Lección 4: Gramática
1. Verbos irregulares en la primera
persona
2. Saber vs. conocer
3. La “a” personal
4. Contracciones: “al” y “del”
5. Presente de indicativo de ir, dar y
estar
6. Ir a + el infinitivo
Verbos irregulares en la primera
persona (1)
The following verbs are irregular in the first-person singular of
the present tense.
Saber vs. conocer (1)
• The verb to know has two Spanish
equivalents, saber and conocer, which are
used to express distinct types of knowledge.
• Saber means to know something by heart, to
know how to do something (a learned skill), or
to know a fact (information).
Saber vs. conocer (2)
- ¿Sabes el poema“The Raven” de memoria?
“Do you know the poem ‘The Raven’ by heart?”
- ¿Ana sabe bailar salsa?
“Does Ana know how to dance salsa?”
- ¿Ud. sabe el número de teléfono de David?
“Do you know David’s phone number?”
Saber vs. conocer (3)
• Conocer means to be familiar or acquainted
with a person, a thing, or a place.
- ¿Conoces a Hugo?
“Do you know Hugo?”
- Sí, es el primo de Alberto.
“Yes, he’s Alberto’s cousin.”
Saber vs. conocer (4)
- ¿Conocen Uds. todas las novelas de Cervantes?
“Are you acquainted with all Cervantes’s
novels?”
- ¿Conoces San Salvador?
“Do you know (Have you been in San
Salvador?”
La “a” personal (1)
• The preposition “a” is used in Spanish before a
direct object (recipient of the action expressed
by the verb) referring to a specific person or
persons. When the preposition “a” is used in
this way, it is called the personal “a” and has
no English equivalent.
La “a” personal (2)
Ejemplos:
- ¿Tú conoces a Carmen y a Héctor?
“Do you know Carmen and Héctor?”
- Conozco a Carmen, pero no conozco a Héctor.
“I know Carmen, but I don’t know Héctor.”
La “a” personal (3)
• When there is a series of direct object nouns,
referring to people, the personal “a” is
repeated: ¿Tú conoces a Carmen y a Héctor?
• The personal a is not used when the direct
object is a thing or place.
Yo conozco Los Ángeles. I know Los Angeles.
La “a” personal (4)
• The personal a is seldom used following the verb
tener even if the object is a person or persons.
- Tengo dos hermanas.
I have two sisters.
• The personal a is also used when referring to
pets.
- Yo llevo a mi perro a la veterinaria.
I take my dog to the vet.
Contracciones: “al” y “del” (1)
• The preposition a and the article el contract
to form al.
Contracciones: “al” y “del” (2)
• Similarly, the preposition de and the definite
article el contract to form del.
El libro
El libro
de
+
del
el
profesor
profesor
Contracciones: “al” y “del” (3)
• A + el and de + el must always be
contracted to al and del.
- ¿Vienes del club?
“Are you coming from the club?”
- No, vengo de la biblioteca.
- ¿Vamos al cine?
“Shall we go to the movies?”
- Sí, vamos.
Contracciones: “al” y “del” (4)
• None of the other combinations of preposition
and definite article ( de la, de los, de las, a la, a
lo, a las) is contracted.
- El esposo de la profesora viene a la clase de
español.
Contracciones: “al” y “del” (4)
Presente de indicativo de ir, dar y estar (1)
Ir, dar, estar
Presente de indicativo de ir, dar y estar (2)
- ¿Dónde está Aurora?
- Está en el teatro.“
“ Where is Aurora?”
She is at the theater.”
- ¿No da una fiesta hoy?
“Isn’t she giving a
party today?”
“ No, I’m giving a
party.”
- No, yo doy una fiesta.
Presente de indicativo de ir, dar y estar (3)
- ¿Adónde vas?“
- Voy al cine.
Where are you going
(to)?”
I’m going to the movies.”
- ¿No estás cansada?“
- No, no estoy cansada.
Aren’t you tired?”
No, I am not tired.”
Presente de indicativo de ir, dar y estar (4)
• The verb estar is used to indicate location
and to describe condition at a given moment
in time.
Estar and ser are not interchangeable.
Location: Aurora está en el club.
Current condition: Estoy cansada.
Ir a + el infinitivo (1)
• The ir a + infinitive construction is used in
Spanish to express future time, in the same
way English uses the expression “to be going
to + infinitive.”
ir (conjugated) + a + infinitive
Voy
a
estudiar.
I am going
to study.
Ir a + el infinitivo (2)
- ¿Tú vas a bailar con Jorge?
“Are you going to dance with Jorge?”
- No, voy a bailar con Carlos.
“ No, I‘m going to dance with Carlos.”
Ir a + el infinitivo (3)
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Lección 4: Gramática