莎劇賞析 之六:
《哈姆雷特》
Hamlet
董崇選
中山醫大應用外語系教授
懂更懂學習英文網站負責人
網址:http:// dgdel.nchu.edu.tw
I. Plot:
• Type:
Revenge Tragedy, 復仇悲劇
Romantic Tragedy 浪漫悲劇
Time: c. 1200
• Locale: Elsinore (艾西諾), Denmark
• First presented: 1602
II. Principal Characters:
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Hamlet: Prince of Denmark
Claudius: King of Denmark, Hamlet’s uncle
Gertrude: Queen of Denmark, Hamlet’s mother
Polonius: Lord Chamberlain under Claudius
Ophelia: Polonius’ daughter, Hamlet’s love
Laertes: Polonius’ son
Horatio: Hamlet’s schoolmate & loyal friend
Rosencrantz & Guildenstern: Hamlet’s schoolmates
Fortinbras: Prince of Norway
Ghost of King Hamlet
III. The Story:
• 第一幕: Horatio and two others are on watch at the
castle of Elsinore. They see an apparition resembling
the late King of Denmark. The specter cannot be
persuaded to speak. It vanishes at cockcrow. Claudius
thanks his subjects for assistance in the ceremonies at
his brother’s funeral and his own marriage. He also
sends ambassadors to curb Fortinbras’ threatening
invasion. Hamlet grieves over his mother’s speedy remarriage. He is told of the ghost. Laertes warns
Ophelia of Hamlet’s attentions. Polonius orders Ophelia
to reject Hamlet. The ghost leads Hamlet away, tells him
how he was murdered, and asks him to revenge.
III. The Story:
• 第二幕: Polonius directs someone to look into his son’s
private life. Ophelia comes and reports about Hamlet’s
symptoms of madness. Polonius decides that Hamlet is
mad for love of Ophelia and hurries her off to report the
matter to the King. Claudius and Gertrude ask
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to observe Hamlet and
determine the cause of his “antic disposition.” News
comes that Fortinbras will not invade Denmark.
Claudius agrees to observe unseen a meeting between
Ophelia and Hamlet. Hamlet suspects that R and G are
Claudius’ spies. He arranges for a company of players
to perform The Murder of Gonzago.
III. The Story:
• 第三幕: Ophelia walks where Hamlet will see her.
Hamlet enters, greets Ophelia, but then rails against
women. He insults Polonius and urges Ophelia to enter
a nunnery. Claudius is convinced that Hamlet is not a
distracted lover, but a dangerous presence. Hamlet
instructs the players and sets Horatio to watch the King’s
reaction to the play. He himself sits by Ophelia and jests
with her. Claudius leaves during a pantomime. Hamlet
passes by Claudius, who repents while kneeling. He
faces Gertrude in her chamber. His wild manner makes
her cry out for safety, and her outcry makes the
eavesdropping Polonius call for help. Hamlet kills
Polonius with a thrust through the arras. Claudius gives
orders that Hamlet be sent to England.
III. The Story:
• 第四幕: Hamlet taunts R and G. Claudius seals
his orders to kill Hamlet in England. Fortinbras
and his army pass by Hamlet. Hamlet compares
himself with Fortinbras, despising himself for his
irresolution. The Queen hears of Ophelia’s
distracted behavior. Laertes has heard of his
father’s death and has come back for revenge.
The King calms Laertes. Hamlet returns from a
piracy. Claudius and Laertes plan to kill Hamlet
in a fencing match by a poisoned rapier and a
poisoned drink. Gertrude comes to report the
drowning of Ophelia.
III. The Story:
• 第五幕: Hamlet and Horatio come upon two rustics
digging a grave. A funeral party enters and Hamlet
discovers that the corpse is that of Ophelia. Laertes
expresses grief, Hamlet comes forward, and they have a
grapple before they are separated. The fencing match
starts. Hamlet scores two hits. Gertrude drinks to his
health from the poisoned cup. Laertes pricks Hamlet
with the poisoned rapier. Their weapons are exchanged
and Laertes is fatally wounded. Gertrude dies. Laertes
reveals the plot. Hamlet leaps at Claudius and runs him
through. Finally Hamlet insists that Horatio live on to tell
the whole story, and names Fortinbras as successor to
the Danish throne.
IV. Famous Lines:
• “A little more than kin, and less than kind.”
--Hamlet to Claudius
• “Frailty, thy name is woman.”
--Hamlet in soliloquy
• “Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice;
Take each man’s censure, but reserve thy
judgment.”
• “Neither a borrower nor a lender be,
For loan oft loses both itself and friend.”
--Polonius to Laertes
IV. Famous Lines:
• “Though this be madness, yet there is method
in it.”
--Polonius’ comment
• “... there is nothing either good or bad, but
thinking makes it so.”
--Hamlet to Rosencrantz
• “O God, I could be bounded in a nutshell and
count myself a king of infinite space—were it
not that I have bad dreams.”
--Hamlet to R and G
IV. Famous Lines:
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“What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason,
how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express
and admirable, in action how like an angel, in
apprehension how like a god: the beauty of the world,
the paragon of animals—and yet, to me, what is this
quintessence of dust?”
--Hamlet to R and G
• “I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is
southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw.”
--Hamlet to Guildenstern
• “The play’s the thing wherein I’ll catch the conscience of
the King.”
--Hamlet in soliloquy
IV. Famous Lines:
“To be, or not to be, that is the question:
Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles
And by opposing end them. To die—to sleep,
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to: ‘tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. ...
IV. Famous Lines:
... Who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But the dread of something after death,
... Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied over with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pitch and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry
And lose the name of action.”
--Hamlet in soliloquy
IV. Famous Lines:
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“Get thee to a nunnery. Why, wouldst thou be a breeder
of sinners?”
“God hath given you one face and you make
yourselves another.”
--Hamlet to Ophelia
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“Suit the action to the word, the word to the action ...
overstep not the modesty of nature. For anything so
overdone is from the purpose of playing, whose end,
both at the first and now, was and is to hold as it were
the mirror up to nature.”
--Hamlet to players
• “There is special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it
be now, ‘tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be
now; if it be not now , yet it will come. The readiness is
all.”
--Hamlet to Horatio
V. Discussion:
– What kind of man is Hamlet? Is his case
really a typical one of the Oedipus complex?
– Is Hamlet mad or not mad?
– What’s Ophelia’s role in the play?
– How many people in the play are to avenge
their fathers?
– Does the play teach any moral about
revenge?
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莎劇賞析之二:《哈姆雷特》 Hamlet