Complejidad Dia 8
Geofisica
MacroEconomía
Biologí
a
Ecología
Psicologia
Meteorología
UBA, Junio 21, 2012.
1
1era parte
Generalidades de brain imaging
Brain imaging for hackers
2da Parte
Fisica y fisiología de la señal BOLD.
Brain imaging: whole brain
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
 MRI estructural
(MRI)
 Funcional MRI (fMRI)
 Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI)
Computed tomography (CT)
Positron emission tomography (PET)
EEG, MEG, SPECT, DTI,…etc
MRI estructural
‣ Essential in clinical care.
‣ Radiologists perform
qualitative “lightbox”
reads.
‣ Most psychiatric and
neurological disorders
are invisible to reading
radiologists.
Brain volume declines with
age
Marcus et al.,
Functional MRI “f MRI”
• fMRI: where and when
(in response).
• rfMRI: at “rest”
• fcMRI: functional
connectivity
fMRI
Algo de lo que se viene en
Tecnologias emergentes
Amazon.com
Tecnologias Emergentes:
quantitative neuroradiology
2. fcMRI
1. Patient visits
brain
doctor.
scan.
Doctor
orders fcMRI.
3. Quantitative
analysis
4. Doctor
receives
report.
India,
Rafaela,
Los Angeles
5. Doctor
makes dx.
and plans
treatment.
Quantitative report provides diagnostic measures,
guides treatment, assesses response.
Tecnologias Emergentes:
digital lab “on the clouds”
Amazon.com
Input:
Raw MRI scans
http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
Output:
Quantitative
reports
Aun mas:
Tecnologias Emergentes: Patient-driven
care
Microsoft HealthVault
Otro ejemplo:
Tecnologias Emergentes:
patient-driven care
Google Health (prototype)
Habrá algo, alguna vez, realmente nuevo?
La primera coneccion entre flujo sanguineo y actividad mental
Veber den Kreislauf des Blutes in Menschlichen Gehirn
(Concerning the circulation of the blood in the human
brain) Verlag von Viet & Company: Leipzig, 1881
Inventor del primer ergografo
para medir la fuerza muscular
Angelo Mosso
Monday noon, September 23, 1878
Forearm
Brain
Resting quietly
Forearm
Brain
Arrow: room clock strikes 12 noon and of church
bells heard
Forearm
Brain
Arrow: Mosso asked Bertino if the Ave Maria should
have been said
Brain
Forearm
“What is 8 x 12?”
From: Angelo Mosso (1881)
ω: response
Brain imaging for hackers*
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Get yourself some brain images
Get yourself some brain analysis tools
Discover something, invent something
*From :
Daniel Marcus, PhD
Director, Neuroinformatics Research Group @
Washington University School of Medicine
Get your own brain scanned
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Buy a scanner and install it in your basement
Get your own brain scanned
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Buy a scanner and install it in your basement
Inflict severe brain injury
Get your own brain scanned
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Buy a scanner and install it in your basement
Inflict severe brain injury
Volunteer for a study
 Contact local research centers
 Ask for your scans (“I’ve brought a blank CD with
me. Will you please copy the DICOM files of my
scans onto it?”)
Use open access data
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Neuron: Neuron Database @ Yale Sense Lab
Gene expression: Allen Brain Atlas
Structural MRI: Open Access Structural Imaging Series
(OASIS), mBIRN Data Repository
Functional MRI: fMRI Data Center, fBIRN Data
Repository
Functional connectivity MRI: Brainscape
oasis-brains.org
brainscape.org
Get yourself some tools
Slicer, Caret, AFNI,
Freesurfer, SPM,
FSL, ImageJ
Neuron  Network  Whole brain
Genesis
Neuron
See also NITRC (http://www.nitrc.org/)
Some unsolved problems
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Automated brain extraction
How many networks are in the brain
Methods for distinguishing differences between populations
Predicting disease and aptitude
Data sharing
Individual differences in performance (“gifted”, “savant”)
Neuroethics
“Deidentifying” images
Bridging the spatial divide
Security and privacy
Data mining
Start hacking.
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