Some basics about sentences w/ the Subjunctive
• Sentences w/ subjunctive have 2 clauses connected by
QUE
• A clause is part of sentence with a subject & verb
• In a sentence w/ subjunctive, there must be 2 different
subjects
• Must have TRIGGER in the 1st clause (verb or expression
of will or influence, emotion, doubt, etc) that will cause 2nd
part of sentence to be in subjunctive
• Verb in 1st clause of sentence is in present indicative
because it’s real
• Verb in 2nd clause is in subjunctive because it may or may
not happen or be real
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4.1–1
The present subjunctive
• The subjunctive (el subjuntivo) is used mainly in multiple
clause sentences which express will, influence, emotion,
doubt, or denial.
To form present subjunctive
1) Take the ‘yo’ form present
2) Drop the –o
3) Add opposite endings
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4.1–2
The indicative is used to express actions, states, or facts the
speaker considers to be certain.
The subjunctive expresses the speaker’s attitude toward events,
as well as actions or states that the speaker views as uncertain.
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4.1–3
• Verbs with irregular yo forms show that same
irregularity throughout the forms of the present
subjunctive.
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4.1–4
• Verbs that have stem changes in the present
indicative have the same changes in the present
subjunctive. Only –ir verbs undergo stem
changes in the nosotros & vosotros forms.
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4.1–5
• The following five verbs are irregular in the
present subjunctive.
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4.1–6
Verbs that end in –car, –gar, and –zar undergo spelling changes in
the present subjunctive.
sacar: saque
jugar: juegue
almorzar: almuerce

****The present subjunctive form of hay is haya.
Ella espera que haya una solución.
She hopes there is a solution.
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4.1–7
Práctica
Completa con el subjuntivo
1. Ella quiere que yo _____________________(hablar) más.
2. Ellos desean que tú_______________________ (decir) la verdad.
3. Yo mando que nosotros______________________(salir) a tiempo.
4. Los padres insisten en que los hijos no ________________________(ir) lejos.
5. Esperamos que ella_________________________(saber) cómo llegar.
6. La profesora quiere que los estudiantes____________________ (hacer) la tarea.
7. Ud. prefiere que nosotros_______________________(leer) más.
8. Recomiendo que el hombre___________________(estar) aquí antes de las 8.
9. Yo propongo que tú _______________________(escribir) los apuntes.
10. Quieren que yo ______________________________(explicar) la respuesta.
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4.1–8
Verbs of will & influence/WISHING WANTING VERBS
• A clause is a group of words that contains both a
conjugated verb and a subject (expressed or implied).
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4.1–9
• When the subject of the main clause of a sentence
exerts influence or will on the subject of the 2ND
(subordinate) clause, the verb in the 2nd (subordinate)
clause must be in the subjunctive.
MAIN CLAUSE
CONNECTOR
2nd/SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
Yo quiero
que
tú vayas al médico.
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4.1–10
Some basics about sentences w/ the Subjunctive
• Sentences w/ subjunctive have 2 clauses connected by
QUE
• A clause is part of sentence with a subject & verb
• In a sentence w/ subjunctive, there must be 2 different
subjects
• Must have TRIGGER in the 1st clause (verb or expression
of will or influence, emotion, doubt, etc) that will cause 2nd
part of sentence to be in subjunctive
• Verb in 1st clause of sentence is in present indicative
because it’s real
• Verb in 2nd clause is in subjunctive because it may or may
not happen or be real
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4.1–11
The verbs & expressions below of
WISHING/WANTING or Will & Influence will
TRIGGER the need for subjunctive in the 2nd
clause.
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4.1–12
Examples of sentences with Verbs of Will & Influence and
the subjunctive.
Necesito que consigas estas
pastillas en la farmacia.
I need you to get these pills at the
pharmacy.
El médico siempre me recomienda
que deje de fumar.
The doctor always recommends that I
quit smoking.
Insisto en que vayas a la sala de
emergencias.
I insist that you go to the emergency
room.
Se oponen a que salgas si estás
enfermo.
They object to your going out if you’re
sick.
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4.1–13
• If there is no change of subject in the sentence,
then the 2nd verb will be in the INFINITIVE.
Quiero ir a Bogotá en junio.
Prefiero que vayas en agosto.
I want to go to Bogota in June.
I prefer that you go in August.
*In order for subjunctive to be used, the subject in the
2nd clause must be different from subject in 1st
clause.
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4.1–14
Verbs of emotion
• When the main clause expresses an emotion
like hope, fear, joy, pity, or surprise, the verb in
the subordinate (2nd) clause must be in the
subjunctive if its subject is different from that of
the main clause.
Me alegro de que te recuperes
pronto.
Tus padres tienen miedo de
que necesites una
operación.
I’m happy that you recover quickly. Your parents are afraid that
you you need an operation.
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4.1–15
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4.1–16
The subjunctive is also used with expressions of emotion that begin
with ¡Qué…! (What a…!/It’s so…!)
¡Qué pena que él no vaya!
What a shame he’s not going!

The expression ojalá (I hope; I wish) is always followed by the
subjunctive. The use of que with ojalá is optional.
Ojalá (que) no llueva.
I hope it doesn’t rain.
Ojalá (que) no te enfermes.
I hope you don’t get sick.
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4.1–17
• The infinitive, not the subjunctive, is used with
verbs and expressions of emotion if there is no
change of subject in the sentence.
No me gusta llegar tarde.
Es mejor que lo hagas ahora.
I don’t like to be late.
It’s better that you do it now.
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4.1–18
Verbs of doubt or denial
• When the main clause implies doubt,
uncertainty, or denial, the verb in the
subordinate clause must be in the
subjunctive if its subject is different from that
of the main clause.
No cree que él nos quiera
engañar.
Dudan que eso sea un buen
tratamiento.
She doesn’t believe that he
wants to deceive us.
They doubt that would be a
good treatment.
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4.1–19
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4.1–20
• The infinitive, not the subjunctive, is used with
verbs and expressions of doubt or denial if there
is no change in the subject of the sentence.
Es imposible viajar hoy.
Es improbable que él viaje hoy.
It’s impossible to travel
today.
It’s unlikely that he would travel
today.
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4.1–21
The subjunctive is also used after quizá(s) and tal vez (maybe;
perhaps) when they signal uncertainty, even if there is no change
of subject in the sentence.
Quizás vengan a la fiesta.
Maybe they’ll come to the party.
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4.1–22
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