El Pretérito
The PRETERITE tense is used to talk about
completed actions in
the past. It is used:
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in telling stories and for events that were completed in the past.
for actions in the past which happened only once.
for actions that were repeated but finished in the past.
for actions that were part of a chain of events.
for actions that took place over a specific period of time. Useful
expressions of time: ayer, anteayer, la semana pasada, el mes/año
pasado, el otro día, hace dos días/semanas/meses, el domingo, en
1950, en Navidad…
• Examples:
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Viví cinco años en Madrid. I lived in Madrid for five years.
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Él cenó, vio la tele y se acostó. He had dinner, watched TV and
went to bed.
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Ayer te llamé por teléfono. I rang you yesterday.
El pretérito es usado para hablar de acciones que fueron
completadas en el pasado.
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Para contar historias y eventos que ya terminaron en el pasado.
Para eventos en el pasado que sucedieron una sola vez.
Para acciones repetidas, pero que ya terminaron en el pasado.
Para acciones que sucedieron en un determinado punto en el
tiempo. Expresiones útiles: ayer, anteayer, la semana pasada, el
mes/año pasado, el otro día, hace dos días/semanas/meses, el
domingo, en 1950, en Navidad…
Examples:
Viví cinco años en Madrid. I lived in Madrid for five years.
Él cenó, vio la tele y se acostó. He had dinner, watched TV and
went to bed.
Ayer te llamé por teléfono. I rang you yesterday.
El pretérito
• -ar verbs example:
• hablar
• hablé
hablaste
habló
hablamos
hablasteis
hablaron
• -er verbs, -ir verbs
Examples: comer, vivir
comí
comiste
comió
comimos
comisteis
comieron
• viví
viviste
vivió
vivimos
vivisteis
vivieron
There are two sets of regular endings to learn:1. -AR
2. -ER/ -IR
As with other tenses you have to:
1. take the infinitive, take off the infinitive ending and add the
endings for the tense.
• aceptar = to accept cantar = to sing
llenar = to fill
• amar = to love
charlar = to chat
llorar = to cry
• arreglar = to fix
dibujar = to draw
mirar = to look at
• ayudar = to help
entrar = to go in
saltar = to jump
• bajar = to go down
ganar = to win
viajar = to travel
• bailar = to dance
lavar = to wash
Practise saying or writing out these other verbs.
• beber = to drink
• Meter = to put
• correr = to run
• vender = to sell
• coser = to sew
Practise saying or writing out these other verbs.
• batir
= to beat
• escribir = to write
• cubrir = to cover
• permitir = to allow
• recibir = to receive
The Preterite
Stem changing verbs
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Jugar: to play
jugué I played
jugaste you played
jugó
he/she/it played
jugamos we played
jugasteis you played
jugaron they played
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explicar = to explain
expliqué I explained
explicaste you explained
explicó he/she/it explained
explicamos we explained
explicasteis you explained
explicaron they explained
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cruzar = to cross
crucé I crossed
cruzaste you crossed
cruzó he/she/it crossed
cruzamos we crossed
cruzasteis you crossed
cruzaron they crossed
1. Verbs which end in –GAR change
to GUÉ
2. Verbs which end in –CAR change
to QUÉ
3. Verbs which end in –ZAR change
to CÉ
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apagar = to put out
acercarse = to approach
cazar = to hunt
cargar = to load
atacar = to attack
empezar = to begin
descargar = to unload
buscar = to look for
organizar = to organize
entregar = to hand over
secar = to dry
rezar = to pray
llegar = to arrive
pescar = to fish
utilizar = to use
navegar = to sail
chocar contra = to crash into pagar = to pay
sacar = to take out
regar= to water
marcar = to score a goal,
tocar= to touch
All these verbs work in the
dial a number
same way. Can you write out
three of them in full?
For verbs ending in -aer, -eer, -oír and -oer changes occur in the 3rd
person forms (singular & plural): -ió changes to -yo;
-ieron changes to -yeron.
For verbs ending in -uir changes occur in the same way.
• Verb
person
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1st person
3rd person 3rd
singular
singular
caer* = to fall
caí
leer* = to read
leí
oír* = to hear
oí
roer* = to nibble
roí
destruir = to destroy destruí
construir = to build construí
huir = to run away
huí
plural
cayó
cayeron
leyó
leyeron
oyó
oyeron
royó
royeron
destruyó
destruyeron
construyó construyeron
huyó
huyeron
-ar and -er verbs that change their stem in the present
tense E<IE
do not change in the preterite.
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Presente
cierro
cierras
cierra
cerramos
cerráis
cierran
Preterito
cerré
cerraste
cerró
cerramos
cerrasteis
cerraron
-ir verbs that change their stem in the present do change in
the
preterite.
1. o > u – the first change is o > u and it occurs in the third
person
forms (singular & plural).
• Dormir
• Morir
dormí
durmió
durmieron
morí
murió
murieron
2. e > i
Changes also occur in the third person forms (singular &
plural).
• Pedir
pedí
pidió
• Preferir preferí prefirió
pidieron
prefirieron
• En el restaurante Paco pidió tortilla de carne.
• Paco asked for a meat omelette in the restaurant.
• Mis amigos pidieron una paella enorme.
• My friends ordered an enormous paella.
What would the third person singular and plural be for
each of the verbs below?
• despedirse de = to say
goodbye to
• divertirse = to enjoy oneself
• hervir = to boil
• pedir = to ask for
• preferir = to prefer
• rendirse = to surrender
• repetir = to repeat
• seguir = to follow
• sentir = to feel, to be sorry
• servir = to serve
• vestirse = to get dressed
• se despidió se despidieron
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se divirtió se divirtieron
hirvió
hirvieron
pidió
pidieron
prefirió
prefirieron
rindió
rindieron
repitió
repitieron
siguió
siguieron
sintió
sintieron
sirvió
sirvieron
se vistió
se vistieron
PONER = to put
There are no accents on these verbs. Just learn the first
person and then put the endings on the new stem. The
endings are almost the same as for regular -er and -ir
verbs.
Yo puse
Tú pusiste
Él puso
Ella puso
Éste puso
Nosotros pusimos
Vosotros pusisteis
Ellos pusieron
Verbs which follow the same pattern as poner:
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Verb
andar - to walk
estar - to be
obtener - to obtain
tener - to have
hacer - to do
poder - to be able
saber - to know
suponer - to suppose
venir - to come
querer - to love/want
conducir - to drive
traer - to bring
producir - to produce
decir* - to say
stem
anduv
estuv
obtuv
tuv
hic
pud
sup
supus
vin
quis
conduj
traj
produj
dij
1st person
anduve
estuve
obtuve
tuve
hice
pude
supe
supuse
vine
quise
conduje
traje
produje
dije
• Note:
• hacer has a different
stem in the 3rd
person singular –
hizo
• hacer = to do / make
• hice
I did / I made
• Note: Hacer has a different stem
in the 3rd person singular – hizo
• estar = to be
• estuve
I was
• hiciste You did / you made
• estuviste
Some very important verbs!
• hizo
He/she/it did / made • estuvo
• hicimos We did / we made
You were
He/she/it was
• estuvimos We were
• hicisteis You did / you made • estuvisteis You were
• hicieron They did / they
made
• estuvieron They were
• ser = to be
• I was
I went
• You were
• You went
• He/she/it was
• He/she/ it went
• We were
We went
• You were
You went
• They were
They went
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ir = to go
Notice ser and ir share the same forms
fui
fuiste
fue
Notice ser and ir share the same forms
fuimos
fuisteis
fueron
Practise using the preterite of estar, ir, hacer and ser by
writing out these sentences in Spanish.
• Yesterday I went to the
• They went to the
cinema.
hairdresser’s.
• It was a fantastic film.
• Before I went to the cinema
I did my homework.
• He was a great soldier and
a wonderful father.
• My grandfather went to
Australia in 1960.
• The boys made their beds
for the first time!
• It was a great day and the
weather was very good.
Soluciones
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1.Ayer fui al cine.
2.Fue una película fenomenal.
3.Antes de ir al cine hice los deberes.
4.Fue un gran soldado y un padre maravilloso.
5.Mi abuelo fue a Australia en mil novecientos sesenta
(1960).
• 6.Fueron a la peluquería.
• 7.¡Por primera vez los chicos hicieron sus camas!
• 8.Fue un día fantástico e hizo muy buen tiempo.
¡Felicitaciones!
Descargar

1. The Preterite. Power Point Presentation.