9th European Conference of Medical and Health LibrariesSantander,
September 20th-25th 2.004
PLAGIARISM:
OLD WINES IN NEW BOTTLES
Sobrido Prieto M
González Guitián C
Ribes Cot MF
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Plagiarism
Appropriation of ideas and works already published without
quoting the source. There is also not citing the author of an
idea or a piece of writing.
Real Academia Española
– 1869
• Voice of hidden creation, taken directly from the Latin plagium, that meant
robbery of other people's slaves
“To copy other people's works, presenting as your own”
Concise Oxford Dictionary
“taking or use of another person's thoughts, writings or inventions as
one's own"
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Historical plagiarisms
Claudio Ptolomeo (II b.C.)
The 1025 star system of his
own catalog was copied
from Hiparco ofe Rhodes
works (I aC), only
observable in the island of
Rhodes
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Historical plagiarisms
• Hydrodynamica (Daniel Bernoulli,
1738)
• Hydraulica (Johann Bernouilli,
1732) Publication data 1739
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AIDS Virus and co paternity
authorship
• Montagnier / Gallo
• The National Academy of
Sciences (USA), expressed
the fraud of Gallo.
• Despite, the fact that in 1987
they
signed
up
a
compromise
with the participation of the
presidents (Chirac-Reagan)
of both countries
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• “Buscar lo que han dicho
otros y contarlo. No vas a
inventar. Lo hacemos todos”.
L. Racionero
• To look for what others have said
and to tell it. You are not going to
invent. We all do it
• Atenas de Pericles (1993)
• “Se zurce, se teje, se corta, se
añade, como rapsodas. Y no
puedes estar poniendo
comillas a cada rato”. L.
Alberto de Cuenca (El País,
30-10-2000)
• It is mended, it tiled, it cut, it added,
like rhapsodes. And you cannot be
putting in inverted commas every
few minutes
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• Medline:
– Internet tool that facilitates previously
unheard of levels of information
dissemination
– More than 30 manuscripts taken from prior
publications
Marshall E. Medline searches turn up cases of suspected
plagiarism. Science 1998; 279 (5350): 473-4
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Electronic plagiarism
Cybernetic tailors cut and paste to make a suitable suit,
but they don’t tell the precedent of remnants of his new suit.
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The
edition
facility
in
the
Network,
the absence of revision by experts (to peer review), favors
this practice.
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Plagiarism also includes
• Similar domains creation
• Documents transfer from one web page to another page
(framing)
• Appropriation of resources or directories
• The simple mouse click is enough to copy, to interchange
and to modify original texts
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In favour of... Critical Art Ensemble (1994)
“To sell wine without bottles
Network”
the economy of the mind in the Global
It contributes to the cultural enrichment
Against the privatization of culture
It helps the diffusion of ideas
Digital information is a continuous process in continuous change.
John Perry Barlow
Co-founder and executive director of the Electronic
Frontier Foundation.
First person to refer to the internet "Cyberspace"
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Academic World
Why students plagiarize?
Lack of research skills
Problems evaluating Internet sources
Confusion between plagiarism and paraphrasing
Careless note-taking
Confusion about how to properly cite sources
Where Do Students Get The Material?
85% of plagiarized papers from the Internet
13% from other student term papers
0.5% from paper mills.
B. Reagan, “E-commerce (a special report) – siting sources,” Wall Street Journal (September
16, 2002), p. R4.
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• An evil house of cheat
•
http://osiris.978.org/~brianr/mirrors/www.cheathouse.com/
• Schoolsucks
•
http://www.schoolsucks.com/
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Plagiarism:
Prevention and Detection
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Detection plagiarism:
Scientific Integrity and ethics
• The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) USA
http://ori.dhhs.gov/
Promotes integrity in biomedical and behavioral research supported by
the Public Health Service (PHS) at about 4,000 institutions worldwide
• Data Acquisition &
management
• Mentoring
• Lab animals
• Publication practices
• Peer review
• Collaborative Science
• Human subjects
• Research misconduct
• Conflict of interest &
commitment
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Detection plagiarism
Legal Perspective
• Spain: Law 1/1996 of intellectual property
• http://www.mec.es/gabipreu/documentos/indice cult.htm
"they are protected works all the literary, artistic or scientific creations
original expressed by any means or have supported, tangible or
intangible, at the moment or that are invented in the future”
• Digital Millenniun Copyright Act (USA 28th october
1998) http://www.copyright.gov
“Modifies the Copyright Act referring to explotion and protection of
orginal works in digital format”
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Detection plagiarism
Legal Perspective
• INFORMATIVE GLOBALIZATION
Information can be consulted from any part of the world,
independently of the emission place and of the receiver of this
information
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Detection plagiarism
Legal Perspective
• EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF
THE EUROPEAN UNION,
• “Council directive on the harmonisation of certain aspects
of copyright and related rights in the Information Society”
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Detection plagiarism tools
• Turnitin
http://www.turnitin.com/
– compiles a massive database of digital material
• Updated with automated web robots
• Focus on searching online paper mills
• Includes papers from participating courses
– Document Source Analysis:
• Make a digital "fingerprint" of document
• Compare against documents in its database.
– SCAM copy detector in digital libraries
http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november95/scam/11shivakumar.html
– CHECK information retrieval techniquese Información
http://www-db.stanford.edu/~shiva/SCAM/scamInfo.html
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Detection plagiarism
Legal Perspective
• "World Intellectual Property Organization” (WIPO)
• http://www.wipo.org
– Author rights Treatment
– To establish a legal base in the protection of the author rights and to turn
Internet trustworthy means to create, to distribute and to control the work use
in the digital surroundings.
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Librarians play an important role
Consciousness about plagiarism as fraudulence
Authorship check systems
Vancouver style
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PLAGIARISM