Los pronombres - pronouns What is a pronoun? A pronoun replaces a noun. You can have: - Subject pronouns: eg I, you, he, she, we, they - Direct object pronouns: eg me, you, him, her, us, them - Indirect object pronouns: eg to me, to you, to him, to her, to us, to them Subject pronouns in Spanish yo I nosotros we Tú you vosotros you él he, it ellos they (m) ella she, it ellas they (f) Remember: you don’t always need to use the subject pronoun in Spanish as the ending of the verb tells you who is doing the verb. Tengo = I have Tienes = you have etc. Direct object pronouns in Spanish Me me nos us Te you os you Lo him, it los them (m) La her, it las them (f) Question: Where to put them? What is a direct object? The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the direct object. Bill hit the ball. "Ball" receives the action of the verb "hit." Sherry reads the book. "Book" receives the action of the verb "reads." The direct object can also be a person. Sherry hit Bill. (DO=Bill) The direct object answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing. Bill hit the ball. Bill hit what? Bill hit the ball. Sherry hit Bill. Sherry hit whom? Sherry hit Bill. Often, it is desirable to replace the name of the direct object with a pronoun. Example 1 Paul bought the flowers. He took the flowers home and gave the flowers to his wife. Example 2 Paul bought the flowers. He took them home and gave them to his wife. Direct object pronouns in Spanish You usually put the object pronoun before the verb. In English we put it after the verb. Ejemplos: Me gusta esa falda. La llevo. I like that skirt. I’ll take it. Mi amigo está allí. ¿Lo ves? Mi friend is there. Can you see him? Más ejemplos: ¿Dónde están mis zapatos? ¿Los tienes? Where are my shoes. Do you have them? Tus hermanas vinieron a mi casa anoche. Mi madre las vio. Your sisters came to my house last night. My mother saw them. Fuimos a tu casa el sábado. Nos vio también. We went to your house on Saturday. She saw us too. But watch out! You put the object pronoun after the verb in the following cases: •After a command – eg Tráigame el menú – bring me the menu •After an infinitive – eg Voy a darlo a John – I’m going to give it to John •After a gerund (-ing) – eg Estoy poniéndolos en las mesa – I’m putting them on the table Let’s practice! Choose the correct pronoun. 1. They want the book. _______________ quieren. 2. I know them. (Juan and Maria) _______________ conozco. 3. Juan knows me. _______________ conoce. 4. You love me. _______________ amas. 5. You-all (formal) drink milk. _______________ beben. 6. He buys the magazines. _______________ compra. 7. They see Maria. _______________ ven. 8. I have the pen. (la pluma) _______________ tengo. 9. You-all (familiar) want the house. _______________ queréis. Estamos organizando una excursión en tren y todos tenemos que llevar algo. la fruta / Manolo A: ¿Quién lleva la fruta? B: La lleva Manolo 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. La verdura / Lola El queso / Pepe Las revistas / el señor Almodóvar Las bebidas / Marta El zumo de naranja / yo Las patatas / nosotros El pan / Paco Las botellas de agua / los amigos de Rosa La música / Jorge Los bocadillos / todos nosotros Indirect Object Pronouns The indirect object (IO) tells us where the direct object (DO) is going. He gives the book to María. DO=Book Where is the book going? To María. IO=María The indirect object answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?" the action of the verb is performed. He gives María the book. To whom does he give the book? To María. IO=María He buys me flowers. For whom does he buy the flowers? For me. IO=me Sentences that have an indirect object usually also have a direct object. Remember, the IO tells us where the DO is going. Notice how the sentences below just wouldn't work without a direct object. He gives María . . . the book, the pen, the diamond, etc. He buys me . . . flowers, candy, an ironing board, etc Indirect object pronouns in Spanish These are quite similar to the direct object pronouns. They mean to me, to you etc. although we don’t always use ‘to’ in English eg she gave him the book = she gave the book to him. In this case you would have to say Le dio el libro Me (to) me nos (to) us Te (to) you os (to) you Le (to) him, it les (to) them (m) Le (to) her, it les (to) them (f) Let’s practice! Choose the correct pronoun. 1. Juan compra flores para ella. Juan _____ compra flores. 2. El camarero da el menú a ellos El camarero _____ da el menú. 3. Ellos dan una propina a mí. Ellos _____ dan una propina. 4. Compro el libro para ti. _____compro el libro. Translate the phrases. Do not abbreviate "usted" or "ustedes.“ Model: he gives her (dar) él le da 1 we (masculine) give them (dar) 2. she gives us (dar) 3. they (masculine) give us (dar) 4. they (feminine) give her (dar) 5. you-all (formal) give me (dar) 6. Sara buys me (comprar) 7. they (masculine) buy you (familiar) (comprar) 8. we (masculine) tell them (decir) 9. Susana writes to them (escribir) 10. we (masculine) bring to you (familiar) (traer) Here are the direct object pronouns and the indirect object pronouns side by side: DO Pronouns IO Pronouns English Equivalent me me me te te you (familiar) lo, la le him, her, it, you (formal) nos nos us os os you-all (familiar) los, las les them, you-all (formal) When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the same sentence, the indirect object pronoun comes first. Ellos me los dan. They give them to me. IO pronoun: me DO pronoun: los Ella te la vende. She sells it to you. IO pronoun: te DO pronoun: la Whenever both pronouns begin with the letter "l" change the first pronoun to "se." le lo = se lo le la = se la le los = se los le las = se las les lo = se lo les la = se la les los = se los les las = se las In negative sentences, the negative word comes directly before the first pronoun. No se lo tengo. I don't have it for you. Nunca se los compro. I never buy them for her. Let’s practice! Fill in the blanks with the appropriate pronoun or verb form. Unless otherwise noted with (f), "it" and "them" are masculine, and "you" refers to the familiar form (tú). 1. He gives it to me. Él _____ lo da. 2. They give it to me. Ellos me lo _____. 3. We give them (f) to you. Nosotros te las _____. 4. I tell it to you. Yo te lo _____. 5. They give it to you. Ellas te _____ dan. 6. They write it (f) to you. Ellos te la _____. 7. He buys them for you. Él te los _____. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate pronouns. Unless otherwise noted with (f), "it" and "them" are masculine, and "you" refers to the familiar form (tú). Don't forget to change the first pronoun to "se" when necessary. 1. He sings it (f) to her. Él _____ canta. 2. We sing it (f) to you. Nosotros _____cantamos. 3. We tell it to them. Nosotros _____ decimos. 4. I tell it to them. Yo _____ digo. 12. She buys them for you. Ella _____ compra. 13. She cooks it (f) for him. Ella _____ cocina. 14. We cook it (f) for him. Nosotros _____ cocinamos - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . -. - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . Write ten sentences using in each sentence two object pronouns.