Chapter 13
Programming and Languages
Professor Michael J. Losacco
CIS 1150 – Introduction to Computer Information Systems
Overview
Chapter
13
Define Programming
Describe the Six Steps of Programming
Discuss Design Tools
Describe Program Testing
Describe CASE Tools
Describe Object-oriented Development
Explain the Generations of Languages
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Programs and Programming
Chapter
13
What Is a Program?
Problem Solving Procedure
Instructions for the Computer to Follow
Statements Used in a Programming Language
Process Data into Information
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Programs and Programming
Chapter
13
What Is Programming?
Six Step Procedure
Program Specification
Program Design
Program Code
Program Test
Program Documentation
Program Maintenance
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Program Specification
Chapter
13
Program Objectives
Desired Output
Input Data
Processing Requirements
Program Specifications Document
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Program Design
Chapter
13
Structured Programming Techniques
Top-down Programming Design
Modules
Program's Processing Steps
Pseudocode
Outline of Program Logic
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Program Design
Chapter
13
Structured Programming Techniques
Flowchart
Geometric Shapes
Depict Sequence of Steps
Logic Structures
Sequential
Selection
Repetition
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Program Code
Chapter
13
Writing The Program
AKA Coding
Good Program
Works Reliably
Produces Correct Output
Catches Common Input Errors
Code Is Documented and Understandable
Uses Appropriate Computer Language(s)
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Program Code
Chapter
13
Coding
Symbols, Words, and Phrases
Content-markup Language
Instruct Computer to Structure Information for Display
Programming Language
Instruct Computer to Perform Specific Operations
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Program Test
Chapter
13
Debugging
Process of Testing and then Eliminating Errors
Syntax Errors
Violation of Programming Language Rules
Logic Errors
Incorrect Calculation
Missing Procedure
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Program Test
Chapter
13
Testing Process
Desk Checking
Manual Testing
Attempt at Translation
Testing Sample Data
Testing By a Select Group of Potential Users
Beta
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Program Documentation
Chapter
13
Description of How to Use Program
Users
Operators
Description of Program Procedures
Programmers
Maintenance
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Program Maintenance
Chapter
13
75% of Total Lifetime Cost
Operations
Patches
Updates
Changing Needs
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CASE and OOP
Chapter
13
Computer-aided Software Engineering (CASE)
Automates Portions of
Program Design
Coding
Testing
Object-oriented Programming (OOP)
Define Relationships Between Procedures
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CASE and OOP
Chapter
13
Using IDE for RAD OOP
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Programming Languages
Chapter
13
Categories
Low-level Languages
First and Second Generation
Machine Dependant
Typically Determined by Processor
Faster Execution, More Code Required
High-level Languages
Third, Fourth, and Fifth Generation
Machine Independent
Slower Execution, Less Code Required
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Programming Languages
Chapter
13
Machine Language
Only Language Directly Understood
Uses Binary & Hexadecimal
Assembly Language
Instructions Made Up Of:
Symbolic Instruction Codes
Meaningful Abbreviations
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Programming Languages
Chapter
13
Third Generation Language (3GL)
AKA Procedural
COBOL, FORTRAN, C
Compiler
Converts Entire Code to Machine Language
Interpreter
Translates One Statement at a Time
Must Be Interpreted Before Every Execution
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Programming Languages
Chapter
13
Fourth Generation Language (4GL)
Task-oriented
SQL, Application Generator
More English-like
Easier to Program
Widely Used by Nonprogrammers
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Programming Languages
Chapter
13
Fifth Generation Language (5GL)
Problem and Constraint Languages
Incorporate Concepts of Artificial Intelligence
Computer Learns and Applies New Information
Communicate Using Natural Languages
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Programming Languages
Chapter
13
Top Programming Languages
Ranked by Demand & Popularity
IEEE 7/14
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Web Development
Chapter
13
Planning
Establish Site Objectives
Launch a Business Presence
Selling Goods or Services
Increase Brand Recognition
Product Information
Employment
Marketing
Target Audience You Want to Reach
Demographics
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Web Development
Chapter
13
Analysis
Measurable Goals
Determine Functionality
Web Benchmarking
Competition
Paradigm Shifts
Other Sites that Your Users Frequent
Offer Comparable Features / Capabilities
Establish Timetable
Budget
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Web Development
Chapter
13
Design
Usability
Consistency
Flowchart
Hierarchical View of Site
Storyboard
Outline of Page Content
Wireframe
Layout of Page Content
Branding
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Web Development
Chapter
13
Implementation
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
Static
Elements in Angle Brackets
Specify Size, Color, etc.
DHTML (Dynamic HTML)
Graphical Interest
Interactivity
Develop with JavaScript, CSS
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Web Development
Chapter
13
Implementation
XML (Extensible Markup Language)
Elements Describe Data Passed to a Client
Ties Database Data to Web Pages
Client, Rather Than Server, Processes Data
Web Design Software
Create Web pages Without Programming
Generates HTML / Some JavaScript
Dreamweaver, Expression Web
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Web Development
Chapter
13
Testing
Test Pages Against Different:
Platforms
Browsers
Versions
Monitor Resolutions
Deploy
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Upload / Download to / from Web Server
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Web Development
Chapter
13
Maintenance
Decide What Content Needs Updating
Determine Frequency
Collect Statistics on Each Page
Elicit Feedback from Users
ROI
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Careers in IT
Chapter
13
Programmer
Create, Test, And Troubleshoot Programs
Update and Repair Existing Programs
Bachelor's Degree in Computer Science
Technical Experience
Patience, Logical Thinking, Meticulous
Annual Salary of $49,000 - $89,000
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