ENG 312: Midsemester Exam
Language Awareness
by Eschholz, Rosa and Clark
9th Edition (2005), pages 1-420
by Don L. F. Nilsen
And Stella Hadjistassou
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CONTRAST THE FOLLOWING
• Helen Keller’s epiphany vs. Malcolm X’s
epiphany vs. David Raymond’s epiphany
• Denotation vs. Connotation
• Sign vs. Symbol
• Strong vs. Weak form of the Whorf
Hypothesis
• Cognates vs. False Cognates
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CONTRAST: MALE VS.
FEMALE CONVERSATIONS
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Status vs. Support
Independence vs. Intimacy
Advice vs. Understanding
Information vs. Feelings
Orders vs. Proposals
Conflict vs. Compromise
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CONTRAST MALE VS. FEMALE
LANGUAGE STRATEGIES
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Tag Questions
Rising Intonations
Hedges
Indirect Language
Diminutives
Euphemism
Politeness Phenomena
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DEFINITIONS
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classical definition
dead metaphor
Ebonics
epiphany
euphemism
grammatical gender
morphophonemic spelling system
semantic inversion
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EXAMPLES 1
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Doublespeak
Euphemism
Gobbledygook
Inflated Language
Jargon
Weasel Words
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EXAMPLES 2
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Name Calling
Glittering Generality
Plain-Folks Appeal
Stroking (Argument ad Populum)
Argument ad Hominem
Guilt or Glory by Association
Bandwagon
Faulty Cause and Effect
False Analogy
Begging the Question
The two-Extremes Fallacy (False Dilemma)
Card Stacking (Cherry Picking)
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Testimonial
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EXPLANATIONS
• Audience, Knowledge, Attitude, Needs
• “Traduttore, traditore!” (The translator is a
traitor)
• Explain the Great English Vowel Shift
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HISTORY OF ENGLISH
• Contrast Old English and Modern English
in terms of the following:
• Phonology
• Orthography
• Morphology
• Syntax
• Semantics
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IDENTIFICATIONS
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S. I. Hayakawa
William Labov
William Lutz
Robert MacNeil
George Orwell
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LISTINGS (5-POINTS EACH)
• 5 differences between Spanish and
English
• 5 features of Nonstandard Black English
• 5 eponyms
• 5 Romance languages
• 5 Germanic languages
• 5 Slavic languages
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NAMES
• Tell what names each of the following
people had after they changed their
names: Frederic Austerlitz, Benjamin
Kubelsky, Bernard Schwartz, Doris Von
Keppelhoff, Robert Zimmerman, James
Bumgardner, and Marian Michael
Morrison.
• ANSWERS: Fred Astaire, Jack Benny,
Tony Curtis, Doris Day, Bob Dylan, James
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Garner, and John Wayne
SHORT-ANSWER ESSAY (5 POINTS)
• Explain the nature of slanting.
• Contrast levels of adequacy (prescriptive,
descriptive, explanatory, evaluative)
• Contrast power and solidarity
• Contrast lecturing and listening
• Discuss the notion that “English is a
superior language”
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LONG-ANSWER ESSAY (10 PTS)
• Explain the differences between male and
female language.
• Explain in detail how non-standard dialects
tend to be more logical than standard
dialects.
• In detail, compare and contrast human
language with the communication systems
of other animals.
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Contrast the following kinds of
truth:
• Empirical truth (true vs. false)
• Linguistic truth (tautology vs.
contradiction)
• Metaphorical truth (apt vs. inept)
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!PowerPoints:
• HISTORY OF ENGLISH: One feature
each to Contrast Old English and Modern
English Phonology, Morphology,
Graphology, Syntax, and Semantics
• HUMOR: Give 3 Features, 3 Functions,
and 3 Subjects of Humor
• LITERARY GENRES: Give four literary
genres and an example of each:
• PROSE STYLES--LISTING: List ten
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qualities of Tough, Sweet, or Stuffy
!!PowerPoints Continued:
• REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS:
Give five phonological tests that will help
to determine where a person spent the
first six or so years of his or her life.
• SEMANTIC GAPS: Be able to give an
example of each of the following:
Acronym, Blend, Borrowing, Clipping,
Coinage, Compound, Meaning Shift,
Metathesis, Part-of-Speech Change
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Prefixation, and Suffixation
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!!!PowerPoints (Continued)
• URBAN LEGENDS (10 PTS): Tell an
urban legend (5pts), and explain the
dramatic devices used (5 pts)
• USAGE: Given sentences from the Usage
handout, be able to correct those
sentences.
• VARIES: Give an example of word
marked for each of the following: VVocation (Jargon), A-Age, R-Region, IInformality, E-Ethnicity, S-Sex
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