Brown dwarfs from Spain
José Antonio Caballero
Centro de Astrobiología
(CSIC-INTA), Madrid
I’m not
talking on
CARMENES
Theoretical prediction:
Kumar 1963
Hayashi & Nakano 1963
Given name:
Tarter 1976
Q1: Who discovered
the first brown dwarf?
And when?
Teide 1 (Rebolo, Martín &
Zapatero Osorio 1995)
In the Pleiades
τ ~125 Ma
d = 118 pc
SpT: M8V (with lithium!)
M = 50 MJup
De fuscis pusillis astris et
giganteis exoplanetis:
• Pumilio fusca
• Brown dwarf
• Enana marrón / café
• Naine brune
• Brauner Zwerg
• Nana bruna
• Anã marrom
Q2: Are brown dwarfs “brown”?
A2: They are “infrared”… And faint!
Kelu 1 AB with
CAIN-II at
1.5m TCS
(Teide)
Mass-effective
temperature-colour
sequence:
• Aguerri: galaxy clusters
• Sánchez-Blanco:
nearby/distant galaxies
• Simón-Díaz: massive stars
in the Local Group
• Bouy: stars in the Galaxy
• Caballero: brown dwarfs?
• Pallé: exoplanets
• Ortiz: TNOs in Solar System
O Be A Fine
Girl Kiss My
Lips Tonight
(Yeah!)
1997: Delfosse et al.
(DENIS) found the first
objects with L spectral
type
Teff ≈ 2200-1300 K
1995: Nakajima et al.
found the first object
with T spectral type
(GJ 229B)
Teff ≈ 1300-700 K
Q3: Do all brown dwarfs
have spectral types L or T
(or Y)? And do all stars
have spectral types M
and earlier?
A3: No. There are (young)
M-type brown dwarfs
and (old) L-type stars!
It depends on age...
This way… 
Ultracool dwarfs from Spain
José Antonio Caballero
Centro de Astrobiología
(CSIC-INTA), Madrid
I’m not
talking on
CARMENES
yet
Telescope
Instruments “today”
Instruments “tomorrow”
10.4 m GTC
OSIRIS, CanariCam
OSIRIS, CanariCam, CIRCE,
EMIR, FRIDA, ELMER, EMIR,
MEGARA, MIRADAS
6.5 m HEXA
…
HECATE, MONSUL, GEA
4.2 m WHT
ISIS, LIRIS, AutoFib2/WYFFOS,
ACAM, PFIP, NAOMI/IngridOasis-Osca, (VIs)
WEAVE, +?
3.6 TNG
DOLORES, NICS, SARG,
HARPS-N
HARPS-N, GIANO, +?
3.5 m CAHA
LAICA, MOSCA, PMAS, TWIN,
Ω2k
CARMENES, PMAS
2.6 m NOT
ALFOSC, NOTCam, FIES,
MOSCA, StanCam
?
2.5 m INT
WFC, IDS
WFC, IDS
2.5 m J-T250
JPCam
JPCam
2.2 m CAHA
BUSCA, CAFOS, CAFÉ,
AstraLux, MAGIC
PANIC, CAFÉ
Future of ultracool studies:
• 10.4 m GTC: out of discussion
• 6.5 m HEXA: HECATE Gaia-machine with substellar
potential (esp., young brown dwarfs in open clusters)
• 4.2 m WHT: WEAVE Gaia-machine with (limited)
substellar potential (“super-WYFFOS”) + ?
• 3.6 m TNG: HARPS-N for exoplanets, GIANO for M
dwarfs? Italian…
• 3.5 m CAHA: CARMENES for exoplanets (around M
dwarfs)
• 2.6 m NOT: ? Nordic…
• 2.5 m INT: WFC Wide-field optical imager
• 2.5 m J-T250: JPCam Ultrawide-field optical imager
• 2.2 m CAHA: PANIC Wide-field near-infrared imager
Complementary to ETSRC report, but focused on
ultracool dwarfs:
Wide-field optical imagers:
• WFC, JPCam (South: VST Paranal, LSST Cerro Pachón;
North: SuperSDSS) What else!? WFC age?
Wide-field near-infrared imager:
• PANIC (South: VISTA; “North”: UKIDSS) Perfect for δ >
+20 deg, but overlaps with VISTA below (ZYJHKs)
PANIC’s dilemma: complement VISTA, UKIDSS, 2MASS?
o Depth
o Repetition (proper motions, monitoring)
o Spatial resolution (@3.5mCA)
o New sites (or VLS?) / new filters
Missing instruments:
• Hi-throughtput optical imagers
with good pixel sampling:
ACAM/WHT, MOSCA/NOT…
• Lucky imagers: AstraLux/2.2mCA
(only WideFastCam/TCS)
• Hi-throughput, wide-λ-coverage,
mid- and lo-res long-slit
spectrographs: ISIS/WHT,
CAFOS/2.2mCA (only at GTC…)
New X-Shooter-like instrument at a
2-4m telescope? ELMER at another
one?
OSIRIS/GTC: Caballero, García-Álvarez,
Cabrera and the GTC/VSOP Team, in prep.
To Marc Balcells:
• Service-mode observations; better “Phase-2”
• Pipeline-reduced data
• Everything in VO after proprietary time
To David Barrado:
• If, e.g., PANIC repeats the VISTA Galaxy Cluster
Survey in only one band with same depth 
order of magnitude of 100 nights
To both:
• Do not forget efficient, multipurpose
instruments at 2-m telescopes (e.g., X-ISIS)
Object
2H
burning
1H
burning
Mass
(Msol [MJup])
(Zsol)
Star
yes
Brown dwarf
yes
yes
>0.075
[> 72]
no
0.075-0.013
[72-14]
no
<0.013
[< 14]
Sub-stellar
object
Planet*
no
*:Planet or “planetary-mass object”
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Brown dwarfs from Spain