ISOM MIS3150 Data and Information Management Lecture 2 - Data and Process Modeling Arijit Sengupta Structure of this semester ISOM MIS3150 1. Design 0. Intro Database Fundamentals Conceptual Modeling Relational Model 2. Querying Query Languages Advanced SQL 3. Advanced Topics Transaction Management 4. Applications Java DB Applications – JDBC Data Mining Normalization Newbie Users Designers Developers Professionals Today’s Buzzwords ISOM • • • • • • • Data Modeling Process Modeling Data Flow Diagrams Entity-Relationship Models Cardinality and Participation Constraints Weak Entities Generalization Hierarchies So, where are we? ISOM Proposal Analysis Requirements Normalization Modeling Schema design Design Tables Indexes Queries Optimization Implementation Testing Installation Objectives of this lecture ISOM • Describe the process inherent in a system • Present a system process in a concise diagrammatic form • Describe the system data in terms of conceptual objects and relationships between them • Translate such conceptual descriptions into actual tables Benefits of Conceptual Design ISOM • Projects without a strong conceptual design are more likely to fail • Design is one of the most important aspects of project and business process quality management standards: ISO 9000 CMM • Designs are typically network structured, not flat like databases • Literature in Relational Model shows Benefits of Conceptual Design in user performance Database Modeling ISOM • Process Models Overview of process components Inputs and outputs of different processes Data sources and destinations Mode of data flow between processes • Data Models Model only the data, no process Different components of the data Relationships between primary data components Models, method, and media ISOM • A model describes business or organization separates operation from technology • Good modeling requires good methodologies encompass data, process, decisions richly expressive and provide for levels of analysis simple representation • Modeling medium both formal and visual Data Flow medium ISOM • Notation: Source: box Process (transform): box with rounded corners File (store): box open on right Destination: box Flow: arrow • Structure: “Explosion” of processes (recursion on structure) Data Flow Diagrams ISOM DFD rules ISOM • Start with a very basic overview of complete process, showing only the most important processes, sources, destinations, and files • Recursively “explode” each of the processes (note: processes only!): preserve inputs and outputs preserve file accesses new processes, files and sources/destinations can be created, but cannot be used from previous levels if not directly used in the previous level Overview of Data Modeling ISOM • Conceptual design: (ER Model is used at this stage.) What are the entities and relationships in the enterprise? What information about these entities and relationships should we store in the database? What are the integrity constraints or business rules that hold? A database `schema’ in the ER Model can be represented pictorially (ER diagrams). Can map an ER diagram into a relational schema. ER Model Basics ISOM • Entity: Real-world object distinguishable from other objects. An entity is described (in DB) using a set of attributes. • Entity Set: A collection of similar entities. E.g., all employees. All entities in an entity set have the same set of attributes. (Until we consider ISA hierarchies, anyway!) Each entity set has a key. Each attribute has a domain. ssn name Employees dob Alternative Entity Representations ISOM Employee -----------------------SSN Name Dob Employee Employee SSN Name Dob SSN Name Dob ER Model Basics (Contd.) ISOM • Relationship: Association among two or more entities. E.g., Attishoo works in Pharmacy department. • Relationship Set: Collection of similar relationships. An n-ary relationship set R relates n entity sets E1 ... En; each relationship in R involves entities e1 E1, ..., en En • Same entity set could participate in different relationship sets, or in different “roles” in same set. name ssn salary since name ssn dname salary Employees did Works_In budget Departments Employees supervisor subordinate Reports_To Model this ISOM An auto repair shop provides services to vehicles brought in by customers. A customer may own multiple vehicles that they bring in for service. Each service request is assigned to a technician. A service consists of different jobs that are assigned fees. A service may need parts as well. The customer is given an invoice with details on all the fees and parts costs. 1.What should be modeled? 2.Which items should be modeled as entities? 3.Which items should be modeled as relationships? 4.Which items should be modeled as attributes? A thumb rule to modeling ISOM • Major nouns become entities • Minor nouns become attributes • Verbs connecting major nouns become relationships Major nouns in our passage? ISOM Minor nouns in our passage? ISOM Verbs in our passage? ISOM ER model for our exercise ISOM Business Rules ISOM • A department must have one and only one manager • A manager may manage multiple departments • An employee works in only one department • A department (of course) has many employees Participation Constraints ISOM • Does every department have a manager? If so, this is a participation constraint: the participation of Departments in Manages is said to be total (vs. partial). • Every did value in Departments table must appear in a row of the Manages table (with a non-null ssn value!) since name ssn Employee dname salary 0,M did Manages budget 1,1 Department 1,1 Works_In since 1,M Structural Constraints ISOM • Participation Do all entity instances participate in at least one relationship instance? • Cardinality How many relationship instances can an entity instance participate in? (min,max) (min,max) Participation Cardinality 0 -- Partial 1 -- one 1 -- Total (Mandatory) M -- more than one Understanding P/C constraints ISOM 0:M Employee 1:1 manages works_in 1:1 Department 1:M John Mary Susan Accounting Sales Jack Peter Sally Development Many-Many relationships ISOM Student 0:M takes Course 0:M John Mary Susan MIS415 MIS215 Jack Peter Sally MIS345 MIS490 Alternative Approaches ISOM • Arity approach • Crow’s foot approach (as in book) • Minmax approach • For this class, use ONLY the Participation-Cardinality approach – this is what will be used in assignments and exams Back to our Auto Service Example ISOM • What are the participation/cardinality constraints of the relationships? • Owns • Assigned to • Consists of • Needs part – • ? Weak Entities ISOM • A weak entity can be identified uniquely only by considering the primary key of another (owner) entity. Owner entity set and weak entity set must participate in a oneto-many relationship set (one owner, many weak entities). Weak entity set must have total participation in this identifying relationship set. name salary ssn Employees 0:M cost Policy pname 1:1 age Dependents Point to ponder ISOM • Is there a weak entity in the auto service example? ISA (`is a’) Hierarchies ISOM name ssn Employees hourly_wages in C++, or other PLs, attributes are inherited. If we declare A ISA B, every A entity is also considered to be a B contractid entity. lot hours_worked Hourly_Emps As Contract_Emps • Overlap constraints: Can Joe be an Hourly_Emps as well as a Contract_Emps entity? (Allowed/disallowed) • Covering constraints: Does every Employees entity also have to be an Hourly_Emps or a Contract_Emps entity? (Yes/no) • Reasons for using ISA: To add descriptive attributes specific to a subclass. To identify entitities that participate in a relationship. Stop and think ISOM • Is there an IS-A hierarchy in the auto service example? • What would it do to the design? Conceptual Design Using the ER Model ISOM • Design choices: Should a concept be modeled as an entity or an attribute? Should a concept be modeled as an entity or a relationship? Identifying relationships: Binary or ternary? Aggregation? • Constraints in the ER Model: A lot of data semantics can (and should) be captured. But some constraints cannot be captured in ER diagrams. Entity vs. Attribute ISOM • Should address be an attribute of Employees or an entity (connected to Employees by a relationship)? • Depends upon the use we want to make of address information, and the semantics of the data: If we have several addresses per employee, address must be an entity (since attributes cannot be set-valued). If the structure (city, street, etc.) is important, e.g., we want to retrieve employees in a given city, address must be modeled as an entity (since attribute values are atomic). Converting model to design ISOM • Many-to-many relationships Each entity becomes a table The relationship becomes a table PKs of entities becomes FKs in the relationship StudentID Name Class Major Student Student( Course( Takes( 0:M 0:M takes Course semester ) ) ) Courseno Coursename Credits Model to design (contd.) ISOM • 1-Many relationships Entities become tables Copy PK of multi-participant to single participant Copy attributes of relationship to single participant (why?) ComputerID Make Model Year Computer 1:M includes installdate 0:1 Part Partno Type Make Model to design (contd.) ISOM • 1-1 relationships Entities can be merged, or copy PK of any entity to the other • Generalization Copy PK of parent entity to child entity as FK, as well as PK • Weak entities Copy PK of controlling entity to weak entity as FK as well as part of PK Lets convert our autoservice ISOM Summary of Conceptual Design ISOM • Conceptual design follows requirements analysis, Yields a high-level description of data to be stored • ER model popular for conceptual design Constructs are expressive, close to the way people think about their applications. • Basic constructs: entities, relationships, and attributes (of entities and relationships). • Some additional constructs: weak entities, ISA hierarchies, and aggregation. • Note: There are many variations on ER model. Summary of ER (Contd.) ISOM • Several kinds of integrity constraints can be expressed in the ER model: key constraints, participation constraints, and overlap/covering constraints for ISA hierarchies. Some foreign key constraints are also implicit in the definition of a relationship set. Some constraints (notably, functional dependencies) cannot be expressed in the ER model. Constraints play an important role in determining the best database design for an enterprise. Summary of ER (Contd.) ISOM • ER design is subjective. There are often many ways to model a given scenario! Analyzing alternatives can be tricky, especially for a large enterprise. Common choices include: • Entity vs. attribute, entity vs. relationship, binary or nary relationship, whether or not to use ISA hierarchies • Ensuring good database design: resulting relational schema should be analyzed and refined further. FD information and normalization techniques are especially useful. Class Exercise ISOM Design an ER Model for a hospital system, with the following case description. Add other assumptions as needed. The hospital database stores data about patients, their admission and discharge from hospital’s departments and their treatments. For each patient, we know the name, address, sex, social security number. For each department we know the department’s name, its location, the name of the doctor who heads it, the number of beds available, and the number of beds occupied. A doctor may work in several departments, but may only be the head in one department. Each patient goes through multiple treatments during hospitalization; for each treatment we store its name, duration and the possible reactions to it that the patient may have. A treatment may have one or more follow-up treatments. Items to ponder: What other constraints can we apply on this model?