Lección 14: Gramática
1. Futuro
2. Condicional
3. El imperfecto de subjuntivo
4. Cláusulas que comienzan con si
Futuro (1)
• Most Spanish verbs are regular in the future,
and the infinitive serves as the stem of almost
all verbs:
Stem: hablar comer vivir
• The endings are the same for all three
conjugations:
-é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án
Futuro (2)
• Note that all the endings, except that of the
nosotros(as) form, take accent marks.
Futuro (3)
Ejemplos:
- ¿Adónde irán Uds. esta tarde?
“Where will you go this afternoon?”
- Iremos al consultorio del Dr. Báez.
“We will go to Dr. Baez’s office.”
Futuro (4)
• A small number of Spanish verbs are irregular
in the future tense.
• These verbs have an irregular stem; however,
the endings are the same as those for regular
verbs.
Futuro (5)
Futuro (6)
Futuro (7)
Ejemplos:
- ¿A qué hora saldrán para el hospital?
“At what time will you leave for the hospital?”
- Saldremos tan pronto como lleguen mis
padres.
“We will leave as soon as my parents arrive.”
Futuro (8)
—¿Podrás venir mañana?
“Will you be able to come tomorrow?”
—Sí, vendré a menos que llueva.
“Yes, I will come unless it rains.”
• The future of hay (impersonal form of haber)
is habrá.
¿Habrá una conferencia? Will there be a lecture?
Futuro (9)
Uses of the future tense
• The English equivalent of the Spanish future
tense is will or shall plus a verb.
• As you have already learned, Spanish also uses
the construction ir a + infinitive, or the
present tense with a time expression, to refer
to future actions, events, or states.
Futuro (10)
Esta noche iremos al cine.
Tonight we will go to the movies.
Esta noche vamos a ir al cine.
Tonight we’re going to go to the movies.
Esta noche vamos al cine.
Tonight we’re going to the movies.
Futuro (11)
• Unlike English, the Spanish future is not used
to express willingness. In Spanish, willingness
is expressed by the verb querer.
—¿Quieres llamar a Eva?
“Will you call Eva?”
—Ahora no puedo.
“I can’t now.”
Condicional (1)
• Like the future, the Spanish conditional uses
the infinitive as the stem for most verbs and
has only one set of endings for all three
conjugations:
Stem: hablar
comer
vivir
Endings: -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían
Condicional (2)
Condicional (3)
• Ejemplos:
- Me gustaría ir al parque.
“I would like to go to the park.”
- Nosotros preferiríamos ir a la piscina.
“We would prefer to go to the pool.”
Condicional (4)
Ejemplos:
- Voy a invitar a Julia.
“I’m going to invite Julia.”
- Yo no la invitaría.
“I would not invite her.”
Condicional (5)
• The verbs that are irregular in the future tense
have the same irregular stems in the
conditional.
• The endings are the same as those for regular
verbs.
Endings: -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían
Condicional (6)
Condicional (7)
—¿Qué podría hacer yo para ayudarte?
“What could I do to help you?”
—Podrías traer las vendas.
“You could bring the bandages.”
• The conditional of hay (impersonal form of
haber) is habría.
Dijo que habría una reunión.
He said there would be a meeting.
Condicional (8)
Condicional (9)
Uses of the conditional
• The Spanish conditional is equivalent to the
English would plus a verb.
—¿Qué harías tú?
“What would you do?”
—Yo iría al médico.
“I would go to the doctor.”
Condicional (10)
• In Spanish, the conditional is also used to
soften a request or to express politeness.
—¿Podrías venir un momento?
“Could you come for a minute?”
—Sí, en seguida.
“Yes, right away.”
El imperfecto de subjuntivo (1)
• Notice that an accent mark is required in the
nosotros(as) form:
...que nosotros habláramos
...que nosotros fuéramos
El imperfecto de subjuntivo (2)
El imperfecto de subjuntivo (3)
Uses
• The imperfect subjunctive is always used in a
subordinate clause when the verb of the main
clause calls for the subjunctive and is in the past
or the conditional.
- ¿Por qué no compraste los billetes?
“Why didn’t you buy the tickets?”
- Temía que no pudiéramos viajar hoy.
“I was afraid we wouldn’t be able to travel today.”
El imperfecto de subjuntivo (4)
El imperfecto de subjuntivo (5)
• When the verb of the main clause is in the
present, but the subordinate clause refers to
the past, the imperfect subjunctive is often
used.
—Oscar es un muchacho muy simpático.
“Oscar is a very charming young man.”
—¡Sí! Me alegro de que viniera a vernos ayer.
“Yes! I’m glad (that) he came to see us yesterday.”
Cláusulas que comienzan con si (1)
• When a clause introduced by si refers to a
situation that is hypothetical or contrary to
fact, si is always followed by the imperfect
subjunctive.
Cláusulas que comienzan con si (2)
• Hypothetical
—Si yo hablara con el presidente...
If I were to speak to the president...
Cláusulas que comienzan con si (3)
• Contrary-to-fact
—Si yo tuviera dinero, le daría 1.000 dólares a
mi hijo.
“If I had money, I would give my son a thousand
dollars.”
—Si yo fuera tú, no le daría nada.
“If I were you, I wouldn’t give him anything.”
Cláusulas que comienzan con si (4)
• Note that the imperfect subjunctive is used in
the if-clause, while the conditional is used in
the main clause.
Si yo tuviera dinero, le daría 1.000 dólares a
mi hijo.
If I had money, I would give athousand dollars
to my son.
Cláusulas que comienzan con si (5)
• When the if-clause refers to something that is
likely to happen or possible, the indicative is
used.
—¿Puedes llevar a mi papá al cardiólogo?
“Can you take my dad to the cardiologist?”
—Lo llevaré si tengo tiempo.
“I will take him if I have time.”
• The present subjunctive is never used in an ifclause.
Cláusulas que comienzan con si (6)
• The imperfect subjunctive is always used after
the expression como si (as if ) because it implies a
condition that is contrary to fact.
—Marcos dice que necesito un antibiótico.
“Marcos says that I need an antibiotic.”
—Sí, él habla como si supiera algo de medicina.
“Yes, he talks as if he knew something about
medicine.”
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Lección 14: Gramática