers
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Indicators of
New Social Relationships
Social Referencing
– Tendency to look to the caregiver for an
indication of how one should feel and act
(girls will do this more than boys)
Language Development
– Comprehension: understands words for
highly familiar objects (6 months);
identifies phrases (8-9 months)
– Babbling: Vocalizing that includes
consonant/vowel repetitions (7 months)
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92
– Jargoning
: Babbling
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Figure 10.4
Infants pay more attention to faces than to other patterns. These results
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suggest that infants are born
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certain visual preferences. (Based on Fantz,93
1963)
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
El estadio preoperatorio,
representacional y
simbólico (2-7)
1 – Substadio preconceptual (2-4)
2 – Subestadio intuitivo (4-7)
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Preoperational Stage
(2-7 years)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Emergence of symbolic thought
Centration
Egocentrism
Lack the concept of conservation
Animism
Artificialism
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La descripción piagetiana del
pensamiento preoperatorio
• Abarca de los 2 a los 6-7 años.
• No es un nivel estructural
propiamente dicho, sino un estadio de
preparación para la estructura
operatoria.
• Acciones interiorizadas
Intuiciones
• Esquemas representacionales
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Características del
pensamiento preoperatorio
(I)
• Centración: atender de forma exclusiva a un
único aspecto de la realidad, ignorando otros.
• Intuitivo: tendencia a dejarse llevar por la
apariencia perceptiva de los objetos.
• Estatismo: tendencia a fijarse exclusivamente
en los estados finales, ignorando las
transformaciones
• Irreversibilidad: incapaces de rehacer
mentalmente la secuencia de acciones de un
proceso para devolver un objeto o situación a
su estado inicial
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Características del
pensamiento preoperatorio
(II)
• Razonamiento transductivo: establecer
conexiones asociativas entre las cosas,
razonando de lo particular a lo particular.
• Egocentrismo: pensamiento realista
centrado en el propio punto de vista.
• Animismo: tendencia a atribuir vida a
objetos inanimados
• Fenomenismo: Establecer relaciones
causales entre fenómenos que se dan
próximos.
• Finalismo:Atribuir causas a todo.
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• Artificialismo: Todo
es obra del hombre
98
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
The Preoperational Stage:
2-7 Years,
Preconceptual Period (2-4 Years)
A. Accomplishments
1. Symbolic Function
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
The Preoperational Stage:
2-7 Years,
Preconceptual Period (2-4 Years)
A. Accomplishments
1. Symbolic Function
2. Begin Pretend Play
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The Preconceptual Period (2 to 4
Years of Age) of the
Preoperational Stage
• Emergence of symbolic thought and play
• Representational insight is in place by 2.5 years.
• Dual representation (ability to think about an object in two different
ways at the same time) is in place by 3 years of age.
• Preconceptual reasoning is primitive by adult standards.
– Children display animism (a willingness to attribute life and lifelike qualities to inanimate objects)
– Children display egocentrism (a tendency to view the world from
one's own perspective and to have difficulty recognizing another
person's point of view)
– Children not yet proficient at dual encoding
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Emergence of symbolic
thought and play
Dual representation
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Development of Make-Believe Play
1. Play becomes detached from associated
real-life conditions (a block can be a
telephone)
2. The way the child as self participates in
play changes with age (less egocentric)
3. Make-believe play gradually includes
more complex scheme combinations
(appearance of sociodramatic play)
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Sociodramatic play
– First appears
around age 2 1/2
and increases
rapidly
– Signals an
awareness that
make-believe play
is a
representational
activity.
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104
Advantages of Make-Believe Play:
More than Piaget thought
– Preschoolers who spend more time at
sociodramatic play
• are advanced in general intellectual development
• are seen as more socially competent by their
teachers.
– Children with imaginary friends:
• display more complex pretend play
• are advanced in mental representation
• are more sociable with peers.
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105
Symbol–Real World Relations
• Dual representation:
– A cup can be a cup or a hat
– Locate object from map of room
• Insight into one type of symbol–real world
relation seems to help preschoolers understand
others.
• Opportunities to learn about the functions symbols
like picture books, models, maps, and drawings
enhances understanding that one object can stand
for another.
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106
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
The Preoperational Stage:
2-7 Years,
Preconceptual Period (2-4 Years)
A. Accomplishments
1. Symbolic Function
2. Begin Pretend Play
B. Errors
1. Animism
2. Precausal or Transductive reasoning
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3. Egocentrism
107
Limitations of Preoperational Thought
Egocentrism
Everyone else thinks, perceives and feels the
same as I do
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108
Egocentric Conversations
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109
Un ejemplo de egocentrismo y
centración: el problema de las 3
montañas
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110
The Preconceptual Period (2 to 4 Years of
Age) of the Preoperational Stage
Figure
Piaget’s three-mountain problem. Young preoperational children are egocentric. They
cannot easily assume another person’s perspective and often say that another child
viewing the mountain from a different vantage point sees exactly what they see from
their own location.
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111
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112
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Egocentrism
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113
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Egocentrism
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114
Limitations of Preoperational Thought
Animistic Thinking
Inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such
as thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions.
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115
The Intuitive Period (4 to 7 Years
of Age)
• Intuitive thought is an extension of
preconceptual thought.
• Children now somewhat less egocentric
• Children now more proficient at classifying
objects on the basis of shared perceptual
attributes
• Children still incapable of conservation
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116
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Intuitive Period
(4-7 Years)
A. Accomplishments
B. Errors
1. Conservation
2. Classification
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117
Limitations of Preoperational Thought
Inability to Conserve
Conservation is the idea that certain
physical characteristics of objects remain
the same, even when their outward
appearance changes.
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118
Inability to Conserve
• Understanding is centered
• Thinking is perception bound
• States rather than transformations
• Irreversibility
• Lack of hierarchical classifications
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The Intuitive Period (4 to 7 Years
of Age) (cont.)
Figure 7.6
Some common tests of the child’s ability to conserve.
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120
Procedures Used to Test
Conservation
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122
Conservation
• Number
In conservation of number tests, two equivalent rows of coins
are placed side by side and the child says that there is the same
number in each row. Then one row is spread apart and the child
is again asked if there is the same number in each.
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123
Conservation
• Length
In conservation of length tests, two same-length sticks are
placed side by side and the child says that they are the same
length. Then one is moved and the child is again asked
if they are the same length.
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124
Conservation
• Substance
In conservation of substance tests, two identical amounts of clay
are rolled into similar-appearing balls and the child says that they
both have the same amount of clay. Then one ball is rolled out and
the child is again asked if they have the same amount.
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125
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Intuitive Period
(4-7 Years)
A. Accomplishments
B. Errors in Conservation: Liquid
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126
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Intuitive Period
(4-7 Years)
A. Accomplishments
B. Errors in Conservation : Mass
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127
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Intuitive Period
(4-7 Years)
A. Accomplishments
B. Errors in Conservation : AREA
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128
The Balance Scale: An Example of
Centration
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129
Errors in Conservation
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130
Limitations of Preoperational Thought
Falta de Habilidad para clasificar
Es capaz de clasificar sobre un solo criterio pero
no es capaz de relacionar la parte con el todo,
como se observa en los experimentos de
inclusión en clases
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131
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Intuitive Period
(4-7 Years)
A. Accomplishments
B. Errors
1. Classification
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132
¿Más flores o más flores amarillas?
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133
Action schemas teach the logic of
reversibility..
conservation
Co-ordination through reversibility
Greater density = more
Greater extent = more
Logical equilibration:
greater density/less extent
less density/greater extent
Action teaches transformations
and necessary equivalence
greater height/less width
less height/greater width
Without reversibility there are failures of conservation...
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134
Action teaches grouping
principles and properties of
inclusion and exclusion
=A
=B
“Are there more flowers (C) or more daffodils (A) ? “
requires the simultaneous understanding
of the reversible relationship that
C = A + B and A = C -B
See Inhelder and Piaget (1964)
Early Growth of Logic, page 106
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135
Action teaches the nature of
asymmetric relations:
transitivity
Co-ordination of asymmetric relations
A B
B C
?
Co-ordinating the relations
B>C
A>B
&
requires the simultaneous understanding that
B<A
&
B>C
so that B can be inserted as the middle element in a series
A>B>C
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136
Children co-ordinate concrete asymmetric
relations from around the age of seven
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137
Alternativas a Piaget
en el estadio
preoperatorio
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138
Did Piaget Underestimate the
Preoperational Child?
• New evidence on egocentrism shows that
children are less egocentric when provided
with less complicated visual displays.
• Another look at children’s causal reasoning
shows that 3-year-olds do not routinely
attribute life or lifelike qualities to
inanimate objects.
• Preoperational children can conserve with
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139
training.
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Criticism of Piaget’s
Preoperational Stage Theory
• Many Piagetian problems contain
confusing or unfamiliar elements or too
many pieces of information for young
children to handle at once. As a result,
preschoolers’ responses do not reflect their
true abilities.
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140
• Are Piaget’s Stages Distinct?
– Piaget believed that the four stages of
intellectual development were discrete, and that
each one represented a major reorganization in
cognitive processes.
– More recently though researchers have shown
that this conclusion is not entirely warranted.
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141
• Are Piaget’s Stages Distinct?
– Preoperational children can answer different
versions of the conservation tasks correctly.
– In general, the progression between the stages
appears to be gradual, so that the difference
between stages may not be one of either having
the ability or not; it may actually be that the
younger child has the same ability but only uses
it for simple tasks.
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142
Figure 10.15
(a) With the standard conservation-of-number task, preoperational children
answer that the lower rowComentarios
has morey items.
(b) nuevas
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143
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the same number of items.
An Overview of Piaget’s Theory
• Implications for Education: Piaget
– Children must discover certain concepts on
their own.
– Children’s attention must be directed to key
aspects of concepts when they are ready to
learn those concepts.
– The teacher needs to determine the child’s level
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144
of functioning
and
then
teach
material
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An Overview of Piaget’s Theory
• Implications for Education: Vygotsky
– Lev Vygotsky was a Russian developmental
psychologist who thought that education
needed to meet children at their own level.
• He believed that the use of the symbolic system of
language allowed humans to influence others and
control our own behavior.
• Education Comentarios
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utilize this
of language 145
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and take into account
the child’s level of cognitive
An Overview of Piaget’s Theory
• Implications for Education: Vygotsky
– Vygotsky proposed the existence of a zone of
proximal development, which is the distance
between what a child can do alone and what a
child can do with assistance from others.
– Instruction should occur within the zone, but
appropriate guidance should be given whenever
possible to bring the child to understanding of
more sophisticated concepts.
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146
CONCEPT CHECK:
According to Vygotsky, conservation might lie within the child’s zone
of proximal development
Who would be more optimistic about the
possibility of teaching a 5 year old to
understand conservation of mass?
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147
Difficulties of Inferring
Children’s Concepts
• There may be a fundamental weakness in
the assumption made by Piaget that a child
either “has” or “lacks” a concept.
• Concepts develop gradually and may appear
using some methods of testing but not
others.
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148
Difficulties of Inferring
Children’s Concepts
• Distinguishing Appearance from Reality
– Do children in the early preoperational stage
fail to distinguish appearance from reality?
• It’s not entirely clear whether a child’s inability to
do so has more to do with lacking a concept or
inadequate language skills.
• Children for example may seem to confuse a rock
and a sponge that looks like a rock, but when asked
to bring to an adult something to wipe up spilled
water, they have no problem identifying the sponge
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149
as the correct object
for
that
purpose.
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Figure
If an experimenter hides a small toy in a small room and asks a child to find a
larger toy “in the same place” in the larger room, a 21/2-year-old searches
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150
haphazardly. (a) However,
the same
child
knows
exactly
where
to
look,
if
the
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Figure A child sits in
front of a screen
covering four cups and
watches as one adult
hides a surprise under
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151
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Figure (cont.)
A child sits in front of
a screen covering four
cups and watches as
one adult hides a
surprise under one of
the cups.
152
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Figure (cont.)
Then that adult and
another (who had
not been present
initially) point to one
of the cups to signal
where the surprise is
hidden. Many 4year-olds
consistently follow
the advice of the153
informed adult; 3-
Difficulties of Inferring
Children’s Concepts
• Understanding Other People’s Thoughts
– Are young children more cognitively egocentric
than adults are?
• What Piaget meant by this is that a child cannot
easily understand the perspectives of other people.
• Various experiments show that preschool aged
children make
errors
of thought
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egocentric thinking.
154
CONCEPT CHECK:
Which is the clearest example of egocentric
thinking?
1. An exceptionally wealthy man gives no money
to charity.
2. A woman assumes that all her friends will want
to see the same movie that she does.
#2 – selfishness (1) and dishonesty (3) are not the same as egocentrism.
3. At student council meeting, a student takes
credit for someone
else’s nuevas
ideas.
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Piaget’s structuralism
• Summary:
– The study of pre-operational to operational thought in
children allowed Piaget to conclude that the ‘logic of
relations’emerged around the same time across
different domains
– This suggested that there was a new sort of mental
structuring available that alters for ever the way
children think and creates the perception of logical
necessity
– Later this becomes emancipated from the concrete
situations and becomes ‘formal’ thought
• So what happened
to it ?
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From Piaget’s structuralism to
modularity
• There were some empirical challenges
– Neo-Piagetians started to show a naïve logic in
children younger than 7 years
– And earlier development of the object concept in
infancy
• This produced a subtle shift away from Piaget’s agenda
– Children’s development was no longer seen in logicomathematical terms
• But the main theoretical challenge came from Neonativism
– This asserted that
Piaget had overlooked innate skills 157
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– And that his solutions
were too domain general
Neo-nativist representational
theories
• Intellectual growth through
representational re-description of
domain specific skills
• Annette Karmiloff-Smith
– Beyond Modularity MIT Press 1992
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– (all of it) Comentarios
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158
A new set of questions
• What are the genetically pre-programmed origins
of learning ?
• What are the subsequent developments through
growth ?
• To what extent are cognitive skills modular and to
what extent domain general ?
• Her book is therefore constructed around key
SEPARATE behavioural domains (after Fodor’s
Modularity of Mind) : each with its own type of
learning
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Answer to Will’s question: some
others in the Neo-nativist
tradition
• Carey and Gelman (naïve theories and
natural kinds)
• Gentner (analogy and metaphor)
• Goswami (natural reasoning)
• Halford (natural maturation of information
processing)
• Johnson (neonatal perception)
• Spelke and Baillargeon
(naïve physics) 160
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What are the innate structures ?
• It is less nativist than Fodor, but more
nativist than Piaget :
• “When I use the term “innately specified”…
I do not mean….a genetic blueprint for
prespecified modules, present at birth
(but)…innately specified predispositions
that are more epigenetic than Fodor’s
nativism”
– “Nature specifies initial biases or predispositions that
channel attention to relevant environmental inputs,
which in turn affect
subsequent brain development”
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(page 5)
161
The linguistic domain
• Here she stresses the
channel-specific ability
underlying the
comprehension of speech
in neonates - either in
innate or very rapid
learning (e.g. linguistically
relevant input from other
acoustic signals)
– Grammatical
development shows
language-specific rules
e.g. “speaked” but NOT
“big he”
“But such generalizations
are are not made.
Inferences that that
children do and don’t
make in language
acquisition are governed
by specifically linguistic
principles which
constrain the class of
inputs open to such
generalizations”
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(P.34/35)
162
The physics domain : object
permanence
– After Piaget a wave of
new evidence
suggested that infants
DO represent an
occluded object even if
they do not reach for it
– recent evidence comes
from Baillargeon and
Spelke - see page 75)
The new experiments display
‘impossible’ events and measure
selective looking time
Infants well below ‘permanence’
age (i.e. 3.5 months) show
a sensitivity to an impossible
event based on the concept of an
occluded object
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Baillargeon’s Object
permanence task
“this body of research suggests that infants store
knowledge about the object world in far greater
sophistication and far earlier than Piagetian theory
asserts. Whether or not such computations are domain
specific from the very outset or progressively become
domain specific awaits more sophisticated
experimentation involving brain activation”
p. 67-72
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The number domain
• Number as a “domainspecific, innately
guided process”
– Again habituation studies suggest
innate number skills….(Antell
&Keating, 1983) - see page 97
– habituated to certain densities or
line lengths - neonates
dishabituated to new nos. with
same line lengths or densities...
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The social domain
• Also in contradistinction to Piaget
and the view that
children are late to
‘decentre’ socially, she
cites evidence from
early face recognition
experiments that
neonates preferentially
attend to face-like
neonates prefer these
patterns on a moving
board (Johnson &
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166
The notational domain
– K-S draws on the
fact that notation
itself reflects
domain specificity
(numbers v words)
– Although there is
little infancy work
on this, she reports
carrying some out
herself (see p. 142)
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Drawing
Writing
167
How does early learning ‘scale
up’?
• Representational
redescription
• Despite early
competence, K-S believes
that development DOES
undergo changes in the
level of understanding or
‘reperesentation’ just like
Piaget. She describes this
as becoming
The levels :
Implicit
Explicit 1
Explicit 2
Explicit 3
representationally
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explicit
or
168
The implicit level
– This is similar to the pre-understanding level of
the S-R level of Kendler or sensorimotor level
of Piaget. It allows ‘behavioural mastery’ but
without awareness
– Information is encoded procedurally
• procedures are sequentially specified
• new representations are independently stored from one another
• no intra-domain or inter-domain links possible
– “there are many formats in which such knowledge
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might be represented”, p.156
169
E1 (Explicit) level
– The first step towards (human) understanding is
the spontaenous re-representation of a previous
representation - At first this does not imply
‘awareness’
• reduced descriptions of procedures in a compressed
format
• result of re-describing
I level
in a:a higher level
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language
170
Behavioural versus
representational change
• E2 (explicit)
Representational change
– This is where she
distinguishes
between R-R per se
and making the new
representation
available to
consciousness
(though it may not
be linguistically
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accessible)
Behavioural change
age
171
Evidence : from language
• The linguistic domain
• See playroom expt. (p.56)
– At age 3, 100%
mastery
– Age 5, children will
often pick out the boy
doll
– Age 8/9 correct with an
“lend me a (une) car”
appropriate explanation
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Explanation...
Interpretation :
I level : “independently stored procedures for
producing same phonological form” - good
mapping of definite and indefinite
E1 level : common phonological form linked across
2 functions (‘a’ v ‘one’ - see also production )
aware of the dual function of “une” - focus on
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“one”
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Summary : the later questions
• How can development be re-construed
bearing in mind native competences?
• What are these competences ?
• How do they develop within domains ?
• How do domains
ofy aportaciones
competence
become
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174
PAUSE FOR THOUGHT
• What ever happened to learning ?
– It had already become separated from interactionism
because of the focus on ‘operations’ and what children
‘do’ on one-off tasks at different ages and stages. See:
Chalmers, M. and McGonigle, B. (1997)
Capturing dynamic structuralism in the laboratory
In Piaget, Vygotsky and Beyond (ed. L. Smith, J.
Dockrell and P. Tomlinson, Routledge, London) pp.
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Learning in the neo-nativist
models
• Does K-S include learning mechanisms ?
– Yes
– Does she study them explicitly like Kendler ?
– No
• So how is learning incorporated into the
new developmental psychology ?
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• Through allusion
to connectionist models...
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176
The contemporary influences
• K-S’s
position is
influenced
by Piaget’s
research
combined
with recent
cognitive
science and
modularity
of mind
Cognitive science : modularity of mind
language as structure (Fodor)
modularity of mind (Fodor)
connectionism (McLelland)
1956
1980’s
Piagetian constructivism
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2000’s
177
From learning to neo-nativism:
what has been gained and what
lost?
• Gains :
– a more useful conception of behavioural
development from the point of view of mapping
with brain function and structure
– questions that are less ‘epistemic’ and more to
do with actual development
– (therefore) more focus on ‘real-life’ areas of
development
• Losses :
y aportaciones
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– the focus onComentarios
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through
in the
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178
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Development
Estadio
Operatorio (7-11
años aprox.)
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Estadio Operatorio
• Características Principales
Descentración
Desarrollo de la capacidad para utilizar operaciones
concretas
Concepto de Operación
Acción elegida (ej:ordenar) interiorizada y
reversible (ej: adición-sustración), coordinada e
integrada en una estructura de conjunto (ej:
modelo matemático de agrupamiento).
Ejemplos: una adición, medida o clasificación
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Estadio Operatorio
• Naturaleza social de las operaciones
• Contrariamente a la mayoría de las acciones, las
operaciones implican siempre, en efecto, una
posibilidad de intercambio, de coordinación
individual e interindividual; y ese aspecto
cooperativo constituye una condición sine qua non
de la objetividad de la coherencia interna
(equilibrio) y de la universalidad de estas
estructuras operatorias (Piaget, J. y Inhelder, B (1969).
•
Psicología del niño. Madrid. Morata, p.98)
..el término social debe ser entendido de manera amplia como transmisiones
educativas, culturales o morales, p.99)
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181
Estadio Operatorio
Reglas lógicas fundamentales de la génesis
de las operaciones concretas
I - Las operaciones consisten en transformaciones reversibles
Reversibilidad
II - Una transformación operatoria es siempre relativa
a un invariante, como el esquema o noción de
conservación
Noción de conservación
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Reglas lógicas fundamentales de la
génesis las operaciones
I
Las operaciones consisten en transformaciones reversibles
Reciprocidad
Juan es mayor que Manuel
Manuel es menor que Juan
A corresponde a B
y viceversa
Reversibilidad
Inversión
(A – A = 0)
Compensacion
Toda operación posee
su contraria
Los cambios en una característica son
compensados por cambios en otras
características. Por ej: El ancho por
el alto en un vaso de agua
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Reglas lógicas fundamentales de la
génesis de las operaciones
II
Una transformaciones operatoria es siempre relativa
a un invariante, como el esquema o noción de
conservación
Noción de conservación
(ej: objeto permanenente,
líquidos, materia, número)
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184
Estadio Operatorio
Tipos de Operaciones Cognitivas (Martí, 1990)
Lógicas
Lógico Matemáticas
Infralógicas
Clases
-Clasificación.
- Ej: flores del mismo
color.
Clases
-Adición partitiva.
-Ej:disolución de un azucarillo en
agua. ¿La cantidad de líquido y peso
permanecen constantes?
Relaciones
-Seriación.
-Ej: ordenar bastones de
menor a mayor.
Relaciones
-Orden (espacial y temporal).
-Ej: Ante la rotación de un bastoncillo
con perlas. ¿Orden de aparición?
Numéricas Sistema numérico
Ej: conservación del
número.Cálculo: suma,
resta, multiplicación.
Medida
Ej.: El niño debe construir una torre de
igual altura que la del modelo pero con
restricciones distintas.
Moral
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Operar con valores
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¿Cómo se estructuran los diferentes tipos de
operaciones?
La operación es una acción coordinada e integrada
en una estructura de conjunto.
Piaget propone que los diferentes tipos de
operaciones (cuantitativas y cualitativas) se pueden
estructurar en el desarrollo genético del niño a
través de una estructura lógica: Los
AGRUPAMIENTOS
Los agrupamientos son estructuras lógicas semejantes pero
no idénticas a los “grupos” matemáticos. Son una
combinación de la estructura del grupo y del retículo (modelo
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186
pseudomatemático
de
agrupamiento)
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Las 5 Propiedades de Los Agrupamientos
• Combinación o composición
Dos operaciones de un conjunto constituyen por su reunión una nueva
operación del conjunto. (x+x´= y). Ej: niños + niñas = niños. Niños +
adultos= humamos. Los niños son también humanos.
• Reversibilidad
Cada operación puede invertirse. (a-b=c; a-c=b)
• Asociatividad
• Expresa la posibilidad psicológica de obtener el mismo resultado por
dos caminos diferentes (a+b)+c=a+(b+c)
• Identidad
La composición de toda operación con su inversa culmina en una
“operación idéntica general” (a-a=0; a+0=a). Equivale a la anulación
de la operación.
• Tautología
Una acción cuando se repite no añade nada nuevo a la clase. Ej: niños
+ niños =niños.
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Estadio Operatorio
¿Cuántos tipos de agrupamientos propone Piaget?
• Propone 9 agrupamientos diferentes que describen la
estructura cognitiva de este periodo: 1 agrupamiento
preliminar y 8 mayores.
• De los 8 mayores, 4 referidos a la lógica de clases
(ej:clasificación) y 4 a la lógica de las relaciones
(ej:seriación).
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Estadio Operatorio
Los conceptos más significativos del pensamiento
operatorio según Piaget (1969)
• Reversibilidad
• Conservación
Número
• Clasificación
• Seriación.
¿Por qué son los más significativos?
Porque Piaget los considera indispensable para operar
lógicamente a nivel cuantitativo y cualitativo; para
comprender el concepto de unidad y de número; y
para poder operar con números
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189
Estadio Operatorio
La evolución de las nociones de
conservacion, clasificación y seriación
La Conservación
Todas las operaciones requieren de la noción de
conservación
1- No existe conservación
2- Tendencia a aceptar la conservación, pero entra en
conflicto con la percepción.
3- Adquisición de la noción
Edades de adquisición: Materia (7-8), peso (9),
Volumen (11). (ver diapositivas del periodo preoperatorio)
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Estadio Operatorio
Operaciones lógicas que implica la
noción de Conservación (ver propiedades
del agrupamiento)
• 1- Reversibilidad por inversión. Ej: un
objeto que ha cambiado de forma puede
volver su forma original por una acción
contraria. A-A=0
• 2 – Compensación
• 3 – El concepto de identidad
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191
Estadio Operatorio
La Clasificación
Pertenece a la lógica-matemática de clases. Referida
a la categorización de la realidad
• 1- Etapa de las colecciones figurales. Simple
reunión espacial.
• 2 – El niño sabe clasificar por un atributo. Por ej:
color.
• 3 – El niño es capaz de utilizar diferentes clases.
Por ej: clasificar por forma y color.
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Estadio Operatorio
La Seriación
Pertenece a la lógica-matemática de clases. Permite
ordenar la realidad de forma creciente o
decreciente
1 – Ausencia de correspondencia entre elementos
1,2,3,4,5,6,… A-1;b-2;c-3;….
A,b,c,d,e,f,…
2 – Correspondencia término a término por ensayo y
error.
3 – Coordinación sistemática de las relaciones en
juego. Dominio de la reversibilidad y la
reciprocidad.
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193
Estadio Operatorio
El número y las nociones operatorias
implicadas en el mismo
• Reversibilidad, Conservación, Clasificación,
Seriación.
El número es una síntesis de la cardinalidad y la
ordinalidad que implica el dominio de la inclusión
de clases.
Para Piaget, el número junto con las operaciones
lógicas que supone es la forma más esencial y
central de la ASIMILACIÓN INTELECTUAL
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Referencias Bibliográficas
• Bermejo, V. (1994). Desarrollo Cognitivo. Madrid.
Síntesis.
•
Palacios, J. , Marchesi, A. y Coll, C. (1990): Desarrollo
psicológico y educación I. Psicología Evolutiva.. Madrid.
Alianza.
• Piaget,J (1987?) Introducción a la Epistemología
Genética. Vol I. El pensamiento matemático. Mexico D.F..
Paidos
• Piaget,J, y Inhelder, B.(1984), Psicologia del niño, Madrid.
Morata.
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195
Diapositivas complementarias del
estadio operatorio
• A continuación se recopilan diferentes
diapositivas que complementan y clarifican
el desarrollo anterior y proceden de fuentes
diferentes.
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196
Key Questions
• What changes between early and middle
childhood in the way that children think?
• What changes between early and middle
childhood in the way that they are treated?
– What do we ask 8-year-olds to do that we do not ask 4year-olds to do?
– How is the day of a 7-year-old different from the day of
a 3-year-old?
– How was your middle childhood different from your
parents?
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197
Biological Changes
• Become much more physically coordinated
and strong
– Sex differences in strength widen
• Brain maturation
– Alpha activity (active) becomes more common
than theta (sleep-like)
– Further development of frontal lobes
• Greater ability to regulate emotions
• Greater ability to engage in planning, self-reflection
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198
What changes: Piaget
• He considered this to be a period of
development between child-like and adultlike thinking
• Kids move from preoperational thinking to
concrete operational thinking?
– What does this mean?
• Ability to classify along two dimensions,
hierarchically
Veggies I hate
Food
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Veggies I like
199
Characteristics of Concrete Operational Thinking
Identity
Changes in outward appearance
don’t change overall amount
Compensation
Changes in one feature
are compensated by changes
in other features
Reversibility
One operation will negate,
or reverse, another
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The Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11 Years
A. Génesis de las operaciones concretas
1. Logical Reasoning. Noción de
operación:
1.1Noción de Reversibiidad
1.2 Noción de Conservación
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201
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
The Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11
Years
A. Accomplishments
1. Logical Reasoning
2. Reversibility
3. Seriation
4. Transitivity
B. Still having trouble….
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203
Del pensamiento preoperatorio
al pensamiento operatorio
•
•
•
•
Descentración frente a centración
Realidad inferida frente a apariencia
Reversibilidad frente a irreversibilidad
Transformaciones frente a estados
finales.
En suma, este tránsito supone la adquisición
de
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OPERACIONES
204
Estadio de las operaciones
concretas
• Las acciones mentales se vuelven
operaciones mentales: se coordinan
entre sí, se distancian del presente
inmediato y se hacen reversibles
Operación: acciones
interiorizadas organizadas
en sistemas de conjunto
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205
Estadio de las operaciones
concretas
• El pensamiento se vuelve más lógico, inferencial y
menos dependiente del aquí y del ahora.
• Ha adquirido la noción de conservación
• Conservación del peso
• Conservación de la sustancia
• Conservación del volumen
• Las operaciones pueden combinarse entre sí y
conducir a una nueva operación.
• Tipos de operaciones:
• Clasificación
• Seriación
• ....
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The Concrete-Operational Stage
(7 to 11 Years)
• Some examples of concrete-operational thought
– Conservation by decentering and using reversibility
– Relational logic using mental seriation (the ability to
mentally arrange items along a quantifiable dimension
such as height or weight) and transitivity (the necessary
relations among elements in a series)
• The sequencing of concrete operations
– Horizontal decalage: Some forms of conservation are
understood much sooner than others.
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The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years)
Figure 7.7
Children’s performance on a simple seriation task. If asked to arrange a series of
sticks from shortest to longest, preoperational children often line up one end of the
sticks and
create an incomplete ordering (a) or order them so the top of each successive stick
extends
higher than the preceding stick (b). Concrete operators, by contrast, can use the
inverse
cognitive operations greater than (>) and less than (<) to quickly make successive
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comparisons
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and create a correct serial ordering.
The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years)
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209
De la inteligencia
sensoriomotora a las
operaciones concretas
Inteligencia
Sensoriomotora
Inteligencia
Preoperatoria
Operaciones
Concretas
Acciones
observables
Acciones
interiorizadas:
intuiciones
Acc. interior. en
sistemas:
operaciones
Esquemas
prácticos
Esquemas
representacionales
Esquemas
operatorios
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210
Figure Piaget’s stage theory. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development identifies four stages
marked by fundamentally different modes of thinking through which youngsters evolve. The
approximate age norms and some key characteristics of thought at each stage are summarized
here.
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Alternativas a Piaget
en el estadio operatorio
o de la lógica concreta
(7-11 aprox)
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Alternativas y complementos a la teoría de Piaget
en el estadio operatorio
•
•
•
•
•
•
Los desfases horizontales
Siegler y el problema de la balanza
Teoria del procesamiento de la información
Teoría Sociocultural: Vygotski
Desarrollo de la memoria
Influencias culturales
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Los estudios de replicación
posteriores a Piaget
• Piaget no da cuenta de las restricciones que
imponen los contenidos específicos
DESFASES HORIZONTALES
Logros que responden a la misma
estructuración cognitiva (por ej., las conservaciones)
se adquieren en momentos temporales distintos.
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Los desfases horizontales
• Posibles explicaciones acerca de su
existencia:
• Piaget no tiene en cuenta la importancia del
contenido.
• Piaget plantea un cambio cualitativo y muy
brusco entre la etapa preoperatoria y
operatoria, cuando probablemente se trata
de una cambio más progresivo y gradual.
• Influencia de la CULTURA, se trata de un
factor que modula lo que se desarrolla y cómo
se desarrolla.
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The Information Processing View: Siegler’s
Balance-Beam Study
• Rule 1: Balance based strictly on weight, no regard for
distance
• Rule 2: Side with more weight goes down. If weights
equal, side with weights furthest from fulcrum will go
down
• Rule 3: Must consider both weight and distance. If these
two elements are in conflict (more weight on one side,
distance on other), no rule
• Rule 4: Take rule 3 a little bit further, understanding that
torque equals weight times distance
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The Balance Scale: 4 rules (Siegler)
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Notes about the balance-beam study:
Information Processing vs. Constructivism
•
Found that in some cases, kids would be correct more often using less
sophisticated rules
– (e.g., saying side with most weight goes down following rules 1 or 2 in the conflictweight problem but would only get it right if they got a lucky guess using rule 3).
– **Cannot fit in Piaget’s theory because according to his theory, more
sophisticated thinking cannot lead to less correctness**
•
Note that rule 4 is a formal operations rule—not many people get it.
•
Siegler proposed that the primary problem is one of encoding, focusing on
only certain features and ignoring others.
•
Note the role of training, domain specificity of theory. Different from Piaget.
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Developmental Changes in the Processing of Information
Acquisition
Frequency
Speed
Accuracy
Automaticity
Range
Prior Knowledge
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Information-Processing Perspective
• Focuses on the mind as a system,
analogous to a computer, for analyzing
information from the environment
• Developmental improvements reflect
–
–
–
–
increased capacity of working memory
faster speed of processing
new algorithims (methods)
more stored knowledge
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Vygotsky’s
Sociocultural Perspective
• Emphasized the child’s interaction with
the social world (other people) as a
cause of development
• Vygotsky believed language to be the
foundation for social interaction and
thought
• Piaget believed language was a
byproduct of thought
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Vygotsky’s
Sociocultural Perspective
• Vygotsky - children learn from
interactions with other people
– Zone of proximal development - what a child can
do by interacting with another person, but can’t do
alone.
– Critical thinking based on dialouge with others
who challenge ideas
• Piaget - focused on children’s interaction
with the physical world
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Memory Development
• Capacity: Memory span increases during middle childhood.
– One possible reason: Brain maturation.
– A more plausible, better supported reason: more speed. Can’t remember
more pieces, just process them more quickly.
• Knowledge base: Prior information on which to call to aid in memory;
add context
• Memory strategies: deliberate attempts to aid memory.
– rehearsal (space helmet study)
– grouping (older kids make better spontaneous groups)
– Note impact of training—contrary to Piaget
• Metamemory: knowledge of memory abilities.
– Young kids terrible at it. Think they can remember everything, even with
little practice.
– metamemory needed to apply strategies. Just knowing strategies not
enough.
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Cultural Variations
• Concrete operations: Early studies found delay in rate,
level of attainment of operations in some cultures
• When retested with more familiar tasks, in own language,
with training, did better. Still a delay, but performed better
eventually. Universality of concrete operations confirmed,
but not at same ages universally.
• Memory studies show grouping is better among schooled
than non-schooled children.
Important to note that most cross-cultural studies conducted by
psychologists use standardized measures. Often, the measures have been
standardized on western samples using western methods. This is not a
good idea, as results can differ by culture due to methodology.
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There is an interesting shift in the way children
are treated when they move into early childhood.
In industrialized societies, this often is the time
that children enter school. In pre-industrial
societies, this is often a time that children take on
more responsibilities, such as working and
helping with childcare. In all societies, children
are given much more responsibility in middle
childhood, owing mostly to the noticeable shift in
their mental abilities.
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225
Sternberg
(2003: 473)
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226
Critique of Piaget’s Theory
•
•
•
•
Underestimates children’s abilities
Overestimates age differences in thinking
Vagueness about the process of change
Underestimates the role of the social
environment
• Lack of evidence for qualitatively
different stages
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El estadio de las
operaciones formales: el
pensamiento abstracto
según Piaget (11 aprox. - )
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Adolescent Cognition
• Piaget’s Theory: Adolescent was in formal
operational stage of cognition where thought is
more abstract & adolescents are no longer limited
to actual, concrete experiences as anchors for
thought
• They can now conjure up make-believe situations
& events that are hypothetical possibilities & then
try to reason logically about them
• In this stage: adolescent has ability to develop
hypotheses, or best guesses to solve problems as
in algebraic equation
• They systematically deduce, or conclude best path
to follow in solving equation
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Challenge to Piaget’s formal
Operational Stage
• There is much more individual variation
than what he envisioned
• Indeed, it is estimated than only 1 out of 3
young adolescents is a formal operational
thinker, and many American adults never
become such thinkers
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Adolescent Egocentrism
• Heightened self-consciousness of adolescents which
is reflected in their belief that others are as interested
in them as they are & in their sense of personal
uniqueness
David Elkind proposes two types of social thinking:
• imaginary audience: a belief that they are ‘on
stage’ and that their every act is being viewed by an
imaginary audience
• personal fable: sense of uniqueness making them
feel that no one can understand them
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Information Processing in
Adolescents
• Ability to process information improves in areas
of memory, decision making critical thinking &
self-regulatory learning
• Robert Sternberg found that solving problems,
such as analogies, requires individuals to make
continued comparisons between newly encoded
information & previously encoded information
• Adolescents probably have more storage space in
short-term memory
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Adolescent Cognitive Capacities
Adolescents have:
• Increased speed, automaticity & capacity of
information processing
• More breadth of content knowledge,
• Increased ability to construct new combinations of
knowledge
• Greater range for applying or obtaining knowledge
• Capacity to set goals for extending knowledge
• Awareness of their emotional makeup to: periodically
monitor their progress, fine-tune their strategies,
evaluate obstacles & make adaptations
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233
CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL PENSAMIENTO DE
LOS ADOLESCENTES I
• Se sientan las bases del funcionamiento cognitivo de las
operaciones formales (Piaget e Inhelder)
• Características:
– Subordinación de lo real a lo posible: pueden considerar los
datos inmediatos pero también elaborar conjeturas e hipótesis.
Son capaces de prever diferentes soluciones o alternativas´La
no dependencia de lo real les permite comprender fenómenos y
acontecimientos alejados de ellos en el espacio y en el tiempo.
– Pensamiento proposicional: posibilidad de usar lenguajes
abstractos, de entender y producir enunciados sobre situaciones
reales o imaginadas.
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CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL PENSAMIENTO DE LOS
ADOLESCENTES II
– Razonamiento hipotético deductivo: es capaz
de formular hipótesis, compararlas y someterlas
a comprobación para obtener conclusiones y
deducciones.
– Control sistemático de las variables: es capaz
de analizar los factores o variables para poder
concluir cual fue la causante del problema.
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CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL PENSAMIENTO DE
LOS ADOLESCENTES III
• acceso al pensamiento científico: las
características anteriores les preparan poder
proceder de una forma científica cuando se
enfrentan a los problemas y opiniones
(procedimientos y estrategias para producir
hipótesis o falsearlas, argumentar a favor o en
contra, contrastar opiniones con datos empíricos...)
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CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL PENSAMIENTO
DE LOS ADOLESCENTES IV
• logran el dominio de los esquemas
operacionales formales como la
combinatoria, las proposiciones, la
correlación, la probabilidad, el equilibrio
mecánico y la coordinación del doble
sistema de referencia (Por ej: pueden tener
en cuenta una ley física, la de la velocidad, y
su experiencia real con las bicicletas).
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• CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL PENSAMIENTO
DE LOS ADOLESCENTES V
– acceso a la metacognición: conocimiento sobre
los propios procesos de pensamiento
(conciencia de sus propias habilidades,
capacidades…)
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Pensamiento postformal (Labouvi-Vief): mayor grado de
relativismo cognitivo, pensamiento dialéctico, capacidad de
autorregulación cognitiva, capacidad metasistémica (coordinación
sistemas abstractos).
Aspectos criticados sobre el pensamiento formal: no es un
sistema uniforme y homogéneo; el razonamiento se ve afectado
por principios lógicos pero también por aspectos pragmáticos y
funcionales y numerosas variables contextuales; sólo la mitad de
la población llega a dominar las operaciones formales.
Consecuencias educativas (el pensamiento formal no es un
estadio natural): contextos de aprendizaje, ricos, estimulantes,
variados, complejos; aprendizaje cooperativo; factores sociales y
ambientales; influencia de las ideas previas; aprender a aprender…
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
The Formal Operations Stage (11 Years
and Up)
Mental actions performed on ideas and
propositions. Can reason logically
about hypothetical processes and
events that may have no basis in
reality.
- Deductive reasoning
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- Does everyone
reach this stage?
241
The Formal-Operational Stage
(11 to 12 Years and Beyond)
• Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
• Thinking like a scientist
• Personal and social implications of formal thought
– Paves the way for thinking about what is possible in
one's life
– Questioning begins about everything from parental
authority to government spending
• Formal operational thought is reached very slowly, if at all.
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What characterize the thought processes of a typical
adolescent from the view of Jean Piaget?
• Think more abstractly, thinking independently of concrete
objects.
• Become more idealistic in thought, considering what is
possible.
• Can use hypothetical-deductive reasoning
How is formal operations different from concrete
operations?
• Children with concrete operational thinking must manipulate
concrete items or specific details in order to solve problems.
• Youths with formal operational thinking can manipulate
symbols, and even symbols for symbols (like in algebra,
where a letter symbol can be used to represent a number
symbol).
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What characterize formal operational
thinking?
• Solve algebraic problems and understand metaphors
(manipulate symbols for symbols).
• Solve probability problems (roll 2 dice, how many ways
to come up with 6?).
• Reflect on their own thoughts (metacognition).
• Recognize the possibility of multiple causes for events.
• Simultaneously consider more than one possible
outcome.
• Understand sarcasm.
• Handle many possibilities and systematically check
them out
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Inhelder and Piaget’s Pendulum
Problem
• The task is to compare the
motions of longer and shorter
strings, with lighter and heavier
weights attached, in order to
determine the influence of
weight, string length, and
dropping point on the time it
takes for the pendulum to swing
back and forth
• Children below age 12 usually
perform unsystematic
experiments and draw
incorrect
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conclusions
245
Alternativas a Piaget
en el estadio de las
operaciones formales
(11 aprox. - )
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
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An Evaluation of Piaget's Theory
• Piaget's contributions
– Founded the field of cognitive development
– Convinced us that children are curious, active explorers
of their environment
– First to try to explain and not just describe the process
of development
• Challenges to Piaget
– Piaget failed to distinguish competence from
performance.
– Still a hotly debated topic: Does cognitive development
really occur in stages?
– Does Piaget "explain" cognitive development? His
explanations raise more questions than they answer.
– Piaget devoted too little attention to social and cultural
influences. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a:
248
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The Role of Culture in
Intellectual Development
• Vygotsky's four interrelated levels of
analysis
– Microgenetic: Refers to changes that occur over
relatively brief periods of time
– Ontogenetic: Development of an individual
over his or her lifetime
– Phylogenetic: Changes over evolutionary time
– Sociohistorical: Changes that have occurred in
one's culture, and the values, norms, and
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technologies generated
throughout history
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The Role of Culture in
Intellectual Development (cont.)
• Infants are born with the following tools of
intellectual adaptation
–
–
–
–
Attention
Sensation
Perception
Memory
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The Social Origins of Early
Cognitive Competencies and the
Zone of Proximal Development
• Learning occurs within the context of
cooperative, or collaborative, dialogues
between a skillful tutor and a novice pupil.
• The zone of proximal development
– The difference between what a learner can
accomplish independently and what he or she
can accomplish with the guidance and
encouragement of a more skilled partner
– "Scaffolding"
is
the
tendency
of
more
expert
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participants to carefully
tailor the support they
The Social Origins of Early
Cognitive Competencies and the
Zone of Proximal Development
(cont.)
• Apprenticeship in thinking and guided
participation (Rogoff)
– Children's cognitions are shaped as they take
part, alongside adults or other more skillful
associates, in everyday culturally relevant
experiences.
– Our culture encourages context-independent
learning (learning and discussing things that
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Implications for Education
• Active learning in the classroom
• Cooperative learning exercises
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The Role of Language in
Cognitive Development
• Piaget's theory of language and thought
– Egocentric, self-directed speech merely reflects
the child's ongoing mental activity and does not
play a role in a child's cognitive development.
• Vygotsky's theory of language and thought
– Nonsocial utterances illustrate the transition
from prelinguistic to verbal reasoning.
– Self-directed monologues occur more during
problem solving.
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– Private speech helps
young children plan
254
The Role of Language in
Cognitive Development (cont.)
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An Evaluation of Piaget's Theory
• Piaget's contributions
– Founded the field of cognitive development
– Convinced us that children are curious, active
explorers of their environment
– First to try to explain and not just describe the
process of development
• Challenges to Piaget
– Piaget failed to distinguish competence from
performance.
– Still a hotly debated topic: Does cognitive
development really occur in stages?
– Does Piaget "explain"
cognitive development? 256
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His explanations raise
more questions than they
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Piaget's Theory - INTEF