Español II
Commands … in English
 The command form, or the imperative, is used to give
someone commands
 There are two types of commands:
 affirmative commands, which tell someone to do
something
 negative commands, which tell someone not to do
something
Commands… in English
 There are two forms of English commands.
 A you command orders the listener to do something.
 In English, the dictionary form of the verb is used.
 A we command orders the listener and the speaker to
do something.
 In English, we use the words “Let’s…”
Examples
 Eat your vegetables.
 Mix the salad.
 Cut the carrots.
 Let’s set the table.
Notice: The subject
pronoun you is missing.
The lack of the subject
pronoun you is a good
indication that you are
dealing with an
imperative and not a
present-tense verb.
In Spanish…
 There are various forms of commands in Spanish, such
as…
 Nosotros commands
 Vosotros commands
 Informal commands
 Formal commands
 Plural (Uds.) commands
 In addition, all of these commands have an affirmative
and negative form, conjugated in different ways.
Affirmative Informal (tú)
1. Conjugate the verb in the tú form
 Remember to include any stem-changes when necessary
2. Drop the –s off the word
 Be careful! There are numerous irregular verbs
that you will simply have to memorize the forms!
The Irregular Affirmative
Commands
 Tener → to have → ten
 Venir → to come → ven
 Poner → to put, place → pon
 Salir → to leave, go out → sal
 Notice: They just use the first three letters of the verb.
The Irregular Affirmative
Commands
 Ir → to go → ve
 Ser → to be → sé
 Hacer → to do, make → haz
 Decir → to say, tell → di
 You will have to memorize these ones!
How to Memorize Irregulars
 Ven
 Di
 Sal
 Haz
 Ten
 Ve
 Pon
 Sé
Reflexive commands
 Take off the –se and the verb ending
 Go to the tú form
 Drop the -s
 Add a te to the end of the command.
 Add an accent on the third syllable from the end.
 Three back add an “acc”
Reflexive example
 Shower: Ducharse
 Take off the –se and the –ar
 Duch
 Go to the tú form
 Duchas
 Drop the –s
 Ducha
Reflexive example
 Add a te at the end
 Duchate
 Add an accent three syllables back
 Du-cha-te
 Dúchate
Negative informal (tú)
1.
Conjugate the verb in the yo form
 Remember to include any stem-changes and
irregularities when necessary
2. Drop the o off the word
3. Add the opposite vowel.
1. AR verbs use –es
2. ER and IR verbs use -as
4. Add a no.
Negative informal (tú)
 Spelling changes
 Verbs that end in:
 -car → change to –ques
 -gar → change to –gues
 -zar → change to –ces
 This is just to maintain a sound in Spanish.
Negative informal (tú)
 Only three irregular verbs
 Ir → to go → vayas
 Ser → to be → seas
 Dar → to give → des
Negative Reflexive Commands
 Take off the –se and the verb ending
 Form the command as above
 Add a te to the front of the command but after the no
Negative Reflexive Example
 Don’t put your shoes on
 ponerse los zapatos
 Take off the –se and verb ending
 pon los zapatos
 Form the command
 Yo form
 Pongo
Negative Reflexive Example
 Form the command
 Opposite vowel → as
 Pongas
 No pongas los zapatos
 Add a te to the front of the command but after the no
 No te pongas los zapatos
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Los mandatos informales