Wilfredo Summers
1. Preterite vs Imperfect
2. Por and para
3. Possessive adjectives and
pronouns
4. Commands
5. El Modo Subjunctivo
6. Verbs of will and influence
7. Verbs of emotion
8. Doubt, disbelief and denial
9. Conjunctions
1. Subjunctive in adjective
clauses
2. Tu commands
3. Nosotros commands
4. Past participles used as
adjectives
5. Present Perfect
6. Past Perfect
7. Future tense
8. Conditional tense
9. Past subjenctuve
Definite
Indefinite
hablar
comer
vivir
hablar
comer
vivir
hablé
comí
viví
hablaba
comía
vivía
hablaste
comiste
viviste
hablabas
comías
vivías
habló
comió
vivió
hablaba
comía
vivía
hablamos
comimos
vivimos
hablábamos
comíamos
vivíamos
hablasteis
comisteis
vivisteis
hablabais
comíais
vivíais
hablaron
comieron
vivieron
hablaban
comían
vivían
Por
• Motion or a general
location
• Duration of an action
• Object of a search
• Means by which something
is done
• Exchange or substitution
• Unit of measure
Para
• Destination
• Deadline or a specific time
in the future
• Purpose or goal +
infinitive
• Purpose + infinitive
• The recipient of something
• Comparison or opinions
• Employment
Short Form
Long Form
Singular
Long Form
Plural
Mi(s)
Nuestro(a/os/aas)
Tu(s)
Vuestro(a/os/as)
Su(s)
Su(s)
Mio(a)
Nuestro(a)
Tuyo(a)
Vuestro(a)
Suyo(a)
Suyo(a)
Mios(as)
Nuestros(as)
Tuyos(as)
Vuestros(as)
Suyos(as)
Suyos(as)
To form a possessive
pronoun:
• Use the long form of the
possessive adjective.
• Add el, la, los, las
based on the gender
and number of the noun.
Attach the pronouns to a
reflexive when using a reflexive
in the infinitive form
Tu
Ud./Uds.
DOP + IOP + “se”
Put it in ‘yo’ form
and change to
opposite vowel
Can attach to an
affirmative
Same as above
Must go before the
negative command
Simply drop the s
Affirmative
Negative
Irregulars- di, haz,
ve pon, sal, sé, ten,
ven
Put in ‘yo’ form and
change to opposite
vowel, add an ‘s’
Irregulars-TV
DISHES
• For most verbs, the present
subjunctive is formed by following
these three steps:
• Start with the yo form of the
present indicative.
• Then drop the -o ending.
• Finally, add the following endings:
• -ar verbs:
-e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en
• -er and -ir verbs:
-a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an
• dar - to give
• dé
des
dé
demos
deis
den
• estar - to be
• esté
estés
esté
estemos
estéis
estén
• haber - to have
(auxiliary verb)
• haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan
• ir - to go
• vaya
vayas
vaya
vayamos
vayáis
vayan
• saber - to know
• sepa
sepas
sepa
sepamos
sepáis
sepan
• ser - to be
• sea
seas
sea
seamos
seáis
sean
Aconsejarto advise
Sugerir
(e>ie)- to
suggest
Rogar
(o>ue)- to
beg, to
plead
Importar- to
be
important: to
matter
Verbs of
will and
influence
Recomendar
(e>ie)- to
recommend
Insistir (en)to insist (on)
Mandar- to
order
Prohibir- to
prohibit
Alegrarse (de)
To be happy
Temer
To be afraid; to fear
Esperar
To hope, to wish
Sentir (e-ie)
Es triste
It’s sad
To be sorry, to regret
Sorprender
To surprise
Ojála (que)
I hope (that); I wish (that)
Dudar
Negar (e-ie)
Es imposible
• To doubt
• To deny
• It’s impossible
Es improbable
No es cierto
No es seguro
• It’s improbable
• It’s not
true/certain
• It’s not certain
No es verdad
• It’s not true
A menos que
• Unless
En caso (de)
que
• In case (that)
Antes (de)
que
Con tal (de)
que
• Before
• Provided that
Para que
Sin que
• So that
• without
• The subjunctive can be used in adjective clauses to indicate that
the existence of someone or something is uncertain or indefinite.
• The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause that refers to a
person, place, thing, or idea that either does not exist or whose
existence is uncertain or indefinite.
• The indicative is used when the adjective clause refers to a
person, place , thing, or idea that is clearly known, certain, or
definite.
Tu
Simply drop the s
Affirmative
Irregulars- di, haz, ve pon, sal, sé, ten,
ven
Negative
Put in ‘yo’ form and change to opposite
vowel, add an ‘s’
Irregulars-TV DISHES
• Put in first person form
• Add amos/emos and change the vowel
• If IOP or DOP, add them on the end if affirmative
and before the verb for negative; add accent
• If reflexive, add nos or se at the end and take
away the s on amos/emos Ex. Comámonos; add
accent
• Also called monkey verbs
• Ar-ado
• Ir/Er-ido
• Use this when writing an
english adjective endind in
–ed
• His car is washed.
• Su coche está lavado.
•
•
•
•
•
He
Has
Ha
Hemos
Han
•
•
•
•
Use when writing someone has done something.
The second verb looks like a past participle
He has ran.
El ha corrido.
• To say that something in
the past has done
something
• Use infinitive + past
participle
había
habías
había
habíamos
habíais
habían
Los Irregulares
• I will
• Infinitive +
Decir
Dir-
Hacer
Har-
Poner
Pondr-
-é
-emos
Salir
Saldr-
-ás
-éis
Tener
Tendr-
Venir
Vendr-
Poder
Podr
Querer
Querr-
Saber
Sabr-
Haber
Habr-
-á
-án
• Would/should/could
• Infinitive+
-iá
-iámos
-iás
-iáis
-iá
-ián
All endings are the same for er,
ir, and ar berbs. The irregulars
are the same as the future tense
Drop the
ending –ron
ending from
the preterite
-ra, -ras, -ra, ramos, -ran
NOTE: Used in same context and situations as the
present subjunctive. It generally describes actions,
events and conditions that have already
happened.
The
IMPERFECT
SUBJUNCTIVE
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Grammar Book 3