Enterprise Systems
Architectures
EGN 5620
Enterprise Systems Integration
Professional MSEM
Fall, 2012
Enterprise Systems
Architectures
Theories & Concepts
System architecture, Def.
◦ A scheme by which the functional
elements of the system are
arranged into physical/logical
blocks and by which the blocks
interact.
Three major enterprise (information
reference) architectures
Generalized enterprise reference
architecture (GERA)
 Purdue enterprise reference architecture
(PERA)
 Enterprise architecture framework

◦ By John Zachman
GERA
- Three scoping/modeling dimensions

Life-cycle dimension
◦ Provides for the controlled modeling process of
enterprise entity according to its life cycle

Generic-ity dimension
◦ Provides for the controlled particularization
(instantiation) process from generic (or partial)
to particular.

View dimension
◦ Provides for the controlled visualization of
specific views of the enterprise entity
GERA
- Enterprise life-cycle phases (1)
Identification
◦ (A set of activities that) identifies the contents of the
enterprise in terms of the nature of its existence, its
need and the need for changes.
 Concept
◦ (A set of activities for) developing the concepts of the
underlying enterprise, including the definition of its
mission,
vision,
values,
strategies,
objectives,
operational concepts, policies, and business plans.
 Requirements
◦ (A set of activities for) developing descriptions of
operational requirements of the enterprise, its relevant
processes, and the collection of all their functional,
behavioral, information and capacity needs for both
production and mgt, whether by humans or machinery.

GERA
- Enterprise life-cycle phases (2)
Design
◦ (A set of activities that) support the specification of the enterprise
with all of its components that satisfy the enterprise
requirements. They include the design of all human tasks, all
machine tasks, and operational processes (including identification
of necessary information and resources for mfg. information,
communication, control and other processing technology)
◦ Sub-phases: preliminary (architectural) design and detailed design
 Implementation
◦ (A set of activities that) define all tasks that must be carried out
to build or re-build (manifest) the enterprise. This comprises
implementation in the broadest sense, covering
 Commissioning, purchasing, re-configuring, or developing all
software and hardware resources for services, mfg. and control.
 Hiring and training personnel, and developing or changing the
human organization.
 Component testing and validation, system integration,
validation, and testing, and releasing into operation

GERA
- Enterprise life-cycle phases (3)
Operation
◦ The activities of the enterprise that are needed during its
operation for producing the customers products and service which
is its special mission , along with all those tasks needed for
monitoring, controlling, and evaluating the operation.
◦ Thus the resources of the enterprise are managed and controlled
so as to carry out the processes necessary for the entity to fulfill
its mission
◦ Deviations from goals and objectives or any feedback from the
environment may lead to requests for change, which includes
enterprise re-engineering, continuous improvements of its human
and technology resources, its business process, and its
organization.
 Decommission
◦ The activities needed for disbanding, re-missioning, re-training,
redesign, recycling, preservation, transfer, disassembly, or
disposal of all or part of the entity at the end of its useful life in
operation.

GERA
- Enterprise’s entity types (4)





Type A – strategic management entity
◦ such as an (enterprise) engineering project
◦ Very short life cycle
Type B – engineering implementation entity
◦ Entity that creates other enterprise entities
Type C – enterprise entity
◦ Entity that produces customers goods and services
Type D – product entity
◦ All products and customers services of enterprise
type C
Type E – methodology entity
◦ Entity that establishes tasks to support other
entities.
GERA
- views
Entity model contents views
◦ Function model of functions and behaviors of business
processes)
◦ Information model
◦ Organization model (of responsibilities and authorizations on
entities)
◦ Resource model
 Entity purpose views
◦ (Customer’s) service and product views (contents relevant to
operation and its results
◦ Management and control views (contents relevant to mgt.)
 Entity implementation views
◦ Human activities view (of information related to human tasks)
◦ Automated activities view (of information related to machine
tasks)
 Entity physical manifestation views
◦ Software view (information resources capable of performing a
task set)
◦ Hardware view (physical resources capable of performing a task
set)

PERA Layers (life cycle phases)







Identification
◦ of the CIM business entity
Concept layer
◦ mission, vision, and values
Definition layer
◦ functional requirement
Specification layers
◦ architectural design
Detailed design layer
Manifestation layer
◦ Implementation
Operations layer
Zachman’s Enterprise Framework
Constraint
Model
Row
Perspective
1
Planner
(General Contractor)
Financial/external
Scope (an executive
summary of system
scope, cost, and how
it would perform)
2
Owner
Usage/policy
Enterprise (business)
model
(business
entities,
processes
and how they interact)
3
Designer (analyst)
Structure/operation
System model (data
elements and functions
that represent business
entities and processes)
4
Builder
Technology
Technology
model
(adapting
information
model to the details of
programming languages,
tools, I/O devices, and
others)
5
Subcontractor
Implementation
Out of context models
(detailed specifications
given to programmers
who code modules)
Zachman’s Enterprise Framework
Data (with entity and
relation)
things
to
the
(entity:
business
Function
(with
function
and
parameter)
List of processes the
business performs
(function: class of
business processes)
Network (with node
and link)
Scope
(planner)
List
of
important
business
class
of
thing)
List of locations in
which the business
operates (node: major
business location)
Business model
(owner)
ENT/REL
diagram
(business
entity,
business constraint)
Process
diagram
process
resources)
flow
(business
and
Logistics
network
(business
location,
business linkage)
System model
(designer)
Data model
entity
and
relationship)
(data
data
Data flow diagram
(application function
and user view)
Distributed system
architecture
(I/S
function,
and
line
characteristics)
Technology model
(builder)
Data
design
(segment/row;
pointers/key)
Structure
chart
(computer
function
and
screen/device
format)
System architecture
(hardware/system
software,
line
specifications)
Components
(subcontractor)
Data
definition
description (field and
address)
Program
(language
statement and control
block)
Network architecture
(address, protocol)
Zachman’s Enterprise Framework
People (agent, work)
Time (time, cycle)
Motivation
means)
(ends,
Scope
List
of
organizations/agents
important
to
the
business (major org.
unit)
List
of
events
significant to the
business
(major
business event)
List of business
goal/strategy (major
bus. goal and critical
success factor)
Business model
Organization
(org.
unit,
product)
chart
work
Master
schedule
(business event and
bus. cycle)
Business
plan
(business
objective
and bus. strategy)
System model
Human
interface
architecture
(role,
deliverable)
Processing
structure
(system
event and processing
cycle)
Knowledge
architecture
(criterion, option)
Technology model
Human/technology
interface (user, job)
Control
structure
(execute, component
cycle)
Knowledge design
(condition and action)
Components
Security
architecture (identity,
transaction)
Timing
definition
(interrupt
and
machine cycle)
Knowledge
definition
condition, step)
(sub
SAP Architecture Design
Types of Data: Organizational levels
 Organizational levels in
Accounting
 Client
 Company code
 Business area
 Controlling area
 Operating concern
 Organizational levels in
procurement
 Purchasing organization
 Purchasing group
 Plant
 Storage location
 Organizational
levels in
fulfillment (sales)
 Sales organizations
 Divisions
 Distribution channel
 Sales areas
 Shipping point
 Plant
 Storage location
 Organizational levels in PP
 Plant
 Work Center
 Storage location
 Shipping Point
SAP Enterprise Structure Example
Financial
Business Area – Bicycles BI##
CC US##
CoA US##
CC DE##
CA##
CoA DE##
GB##
AU## JP##
Chart of Accounts (global) GL##
CA North Am. NA##
CA Europe EU##
Operating Concern (global) GL##
Client GBI
CA Asia AS##
SAP Enterprise Structure Example
Procurement
DL##
Shipping Point
RM##
Storage Location
SD##
TG##
TG##
SF##
FG##
MI##
FG##
MI##
FG##
MI##
TO##
HD##
RM##
TG##
FG##
SF##
MI##
FG##
HH##
TG##
FG##
FG##
MI##
MI##
Central Purchasing Organization
Purchasing Org. US## CA##
PO DE##
(global) GL##
Purchasing Group North America
N##
DL##
Miami
MI##
CC US##
Client GBI
TG##
MI##
MI##
Dallas
PE##
S. Diego
SD##
Toronto
TO##
CA##
PGr Europe
N##
Heidelb. Hamburg
HD##
HH##
CC DE##
AU##
Asia
AS##
Perth
PE##
AU##
SAP Enterprise Structure Example
Sales
and Distribution
Distribution Channel
Wholesale WH
Distribution Channel
Internet IN
SO West
SO West
SO North
SO North
SO North
UW##
CW##
DN##
GN##
AN##
SO East
SO East
SO South
SO South
SO South
UE##
CE##
DS##
GS##
AS##
CC DE##
CC GB##
CC AU##
CC US##
CC CA##
Credit Control Area (global) GL##
Client GBI
PEN, Inc.
System Architecture Design
Company configuration
◦ Pen Inc. _ _ _US manufacturing Company
 Vermillion SD, US
◦ Facilities:
 One manufacturing plant with warehouse in
Vermillion (Plant)
◦ Work Center
◦ Storage Location
 10 for Trading and finished goods
 20 for Quality
 30 for Raw materials
◦ Shipping point
◦ Sales Organization
◦ Purchase Organization
The company to be configured
Cost
Center Standard Hierarchy
 ADMIN1
_ _ (Cost Center Group)
• Acct-Finance
• Administration
• Purchasing
• Information Tech
 Sales 1 _ _ (Cost Center Group)
• Sales
• Marketing
 Distribution-Production Cost Center 1 _ _ (Cost Center Group)
• Warehouse
• Production
Pen Inc. : The company
Products
◦ Trading Materials
 BPEN 1 _ _ (Barrel Pen)
 CPEN 1 _ _ (Click Pen)
 PPEN 1 _ _ (Premium Pen)
 Box 1 _ _ (Pen Box)
◦ Finished products
 EPEN 1 _ _ (Executive Pen)
 ESET 1 _ _ (Executive Set)
Pen Inc.: Key Processes
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Fulfillment (sell)
Procurement (buy)
Production (make)
Material Planning (plan)
Financial Accounting (track)
Management Accounting (track)
Inventory and Warehouse Management (store)
Enterprise Asset Management (maintain)
Customer Service (service)
HCM (people)
Pen Inc. : The company
Information
system requirement
The IS of the Pen, Inc. will
◦ integrate and share all services for all business
functions in the Vermillion Office
◦ Centralize all ERP functions
◦ Achieve the primary business objectives:
 Reduce Costs
 Deliver Best-in-Class Technology to all divisions
Exercises: (Due 9/22/2012)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Review bill of materials for executive pen set
Display multi-level bill of materials for ESET
Review routing for assembly EPEN
Review Routing/BOM in the engineering workbench
Review work center and assigned capacity
Create forecast (consumption values) for finished products
Create material master for finished products
Create bill of material
Create finished products routing
Create product group
Create sales and operations plan
Transfer SOP to demand management
Review demand management
Run MPS with MRP
Review stock/requirement list
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