PUNTO
DE
GRAMÁTICA 2
Spanish Subject Pronouns
How they compare with English
Subject Pronouns
Subject pronouns
• A pronoun is a word that
takes the place of a noun.
•
A subject pronoun is a word
that takes the place of a noun
that serves as the subject of a
sentence.
Subject Pronouns in
General
English and Spanish both make use
of subject pronouns. They can be
organized as 1st , 2nd, and 3rd person.
In English “I” and “we” are 1st
person. “I” is 1st person, singular
and “we” is 1st person plural. Let’s
take a look at how subject pronouns
are organized in English.
English Subject Pronouns
Singular
Plural
1st
person
I
we
2nd
person
you
you
he
3rd
person
she
it
they
Spanish Subject Pronouns
In general, Spanish subject pronouns
are similar to English pronouns. The
major differences are: Spanish has
four ways of saying “you”. They are
not interchangeable and do not mean
the same thing. Also, we do not use
“it” as a pronoun often in Spanish.
One other major difference involves the
use of gender. Let’s take a look.
Spanish Subject Pronouns
1st
person
2nd
person
3rd
person
Singular
Plural
yo
nosotros
nosotras
Tú
(vosotros)
(vosotras)
Ud.
Uds.
él
`ellos
ella
ellas
Let’s compare
Singular
1st
I = yo
we = nosotros*
we = nosotras**
person
you = tú
2nd
person
Plural
you = Ud.
you = vosotros*
you = vosotras**
you = Uds.
3rd
person
he = él
they = ellos*
she = ella
they = ellas**
*mixed group or all guys
**all girls
Now it is time to learn.
• If you want to learn Spanish, you will
need to learn the subject pronouns.
• You can often tell what the subject is
by the verb. Therefore in Spanish, it
is not always necessary to include
the subject.
• Memorize these subject pronouns.
st
1
person singular pronoun
“YO”
• “Yo” means “I” and
is used in the same
way as in English.
– Yo soy americano.
– Yo soy estudiante.
• Note that it is not
capitalized unless
it starts a sentence:
– Mi amigo y yo…
2nd person singular pronoun
“TÚ”
• Tú means you
(familiar/
informal)
• Used when
talking TO
someone familiar
• We’ll learn more
about this in a
moment.
2nd person singular pronoun
“Usted (Ud.)”
• Usted means you (formal)
• Used when talking TO someone you should
respect.
• Abbreviated - Ud.
• Considered a 2nd person singular pronoun,
but uses the 3rd person singular verb forms.
• We’ll learn more about this pronoun in a
moment.
3rd person singular masculine
“ÉL”
• Él = he
• It is used when talking ABOUT a
boy/guy/man.
• used in the same way as its English
counterpart:
– Jorge es mexicano. Él es de Guadalajara.
• DON’T forget the accent mark. If you do,
you are actually writing the Spanish
word for “the”
rd
3
person singular feminine
“ELLA”
• Ella = she
• It is used when talking ABOUT a
girl/woman.
• used in the same way as its English
counterpart:
– Rosa es mexicana. Ella es de
Acapulco.
• Please pronounce it correctly.
– It sounds like (eh-yah) not (el-lah)
st
1
person plural pronoun
“Nosotros / Nosotras”
• Use nosotros/ nosotras to talk ABOUT
a group of people that includes you.
• In English we have one word to talk
about “we,” but in Spanish, we
distinguish between “we” masculine
and feminine:
•
•
yo
Juan: “Mi hermano y yo somos de
Argentina. Nosotros vivimos en Buenos
Aires.”
Juana: “Mi hermana y yo somos de Bolivia.
Nosotras vivimos en La Paz.”
• Use the masculine pronoun if it refers
to a mixed group:
•
•
Juan: “Mi hermano, mi novia, y yo somos
de Argentina. Nosotros vivimos en Buenos
Aires.”
Juana: “Mi hermana, mis padres, y yo
somos de Bolivia. Nosotros vivimos en La
Paz.
yo
nd
2
person plural pronoun
“Vosotros / Vosotras”
• Use vosotros/ vosotras to talk TO a
group of people that includes the word
you’”.
• In English we have one word to talk
about “you all,” but in Spanish, we
distinguish between “you all”
masculine and feminine:
•
•
Juan: “Mi hermano y tú sois de Argentina.
Vosotros vivís en Buenos Aires.”
Juana: “Mi hermana y tú sois de Bolivia.
Vosotras vivimos en La Paz.”
• Use the masculine pronoun if it refers
to a mixed group:
•
•
Juan: “Mi hermano, mi novia, y tú sois de
Argentina. Vosotros vivimos en Buenos
Aires.”
Juana: “Mi hermana, mis padres, y tú sois
de Bolivia. Vosotros vivimos en La Paz.
nd
2
person plural pronoun
“Ustedes (Uds.)”
• Usted means you you formal
• Abbreviated - Uds.
• Considered a 2rd person plural
pronoun, but uses the 3rd person
singular verb forms.
• We’ll learn more about this
pronoun in a moment.
rd
3
person Plural masculine
“Ellos”
• Ellos = They (masculine)
• It is used when talking ABOUT a
group of boys/guys/men or a
mixed group.
• Used in the same way as its
English counterpart:
•
•
Jorge y Pepe son mexicanos.
Ellos son de Guadalajara.
Jorge y Ana son alumnos. Ellos
son amigos también.
• Please pronounce it correctly.
•
•
It sounds like (eh-yohs) not (ellohs)
Remember ll= y sound.
rd
3
person plural feminine
“Ellas”
• Ellas = They (feminine)
• It is used when talking ABOUT a group of
only females.
• used in the same way as its English
counterpart:
• Sofía y Ana son estudiantes. Ellas son amigas
también.
• Please pronounce it correctly.
– It sounds like (eh-yahs) not (el-lahs)
– Remember ll= y sound.
YOU, You, and You?
• In English, there is only one “YOU”. It is
singular and plural, masculine and
feminine, formal and informal
• Note: y’all or you all is not standard
English, but we will use it to help learn the
Spanish forms of “you”.
• In Spanish there are 5 ways to express
“you”
• tú
• usted (Ud.)
• vosotros
• vosotras
• ustedes (Uds.)
Tú vs. Usted
• Let’s look at the singular forms first. Each
one has a specific time when it used. If you
use the wrong one, it can be offensive to the
person with whom you are speaking.
Tú = you
(informal/familiar)
Usted (Ud.) = you
(formal)
Use “tú” when talking to
people with whom you
are on a first name basis.
friends
family
small children
people younger than
you
pets
Use “Usted” when talking
with people to whom you
should show respect.
People in authority
(police, teachers,
bosses,
etc.)
Strangers
Acquaintances
¿ Tú o usted?
María
Tú
Señor Gómez
Usted
Señora Ibarra
Usted
Eduardo
Tú
Juanita
Tú
Doctora Martínez
Usted
Señor González
Usted
Carla
Tú
la policía
Usted
Differences – Y’all
• In Spanish there are three ways to say “all of
you” or “you all”
– Vosotros
– Vosotras
– Ustedes (Uds.)
• Vosotros/vosotras are the plural forms of tú
used primarily in Spain.
• Ustedes is the plural form of usted in Latin
America.
• Vosotros is used when talking to a familiar
group of males or a mixed group.
• Vosotras is used when the entire group is
female.
¿Ustedes (Uds.),
vosotros o vosotras?
Tú
María
María y tú (boy)
(in Spain)
Vosotros
Silvia
Tú
Silvia y tú (girl)
(in Spain)
Vosotras
Tú
Silvia
Silvia y tú
(in Latin America)
Ustedes (Uds.)
Tú
María
María y tú
(in Latin America)
Ustedes (Uds.)
Señor Gómez y tú
Ustedes (Uds.)
Señora Ibarra y usted
Ustedes
Eduardo
Tú
Eduardo y tú
(in Latin America)
Ustedes (Uds.)
Tú
Eduardo
Eduardo y tú (boy)
(in Spain)
Vosotros
Tú
Eduardo
Eduardo y tú (girl)
(in Spain)
Vosotros
Doctora Martínez y tú
Ustedes (Uds.)
Señor González y usted
Ustedes (Uds.)
Determine what subject pronoun can be used to replace the following
subjects.
Ejemplo: Chancho y Verónica
1.
María y yo
Ellos, 3rd person plural
Nosotros, Nosotras, 1st person pl
_____________________________
2. Juan, Julio, y Sofía
Ellos, 3rd person pl
_____________________________
3. Los gatos
Ellos, 3rd person pl
______________________________
4. Mi amigo, Francisco
Él, 3rd person sing
______________________________
5. Las chicas
Ellas, 3rd person pl
______________________________
6. Tú y María (Spain)
Vosotros, Vosotras, 2nd person pl
_____________________________
7. Alma
Ella, 1st person sing
______________________________
8. Carlos
9. Silvia
10. Sr. Martinez y usted
‘
11. Usted y yo
Él, 3rd person sing
______________________________
Ella 3rd person sing
______________________________
Ustedes, 2nd person pl
____________________________
Nosotros, Nosotras, 1st person pl
______________________________
13. Los maestros
Él 2nd person sing
______________________________
Ellos, 3rd person pl
______________________________
14. Los estudiantes
Ellos, 3rd person pl
______________________________
12. El Señor Salsa
15. Marta y ella
Ellas, 3rd person pl
______________________________
17. Marta y yo (Graciela)
Ellos, 3rd person pl
______________________________
Nosotras, 1st person pl
____________________________
18. Carmen y tú (Spain)
Vosotros, Vosotras, 2nd person pl
____________________________
19. Sancho
Él, 3rd person sing
______________________________
20. Tú y yo (Mario)
Nosotros, Nosotras, 1st person pl
______________________________
16. Marta y Juan
21. Luisa y Marisela
22. Tú, tú y tú (Spain)
Ellas, 3rd person pl
______________________________
Vosotros, Vosotras, 2nd person pl
_____________________________
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