Los Modos Verbales:
El Modo Indicativo
Habla de hechos
Indica información
Expresa la realidad
El Modo Imperativo
Da mandatos
El Modo Subjuntivo
Expresa la duda
Expresa los deseos
Cosas irreales o contrarias a la realidad
When are we in the Subjunctive Mood?
W
E
I
R
D
O
WANTS,WISHES,
PREFERENCES, AND
DEMANDS CONCERNING
OTHERS
EXPRESSIONS
OF EMOTION
IMPERSONAL
EXPRESSIONS
(“It” is important)
Requests, Giving
Advice and Making
Suggestions
EXPRESSIONS OF DOUBT
OR UNCERTAINTY
STATEMENT OF
OBLIGATIONS
PERHAPS
OR MAYBE
This subjunctive is used
after the following verbs
 Desear
 Esperar
 Preferir
 Querer
 Mandar
 Insistir en
 Mentir
 Alegrarse de
 Estar
contento
 Estar triste
 Sorprender
 Gustar
 Es una
lástima
 Temer
 Tener
miedo de
The subjunctive is
used after the
following
impersonal
expressions
 Es posible
 Es imposible
 Es probable
 Es improbable
 Es importante
 Es menester
 Es bueno
 Es mejor
 Es fácil
 Es difícil
 Es necesario
No pensar & no
creer represent
uncertainty.
Pensar and creer unlike in
English, represent
absolute certainty.
 Subjunctive
 Indicative
(NOT SUBJUNCTIVE)
V
Es verdad
O
Es obvio
Opinión
P
Pensar *
C
Es claro
C
Creer *
C
Es cierto
E
Es evidente
Estar seguro
D
No dudar
No es dudoso
S
Es seguro
 Ojalá
 Quizás
*do not need a
“que” to be
subjunctive.
Whether one desires,
hopes, prefers, demands,
or insists that another
person do something, one
can never be sure that the
person will in fact do it.
Therefore, the action of
the verb in the dependent
clause is not necessarily
real and the subjunctive
must be used.
The
information in
a clause
following a
verb or
expression of
emotion can be
factual.
Me alegro de
que Teresa esté
con nosotros.
Note that all of the
above expressions
take the
subjunctive since
the action of the
verb in the
dependent clause
may or may not
take place.
•
•
•
•
•
•
No pienso
No creer
No es cierto
DUDAR
Es dudoso
No estar seguro
Verbos Regulares
1.
2.
3.
Empezar con la forma “YO”
Quitar la “o”
Poner las terminaciones
opuestas
-AR:
-e
-emos
-es -éis
-e
-en
-ER /-IR: -a
-amos
-as
-áis
-a
-an
Verbos Iregulares (dishes)
Dar
Ir
Saber
Haber Estar
Ser
dé
vaya
sepa
haya
esté
sea
des
vayas
sepas
hayas
estés
seas
dé
vaya
sepa
haya
esté
sea
demos
vayamos
sepamos
hayamos
estemos
seamos
deis
vayáis
sepáis
hayáis
estéis
seáis
den
vayan
sepan
hayan
estén
sean
Cambios de raíz:
1. In the present subjunctive, stem-changing –ar & -er verbs have the
stem change in all forms except nosotros & vosotros. Other verbs that
follow this pattern include:
u->ue: jugar
o->ue: contar, poder, volver, costar, probar(se), llover, doler
e->ie: querer, sentarse, calentar, despertar(se), empezar,
entender, cerrar, pensar
2. Stem-changing verbs e->ie, e->i, & o->ue verbs that end in –ir have a
stem change in all forms of the subjunctive. Other verbs that follow
this pattern include:
e->ie: divertirse, preferir, sentirse
e->i: reír, repetir, servir, vestir(se), pedir, seguir, conseguir
o->ue: morir, dormir
Present subjunctive of nosotros & vosotros only goes e I, not e ie (i.e.
divertirse = … que yo me divierta….que nosotros nos divirtamos)
Cambios ortográficos: CAR/GAR/ZAR
1. In the present subjunctive of verbs
ending in`
–car = c changes to qu
-gar = g changes to gu
–zar = z changes c
2. These spellings changes are the
same as those that occur in the “yo”
form of the preterite tense.
Sequence of Tenses:
Tense of subjunctive depends
on form of main verb
Independent Clause
(Main)
Present &
Present Progressive
Present Perfect
Future
Command
Imperfect
Preterit
Conditional
Pluperfect
Dependent
Clause
(Subordinate)
Example
(Main Clause)
Present
Subjunctive
Or
Present
Perfect
Subjunctive
Esperan
Están esperando
Imperfect
Subjunctive
Or
Pluperfect
Subjunctive
Esperaba
Esperó
Esperaría
Había esperado
que
(Dependent Clause)
que
vayan al cine.
o
hayan ido al cine.
que
Juan fuera al cine.
o
Juan hubiera ido al
cine.
Han esperado
Esperarán
Esperen
Moods can be expressed
in many different time
frames or tenses.
Tenses include:
1. Present Subjunctive – (WEIRDO) actions that occur or are
occurring in the present.
2. Present Perfect Subjunctive – actions in the dependent clause
(verb after the “que”), occurred BEFORE the main clause
(WEIRDO) actions.
3. Imperfect Subjunctive – (WEIRDO) actions that occur, are
occurring in the present, or will occur in the future. Verbs in the
main clause can be in the preterit, imperfect or conditional tenses.
4. Pluperfect Subjunctive –actions in the dependent clause (verb
after the “que”) occurred in the past (preterit, imperfect,
pluperfect) or in the conditional tense, and occurred BEFORE the
main clause (WEIRDO) actions.
The present perfect subjunctive is a compound verb formed with the
subjunctive of the auxiliary verb haber + the past participle of the main
verb.
HABLAR
haya hablado
hayamos hablado
hayas hablado
hayáis hablado
haya hablado
hayan hablado
SALIR
haya salido
hayamos salido
hayas salido
hayáis salido
haya salido
hayan salido
Remember to sing the irregular past participle verbs song!
abierto, cubierto, dicho, hecho, puesto, escrito, visto, vuelto,
muerto roto y frito
To conjugate the imperfect subjunctive, follow these steps:
 Take the third person plural preterite form of any regular, irregular, or
stem-changing verb
 Drop the -ON ending
 Add the appropriate ending:
HABLAR -» ellos hablaron
hablara
habláramos
hablaras
hablarais
hablara
hablaran
TENER -» ellos tuvieron
tuviera
tuviéramos
tuvieras
tuvierais
tuviera
tuvieran
The imperfect subjunctive stem-changes differently because all
persons go e --> i (i.e. divertirse ...que yo me divirtiera and ...que
nosotros nos divirtiéramos). Same thing happens with o --> u (i.e.
morir ...que yo muriera / ...que nosotros muriéramos).
The pluperfect subjunctive is a compound verb formed with the
imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb haber + the past participle of
the main verb.
HABLAR
hubiera hablado
hubiéramos hablado
hubieras hablado
hubierais hablado
hubiera hablado
hubieran hablado
SALIR
hubiera salido
hubiéramos salido
hubieras salido
hubierais salido
hubiera salido
hubieran salido
Remember to sing the irregular past participle verbs song!
abierto, cubierto, dicho, hecho, puesto, escrito, visto, vuelto,
muerto roto y frito
Descargar

Subjunctive